BMC Infectious Diseases

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ISSN / EISSN : 1471-2334 / 1471-2334
Published by: Springer Nature (10.1186)
Total articles ≅ 10,141
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Anand Mohan, , Da-Wei Liew, Jeevithaa Mahendra Kumar, Peter Sie-Teck Lau, Yee-Yen Tan, Yi-Pinn Tai, Ranveer Singh Gill, Ram Shanmugam, Su-Lin Chien, et al.
Published: 15 October 2021
BMC Infectious Diseases, Volume 21, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06754-9

Abstract:
Background Melioidosis, the infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is associated with a high case fatality rate, due in part to difficulties in clinical recognition and diagnostic confirmation of the disease. Although head and neck involvement is common in children, specific disease manifestations differ between geographic regions. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of melioidosis of the head and neck among children in Sarawak, Malaysia, and determine if fine-needle aspiration of suspected head or neck lesions could improve melioidosis diagnosis. Methods We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of all children aged < 12 years with culture-confirmed melioidosis presenting with head and neck manifestations and admitted to Bintulu Hospital in Sarawak, Malaysia, from January 2011 until December 2020. Fine-needle aspiration of head and neck lesions suspected to be due to melioidosis with inoculation in blood culture bottles (FNA + BCB) was used from the beginning of 2016. Results Of 34 children with culture-confirmed melioidosis, 20 (59%) had an infection involving one or more sites in the head and neck. Of these, 17 (85%) were diagnosed in or after 2016. Cervical lymph nodes were the most common organ or site affected, involved in 19 (95%) children. Clinical presentations of B. pseudomallei lymph node infections were highly variable. Five (25%) children had salivary gland involvement. Lacrimal gland involvement (dacryocystitis) and skin or soft tissue infection (scalp abscess) were less frequent. B. pseudomallei was isolated from the head or neck using FNA + BCB in 15 (75%) children and by standard culture methods of direct plating of pus on agar following incision and drainage in only 2 (10%) children. B. pseudomallei was isolated from non-head or neck specimens or blood in 3 (15%) children. Conclusions Manifestations of pediatric head and neck melioidosis in Sarawak, Malaysia, differ from those of other regions. Fine-needle aspiration, mainly of affected cervical lymph nodes, facilitates B. pseudomallei detection and enables confirmation of melioidosis infections.
Yin Huang, Bo Chen, Dehong Cao, Zeyu Chen, Jin Li, Jianbing Guo, Qiang Dong, Qiang Wei, LiangRen Liu
Published: 15 October 2021
BMC Infectious Diseases, Volume 21, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06753-w

Abstract:
Background Nowadays, most studies of tuberculous epididymo-orchitis (TBEO) are case reports or small sample cohort series. Our study is aimed to present the largest series of TBEO with our management experiences and long-term follow-up outcomes. Methods Patients diagnosed with TBEO after surgical procedures at Department of Urology, West China Hospital from 2008 to 2019 were included. All clinical features, auxiliary examination results, treatment and histopathological findings were extracted if available. Results Eighty-one patients (mean age 50.77 ± 16.1 years) were included. Scrotal swelling (N = 47, 58.0%) and pain (N = 29, 35.8%) were the most common presenting complaint. Pyuria and microscopic hematuria were observed in twenty-two (27.2%) and eight patients (9.9%), respectively. Urine acid fast bacilli cultures were available in 16 patients and all were negative. The mean duration between the onset of symptoms and the definite diagnosis was 6.42 ± 7.0 months. TBEO was considered in 30 (37.0%), tumors in 28 (34.6%) and nonspecific bacterial epididymo-orchitis in 23 (28.4%) patients. All patients received triple therapy of chemotherapy-surgery-pharmacotherapy and definite diagnosis was confirmed through histopathology of surgical specimens. Fifty-five patients were followed up regularly (mean follow-up 82.35 ± 36.6 months). One patient (1.2%) died from liver cirrhosis and no recurrence was observed. Postoperative complications included erectile dysfunction in 4 patients (4.9%), premature ejaculation in 5 patients (6.2%) and sterility in 7 patients (8.6%). Conclusions We recommend patients with advanced TBEO to receive triple therapy of chemotherapy-surgery-pharmacotherapy. Physicians should pay more attention to patients’ sexual function and fertility during follow up after treatment completed.
Minyu Zhou, Ke Cao, Hui Huang, Xiaojuan Luo, Ying Wang, Weike Ma, Zhiyue Lv
Published: 15 October 2021
BMC Infectious Diseases, Volume 21, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06742-z

