BMC Infectious Diseases

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ISSN / EISSN : 1471-2334 / 1471-2334
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Magaly Lima Mota, Robson Dos Santos Souza Marinho, Rodrigo Lopes Sanz Duro, James Hunter, Irwin Rose Alencar de Menezes, João Marcos Ferreira De Lima Silva, Glaubervânio Leite Tavares Pereira, Ester Cerdeira Sabino, Anete Grumach, Ricardo Sobhie Diaz, et al.
Published: 24 July 2021
BMC Infectious Diseases, Volume 21, pp 1-7; doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06401-3

Abstract:
Background The co-circulation of types of arbovirus in areas where they are endemic increased the risk of outbreaks and limited the diagnostic methods available. Here, we analyze the epidemiological profile of DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV at the serological and molecular level in patients with suspected infection with these arboviruses in the city of Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará, Brazil. Methods In 2016, the Central Public Health Laboratory (LACEN) of Juazeiro do Norte received 182 plasma samples from patients who visited health facilities with symptoms compatible with arbovirus infection. The LACEN performed serological tests for detection of IgM/IgG to DENV and CHIKV. They then sent these samples to the Retrovirology Laboratory of the Federal University of São Paulo and Faculty of Medical of the ABC where molecular analyses to confirm the infection by DENV, ZIKV and CHIKV were performed. The prevalence of IgM/IgG antibodies and of infections confirmed by RT-qPCR were presented with 95% confidence interval. Results In serologic analysis, 125 samples were positive for antibodies against CHIKV and all were positive for antibodies against DENV. A higher prevalence of IgG against CHIKV (63.20% with 95% CI: 45.76–70.56) than against DENV (95.05% with 95% CI: 78.09–98.12) was observed. When the samples were submitted to analysis by RT-qPCR, we observed the following prevalence: mono-infection by ZIKV of 19.23% (95% CI: 14.29–34.82) patients, mono-infection by CHIKV of 3.84% (95% CI: 2.01–5.44) and co-infection with ZIKV and CHIKV of 1.09% (95% CI: 0.89–4.56). Conclusion The serologic and molecular tests performed in this study were effective in analyzing the epidemiological profile of DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV in patients with suspected infection by these arboviruses in the city of Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará/Brazil.
Jamila Nambafu, Mary Achakolong, Fridah Mwendwa, Jumaa Bwika, Felix Riunga, Samuel Gitau, Hanika Patel, Rodney D. Adam
Published: 23 July 2021
BMC Infectious Diseases, Volume 21, pp 1-9; doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06388-x

Abstract:
Background Lower respiratory tract infections continue to contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality across all age groups globally. In sub-Saharan Africa, many studies of community acquired pneumonia in adults have focused on HIV-infected patients and little attention has been given to risk factors and etiologic agents in an urban area with a more moderate HIV prevalence. Methods We prospectively enrolled 77 patients admitted to a 280 bed teaching hospital in Kenya with radiographically confirmed community acquired pneumonia from May 2019 to March 2020. The patients were followed for etiology and clinical outcomes. Viral PCR testing was performed using the FTD respiratory pathogen-21 multiplex kit on nasopharyngeal or lower respiratory samples. Additional microbiologic workup was performed as determined by the treating physicians. Results A potential etiologic agent(s) was identified in 57% including 43% viral, 5% combined viral and bacterial, 5% bacterial and 4% Pneumocystis. The most common etiologic agent was Influenza A which was associated with severe clinical disease. The most common underlying conditions were cardiovascular disease, diabetes and lung disease, while HIV infection was identified in only 13% of patients. Critical care admission was required for 24, and 31% had acute kidney injury, sometimes in combination with acute respiratory distress or sepsis. Conclusion Viruses, especially influenza, were commonly found in patients with CAP. In contrast to other studies from sub-Saharan Africa, the underlying conditions were similar to those reported in high resource areas and point to the growing concern of the double burden of infectious and noncommunicable diseases.
Helena Masiuk, Aleksandra Wcisłek, Joanna Jursa-Kulesza
Published: 23 July 2021
BMC Infectious Diseases, Volume 21, pp 1-9; doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06382-3

Abstract:
Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most frequent chronic and inflammatory skin condition. AD is characterized by damaged epidermal barrier, xerosis and pruritus of eczematous skin lesions which tend to flare. The duration and frequency of exacerbation of AD symptoms markedly affects the quality of patient life. AD results from the interplay between host genetics, immunity, and environmental factors, however the detailed pathogenesis of this disease is still not entirely cleared. Furthermore, disturbances of the skin microbiota and skin functional impairment predispose to secondary skin infections. Staphylococcus aureus colonizes skin and mucous membranes of 20 to 80% of healthy individuals and of 90% of patients with AD in whom this bacterium is accounted as an important AD exacerbating factor. It is also proven, that S. aureus nasal carriage significantly increases the risk for self-transmission and endogenous infection. In the current study the presence of S. aureus either in nasal vestibule and on lesioned skin of 64 patients with AD enrolled in 10-year autovaccination program was determined. The genetic relatedness of 86 S. aureus isolated from patients nose and skin using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility of all strains to methicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, mupirocin, gentamicin, amikacin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole was also evaluated. Results In total 23 PFGE genotypes and 24 unique patterns were distinguished. 34 patients were S. aureus nasal carriers. Simultaneous presence of S. aureus in nose and on affected skin was found in 16 carriers colonized by indistinguishable or potentially related S. aureus vs 2 carriers colonized with non-related S. aureus in nasal vestibule and on skin. 4 isolates were methicillin resistant (MRSA) among which 3 showed constitutive MLSB resistance phenotype and remaining one was resistant to tetracycline and chloramphenicol. In 4 isolates inducible MLSB resistance phenotype was found, one of them was additionally resistant to tetracycline. 7 S. aureus were mupirocin resistant among them 3 - isolated from one patient, were resistant simultaneously to tetracyclines and chloramphenicol. 7 strains demonstrated resistance to chloramphenicol and susceptibility to all tested antimicrobial agents. The susceptibility to gentamicin, amikacin and cotrimoxazole among all examined S. aureus was confirmed. Conclusion The obtained results indicated non-clonal structure of S. aureus circulating in AD patients. PFGE results showed the clonal-structure of vast majority of S. aureus isolated from nose and skin from nasal carriers what may prove the autoinfection in these patients. All examined patients the moderate or strong severity of AD was reported. Susceptibility to most antibiotics among isolated strains was also observed.
Abudusalamu Aini, Maiweilidan Yimingjiang, Aimaiti Yasen, Bo Ran, Tiemin Jiang, Xiaohong Li, Jian Wang, Abuduaini Abulizi, Zhide Li, Yingmei Shao, et al.
Published: 23 July 2021
BMC Infectious Diseases, Volume 21, pp 1-11; doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06366-3