Abstract:
Background Myiasis is caused by dipterous larvae, and rarely affects the mouth. Diagnosis by traditional means is easy to be confused with other similar species. Here, we report a case of oral myiasis, in a 5-month-old infant who was diagnosed by morphological examination and molecular biological methods. Case presentation A 5-month old infant with acute myeloid leukemia was admitted due to recurrent skin masses for more than 4 months. The infant had lip swelling, which prevented him from closing the mouth and membranes were present in his mouth and there were also oral ulcers and erosions. Ten maggots were found in the mouth and one in the ear canal with pus flowing out and were confirmed as the third stage larvae of Sarcophaga ruficornis by morphological examination and a comparison of sequence of cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) gene. After removal of the maggots and chemotherapy, the infant ’s condition was gradually improved. Conclusions To the best of our our knowledge, this is the first neonatal oral myiasis case reported in China and its diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Microscopy combined with specific DNA sequence analysis is an effective technological tool to provide rapid diagnoses of the larva specimen and cases of rare diseases, as illustrated in the current case.
Jianbo Li, Xuelian Liao, Yue Zhou, Luping Wang, Hang Yang, Wei Zhang, Zhongwei Zhang,
Published: 14 October 2021
BMC Infectious Diseases, Volume 21, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06548-z

Abstract:
Background Evidence of glucocorticoids on viral clearance delay of COVID-19 patients is not clear. Methods In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched for studies on Medline, Embase, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov from 2019 to April 20, 2021. We mainly pooled the risk ratios (RRs) and mean difference (MD) for viral clearance delay and did subgroup analyses by the severity of illness and doses of glucocorticoids. Results 38 studies with a total of 9572 patients were identified. Glucocorticoids treatment was associated with delayed viral clearance in COVID-19 patients (adjusted RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.80, I2 = 52%), based on moderate-quality evidence. In subgroup analyses, risk of viral clearance delay was significant both for COVID-19 patients being mild or moderate ill (adjusted RR 1.86, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.57, I2 = 48%), and for patients of being severe or critical ill (adjusted RR 1.59, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.07, I2 = 0%); however, this risk significantly increased for patients taking high doses (unadjusted RR 1.85, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.18; MD 7.19, 95% CI 2.78 to 11.61) or medium doses (adjusted RR 1.86, 95% CI 0.96 to 3.62, I2 = 45%; MD 3.98, 95% CI 3.07 to 4.88, I2 = 4%), rather those taking low doses (adjusted RR 1.38, 95% CI 0.94 to 2.02, I2 = 59%; MD 1.46, 95% CI −0.79 to 3.70, I2 = 82%). Conclusions Glucocorticoids treatment delayed viral clearance in COVID-19 patients of taking high doses or medium doses, rather in those of taking low doses of glucocorticoids.
Janvier Serumondo, Sonjelle Shilton, Ladislas Nshimiyimana, Prosper Karame, Donatha Dushimiyimana, Emmanuel Fajardo, Eric Remera, Gallican N. Rwibasira, Guillermo Z. Martínez-Pérez
Published: 14 October 2021
BMC Infectious Diseases, Volume 21, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06773-6

Abstract:
Background In 2018, Rwanda launched a 5-year hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination plan as per the World Health Organization global targets to eliminate HCV by 2030. To improve awareness of HCV status, strategies are needed to ensure easy access to HCV testing by as-yet unreached populations. HCV-self-testing, an innovative strategy, could further increase HCV testing uptake. This assessment explores perceptions around HCV self-testing among members of the public and healthcare workers in Rwanda. Methods A qualitative study was undertaken in Masaka District Hospital, comprising individual interviews, group interviews and participatory action research (PAR) activities. Purposive and snowball sampling methods guided the selection of informants. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. A thematic analysis approach was used to analyse the findings. Results The participants comprised 36 members of the public and 36 healthcare workers. Informants appreciated HCV self-testing as an innovative means of increasing access to HCV testing, as well as an opportunity to test privately and subsequently autonomously decide whether to seek further HCV care. Informants further highlighted the need to make HCV self-testing services free of charge at the nearest health facility. Disadvantages identified included the lack of pre/post-test counselling, as well as the potential psychosocial harm which may result from the use of HCV self-testing. Conclusion HCV self-testing is perceived to be an acceptable method to increase HCV testing in Rwanda. Further research is needed to assess the impact of HCV self-testing on HCV cascade of care outcomes.
Andre Hall, Olivier Joseph, Samantha Devlin, Jared Kerman, Jessica Schmitt, Jessica P. Ridgway,
Published: 14 October 2021
BMC Infectious Diseases, Volume 21, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06693-5