Abstract:
Background Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) lesion microenvironment (LME) is crucial site where parasite-host interactions happen and of great significance during surgery and obtaining liver samples for basic research. However, little is known about quantification of LME range and its’ metabolic activity regarding different lesion characteristics. Methods A prospective and retrospective analysis of LME from surgical AE patients was performed. Patients (n = 75) received abdominal computed tomography (CT) and position emission tomography/computed tomography using 18F-fluodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG-PET/CT) within 1 week prior to surgery. Semiquantitatively, calcification was clustered with 0%, < 50% and ≥ 50% degrees at lesion periphery; liquefaction was clustered with 0%, < 50%, 50 ~ 75%, ≥75% degrees at lesion center using volumetric ratio. Tumor to background ratio (TBR) of 18F-FDG standard uptake value (SUV, n = 75) was calculated, and range of 18F-FDG uptake area was measured; Multi-site sampling method (MSS, n = 35) was introduced to obtain histological slides to evaluate immune cell infiltrative ranges. Results Altogether six major lesion groups have been identified (A: 0% calcified, 0% liquefied; B: ≥50% calcified, 0% liquefied; C: < 50% calcified, < 50% liquefied; D: ≥50% calcified, < 50% liquefied; E: < 50% calcified, 50 ~ 75% liquefied; F: ≥50% calcified, ≥75% liquefied). Statistically, TBR values respectively were 5.1 ± 1.9, 2.7 ± 1.2, 4.2 ± 1.2, 2.7 ± 0.7, 4.6 ± 1.2, 2.9 ± 1.1 in groups A ~ F, and comparisons showed A > B, A > D, A > F, E > B, E > D, E > F, C > B, C > D, C > F (P < 0.05); LME ranges indicated by PET/CT respectively were 14.9 ± 3.9, 10.6 ± 1.5, 12.3 ± 1.1, 7.8 ± 1.6, 11.1 ± 2.3, 7.0 ± 0.4 mm in groups A ~ F, and comparisons showed A > B, A > D, A > F, A > E, C > B, C > D, C > F, E > D, E > F, B > D, B > F (P < 0.05); LME ranges indicated by MSS respectively were 17.9 ± 4.9, 13.0 ± 2.7, 11.9 ± 2.6, 6.0 ± 2.2, 11.0 ± 4.1, 6.0 ± 2.2 mm in groups A ~ F, and comparisons showed A > C, A > D, A > F, B > D, B > F, C > D, C > F (P < 0.05). Generally, less calcifications indicated higher TBR values and wider LME ranges; and, severer liquefactions indicated smaller LME ranges. Additionally, patients with previous medication history had lower TBR values. Conclusions PET/CT and MSS method showed distinct TBRs and LME ranges for different calcifications and liquefactions. This study would be able to provide references for both surgical resections of lesions and more accurate sample acquisitions for basic research targeted to immunology.
Published: 22 July 2021
BMC Infectious Diseases, Volume 21; doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06371-6

Abstract:
Predicting hospital length of stay (LoS) for patients with COVID-19 infection is essential to ensure that adequate bed capacity can be provided without unnecessarily restricting care for patients with other conditions. Here, we demonstrate the utility of three complementary methods for predicting LoS using UK national- and hospital-level data. On a national scale, relevant patients were identified from the COVID-19 Hospitalisation in England Surveillance System (CHESS) reports. An Accelerated Failure Time (AFT) survival model and a truncation corrected method (TC), both with underlying Weibull distributions, were fitted to the data to estimate LoS from hospital admission date to an outcome (death or discharge) and from hospital admission date to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission date. In a second approach we fit a multi-state (MS) survival model to data directly from the Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust (MFT). We develop a planning tool that uses LoS estimates from these models to predict bed occupancy. All methods produced similar overall estimates of LoS for overall hospital stay, given a patient is not admitted to ICU (8.4, 9.1 and 8.0 days for AFT, TC and MS, respectively). Estimates differ more significantly between the local and national level when considering ICU. National estimates for ICU LoS from AFT and TC were 12.4 and 13.4 days, whereas in local data the MS method produced estimates of 18.9 days. Given the complexity and partiality of different data sources and the rapidly evolving nature of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is most appropriate to use multiple analysis methods on multiple datasets. The AFT method accounts for censored cases, but does not allow for simultaneous consideration of different outcomes. The TC method does not include censored cases, instead correcting for truncation in the data, but does consider these different outcomes. The MS method can model complex pathways to different outcomes whilst accounting for censoring, but cannot handle non-random case missingness. Overall, we conclude that data-driven modelling approaches of LoS using these methods is useful in epidemic planning and management, and should be considered for widespread adoption throughout healthcare systems internationally where similar data resources exist. The online version contains supplementary material available at (10.1186/s12879-021-06371-6).
Published: 21 July 2021
BMC Infectious Diseases, Volume 21; doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06393-0

Abstract:
Methadone therapy clinics have been recently introduced in Tanzania, aiming at reducing risk behaviors and infection rates of viral hepatitis and HIV among people who use drugs. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence, associated factors and knowledge level of these conditions among people who use drugs attending a methadone clinic in Tanzania. We enrolled 253 People who using drugs receiving Methadone therapy. Clinical data was retrospectively collected from the medical records and face-to face interviews were conducted to determine the behavioral risk factors and respondents’ knowledge on viral hepatitis and HIV. An overall seroprevalence of viral hepatitis (either hepatitis B surface antigen or anti-hepatitis C virus) was 6.3%, while that of hepatitis B virus mono infection was 3.5% and anti-hepatitis C antibodies was 3.5%. Seroprevalence of HIV was 12.6%. Viral hepatitis was strongly predicted by advanced age (> 35 years) (p = 0.02) and staying at Kirumba area (p = 0.004), and HIV infection was predicted by increased age (> 37 years) (p = 0.04) and female sex (p < 0.001). Regarding the knowledge of viral hepatitis, majority of the respondents were unaware of the transmission methods and availability of hepatitis B virus vaccines and only 17% were classified as well informed (provided ≥4 correct answers out of 7 questions). Good knowledge was highly predicted by higher education level of the individual (p = 0.001). Despite the efforts to curb viral hepatitis and HIV infections through Methadone clinics, infection rates among people who use drugs are still high and the general knowledge on preventive measures is inadequate.
, Ettore Amato, Karin Nygård, Line Vold, Preben Aavitsland
Published: 20 July 2021
BMC Infectious Diseases, Volume 21; doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06387-y

Abstract:
Waterborne outbreaks are still a risk in high-income countries, and their early detection is crucial to limit their societal consequences. Although syndromic surveillance is widely used for the purpose of detecting outbreaks days earlier than traditional surveillance systems, evidence of the effectiveness of such systems is lacking. Thus, our objective was to conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of syndromic surveillance to detect waterborne outbreaks. We searched the Cochrane Library, Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Web of Science for relevant published articles using a combination of the keywords ‘drinking water’, ‘surveillance’, and ‘waterborne disease’ for the period of 1990 to 2018. The references lists of the identified articles for full-text record assessment were screened, and searches in Google Scholar using the same key words were conducted. We assessed the risk of bias in the included articles using the ROBINS-I tool and PRECEPT for the cumulative body of evidence. From the 1959 articles identified, we reviewed 52 articles, of which 18 met the eligibility criteria. Twelve were descriptive/analytical studies, whereas six were simulation studies. There is no clear evidence for syndromic surveillance in terms of the ability to detect waterborne outbreaks (low sensitivity and high specificity). However, one simulation study implied that multiple sources of signals combined with spatial information may increase the timeliness in detecting a waterborne outbreak and reduce false alarms. This review demonstrates that there is no conclusive evidence on the effectiveness of syndromic surveillance for the detection of waterborne outbreaks, thus suggesting the need to focus on primary prevention measures to reduce the risk of waterborne outbreaks. Future studies should investigate methods for combining health and environmental data with an assessment of needed financial and human resources for implementing such surveillance systems. In addition, a more critical thematic narrative synthesis on the most promising sources of data, and an assessment of the basis for arguments that joint analysis of different data or dimensions of data (e.g. spatial and temporal) might perform better, should be carried out. PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews. 2019. CRD42019122332. The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12879-021-06387-y.
Prudence Mbah, , Allahna L. Esber, Nicole Dear, Domonique Reed, Yakubu Adamu, Abdulwasiu Bolaji Tiamiyu, Samirah Sani Mohammed, Hannah Kibuuka, Jonah Maswai, et al.
Published: 20 July 2021
BMC Infectious Diseases, Volume 21; doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06390-3