Abstract:
Background The COVID-19 and HIV epidemics have exacerbated existing inequities among vulnerable groups and severely impacted communities of color. People living with HIV (PLWH), who may already face stigma or discrimination, are at risk of experiencing further stigma as a result of COVID-19, which can result in medical mistrust. Methods We performed qualitative interviews between June and August 2020 among 32 PLWH, including 10 individuals diagnosed with COVID-19. A majority of participants perceived themselves as having an increased risk of contracting COVID-19 due to their HIV status. Results Of those who tested positive for COVID-19, the majority regarded their HIV diagnosis as having a more profound impact on their lives but found similarities between COVID-19 stigma and HIV-related stigma. Many participants also expressed mistrust. Conclusions These results can be used to better understand the perspectives of PLWH during the COVID-19 pandemic and have important implications for potential COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and future health crises.
Yongjie Sha, Willa Dong, Weiming Tang, Lingling Zheng, Xi Huang, Kathryn E. Muessig, Joseph D. Tucker
Published: 14 October 2021
BMC Infectious Diseases, Volume 21, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06782-5

Abstract:
Background Transgender and gender diverse individuals often face structural barriers to health care because of their gender minority status. The aim of this study was to examine the association between gender minority stress and access to specific health care services among transgender women and transfeminine people in China. Methods This multicenter cross-sectional study recruited participants between January 1st and June 30th 2020. Eligible participants were 18 years or older, assigned male at birth, not currently identifying as male, and living in China. Gender minority stress was measured using 45 items adapted from validated subscales. We examined access to health care services and interventions relevant to transgender and gender diverse people, including gender affirming interventions (hormones, surgeries), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) testing, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Multivariable regression was used to measure correlations between gender minority stress and access to health care service. Results Three hundred and twenty-four people completed a survey and data from 277 (85.5%) people were analyzed. The mean age was 29 years old (standard deviation [SD] = 8). Participants used hormones (118/277, 42.6%), gender affirming surgery (26/277, 9.4%), HIV testing (220/277, 79.4%), STI testing (132/277, 47.7%), PrEP (24/276, 8.7%), and PEP (29/267, 10.9%). Using gender affirming hormones was associated with higher levels of discrimination (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17–1.70) and internalized transphobia (aOR 1.06, 95%CI 1.00–1.12). STI testing was associated with lower levels of internalized transphobia (aOR 0.91, 95%CI 0.84–0.98). Conclusions Our data suggest that gender minority stress is closely related to using health services. Stigma reduction interventions and gender-affirming medical support are needed to improve transgender health.
Chenguang Shen, Yi Xu, Jingkai Ji, Jinli Wei, Yujin Jiang, Yang Yang, Minghui Yang, Huaxin Huang, Rongrong Zou, Chunxiao Fang, et al.
Published: 13 October 2021
BMC Infectious Diseases, Volume 21, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06748-7

Abstract:
Background The incidence of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has increased in recent years, making it a very common childhood illness worldwide. The relationship between different enterovirus genotypes and disease severity is not clearly understood. Given that enteroviruses are transmitted through the gastrointestinal tract, we hypothesized that variation in intestinal microorganisms of the host might play a role in the prognosis of HFMD. Methods We carried out a meta-transcriptomic-wide association study of fecal samples obtained from a cohort of children (254 patients, 227 tested positive for enterovirus, including 16 patients co-infectied with 2 kinds of enterovirus) with mild and severe HFMD and healthy controls. Results We found there was no significant difference in the amount of each virus type between the mild and severe cases. Genes of enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A (CV-A) from the severe and mild cases did not show significant clustering. Clostridium sp. L2-50 and Bacteroides stercoris ATCC 43183 were enriched in the guts of children with severe HFMD and KEGG enrichment was found between mild and severe cases. Conclusions Intestinal microorganisms appear to interact with enterovirus to determine the progression of HFMD. Genes of Bacteroides and Clostridium may be used as predictive markers for a more efficient prognosis and intervention. The enrichment of intestinal bacteria genes with functions may facilitate the development of severe symptoms for HFMD patients.
Nobuyoshi Mori, , Satoshi Oshiro, Kyoko Kuwahara-Arai, Teruo Kirikae, Yuki Uehara
Published: 13 October 2021
BMC Infectious Diseases, Volume 21, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06758-5

Abstract:
Background The worldwide spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has reduced the clinical utility of carbapenems. Plasmids often play an important role in the spread of genes encoding drug-resistance factors, especially in the horizontal transfer of these genes among species of Enterobacteriaceae. This study describes a patient infected with three species of CPE carrying an identical transferrable IncL/M plasmid. Methods Clinical isolates of CPE were collected at St. Luke’s International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, from 2015 to 2019. Three species of CPE isolates, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella aerogenes and Serratia marcescens, were isolated from a patient who developed severe gallstone pancreatitis associated with bloodstream infection, with all three isolates producing IMP-1 metallo-β-lactamase. The complete sequences of the plasmids of the three isolates were determined by both MiSeq and MinION. The medical chart of this patient was retrospectively reviewed conducted to obtain relevant clinical information. Results The three CPE species carried an IncL/M plasmid, pSL264, which was 81,133 bp in size and harbored bla IMP-1. The genetic environment surrounding bla IMP-1 consisted of int1-bla IMP-1 -aac(6’)-IIc-qacL-qacEdelta1-sul1-istB-IS21. Conjugation experiments showed that S. marcescens could transmit the plasmid to E. cloacae and K. aerogenes. In contrast, pSL264 could not transfer from E. cloacae or K. aerogenes to S. marcescens. Conclusion The IncL/M plasmid pSL264 harboring bla IMP-1 was able to transfer among different species of Enterobacteriaceae in a patient receiving long-term antimicrobial treatment. The worldwide emergence and spread of IncL/M plasmids harboring carbapenemase-encoding genes among species of Enterobacteriaceae is becoming a serious public health hazard.
Mbonye Kayitale Martin, Otuba John Paul, Riese Sara, Alima Hilary, Mugabe Frank, Muhwezi K. Augustin, Turyahabwe Stavia, Wandera Christopher, Tisna Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Tugume Gladys
Published: 12 October 2021
BMC Infectious Diseases, Volume 21, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06743-y

Abstract:
Background Multi-drug resistant—tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is an emerging public health concern in Uganda. Prior to 2013, MDR-TB treatment in Uganda was only provided at the national referral hospital and two private-not-for profit clinics. From 2013, it was scaled up to seven regional referral hospitals (RRH). The aim of this study was to measure interim (6 months) treatment outcomes among the first cohort of patients started on MDR-TB treatment at the RRH in Uganda. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which a descriptive analysis of data collected retrospectively on a cohort of 69 patients started on MDR-TB treatment at six of the seven RRH between 1st April 2013 and 30th June 2014 and had been on treatment for at least 9 months was conducted. Results Of the 69 patients, 21 (30.4%) were female, 39 (56.5%) HIV-negative, 30 (43.5%) resistant to both isoniazid and rifampicin and 57 (82.6%) category 1 or 2 drug susceptible TB treatment failures. Median age at start of treatment was 35 years (Interquartile range (IQR): 27–45), median time-to-treatment initiation was 27.5 (IQR: 6–89) days and of the 30 HIV-positive patients, 27 (90.0%) were on anti-retroviral treatment with a median CD4 count of 206 cells/microliter of blood (IQR: 113–364.5). Within 6 months of treatment, 59 (85.5%) patients culture converted, of which 45 (65.2%) converted by the second month and the other 14 (20.3%) by the sixth month; one (1.5%) did not culture convert; three (4.4%) died; and six (8.8%) were lost-to-follow up. Fifty (76.8%) patients experienced at least one drug adverse event, while 40 (67.8%) gained weight. Mean weight gained was 4.7 (standard deviation: 3.2) kilograms. Conclusions Despite MDR-TB treatment initiation delays, most patients had favourable interim treatment outcomes with majority culture converting early and very few getting lost to follow-up. These encouraging interim outcomes indicate the potential for success of a scale-up of MDR-TB treatment to RRH.
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