Abstract:
Support groups for people living with HIV (PLWH) may improve HIV care adherence and outcomes. We assessed the impact of support group attendance on antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and viral suppression in four African countries. The ongoing African Cohort Study (AFRICOS) enrolls participants at 12 clinics in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, and Nigeria. Self-reported attendance of any support group meetings, self-reported ART adherence, and HIV RNA are assessed every 6 months. Logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for support group attendance and other factors potentially associated with ART adherence and viral suppression. From January 2013 to December 1, 2019, 1959 ART-experienced PLWH were enrolled and 320 (16.3%) reported any support group attendance prior to enrollment. Complete ART adherence, with no missed doses in the last 30 days, was reported by 87.8% while 92.4% had viral suppression <1000copies/mL across all available visits. There was no association between support group attendance and ART adherence in unadjusted (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.99–1.03) or adjusted analyses (aOR 1.00, 95% CI 0.98–1.02). Compared to PLWH who did not report support group attendance, those who did had similar odds of viral suppression in unadjusted (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.978–1.01) and adjusted analyses (aOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.97–1.01). Support group attendance was not associated with significantly improved ART adherence or viral suppression, although low support group uptake may have limited our ability to detect a statistically significant impact.
Kaoutar Moutaouakkil, , Hicham Abdellaoui, Samira El Fakir, Btissam Arhoune, Mustapha Mahmoud, Karima Atarraf, Moulay Abderrahmane Afifi
Published: 20 July 2021
BMC Infectious Diseases, Volume 21; doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06361-8

Abstract:
The progress of diagnostic strategies and molecular methods improved the detection of Kingella kingae in bone and joint infections, and now, Kingella kingae is being increasingly recognized as the most frequent cause of bone and joint infection BJI in early childhood. The main objective of this prospective study is to report the frequency of Kingella Kingae in negative culture bone and joint pediatric infections, and to describe the clinical and biologic features of these children. From December 2016 to June 2019, we selected all hospitalized patients with suspected BJI. When culture was negative on the fifth day, children under 10 years were subsequently included in the study, and PCR assay was performed systematically for researching K. kingae specific gene cpn60. Microbial culture and identification were made using standard bacteriological methods. The demographics, clinical, laboratory, radiographic and clinical features were reviewed from medical records. We enrolled 65 children with culture negative BJI, 46 of them having under 10 years old have been screened for the cpn60 gene. Thus, the gene encoding Kingella kingae was positive for 27 BJI cases (58.7%). The mean age of children was 3.02 years, 55.6% were aged 6 months-4 years and 29.6% of them were aged 5–10 years. The male to female ratio was 1.7 and 16 cases (59.26%) occurred during the fall-winter period. The most frequent BJI type was septic arthritis (77.8%) and the most affected sites were knee (51.9%) and hip (37.0%). We recorded a mild clinical picture with normal to mildly raised inflammatory markers. All patients had good clinical and functional outcomes, with no serious orthopedic sequelae.. K kingae is an important pathogen of culture-negative BJI in Moroccan children. PCR testing should be performed in culture-negative cases of children not only in the typical age range of 6 months to 4 years. When implemented in the routine clinical microbiology laboratory, a specific K. kingae PCR assay can provide a better diagnostic performance of BJI.
, Taisuke Jo, Hiroyuki Tamiya, Yukiyo Sakamoto, Wakae Hasegawa, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Hideo Yasunaga, Takahide Nagase
Published: 20 July 2021
BMC Infectious Diseases, Volume 21; doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06395-y

Abstract:
The incidence and prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) are reportedly increasing in many parts of the world. However, there are few published data on NTM-PD-related death. Using data from a national inpatient database in Japan, we aimed in this study to identify the characteristics of patients with NTM-PD and clinical deterioration and to identify risk factors for in-hospital mortality. We examined data from the Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) database in Japan from July 2010 to March 2014. We extracted data for HIV-negative NTM-PD patients who required unscheduled hospitalization. We evaluated these patients’ characteristics and performed multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors for all-cause in-hospital mortality. A total of 16,192 patients (median age: 78 years; women: 61.2%) were identified. The median body mass index (BMI) was 17.5 kg/m2 (IQR 15.4–20.0). All cause In-hospital death occurred in 3166 patients (19.6%). The median BMI of the patients who had died was 16.0 kg/m2 (IQR 14.2–18.4). Multivariable analysis revealed that increased mortality was associated with male sex, lower BMI, lower activities of daily living scores on the Barthel index, hemoptysis, and comorbidities, including pulmonary infection other than NTM, interstitial lung disease, pneumothorax, and malignant disease. We found associations between being underweight and having several comorbidities and increased in-hospital mortality in patients with NTM-PD. Preventing weight loss and management of comorbidities may have a crucial role in improving this disease’s prognosis.
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