Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1124-3562 / 2282-4197
Current Publisher: PAGEPress Publications (10.4081)
Total articles ≅ 604
Current Coverage
SCOPUS
PUBMED
MEDLINE
MEDICUS
ESCI
DOAJ
Archived in
SHERPA/ROMEO
EBSCO
Filter:

Latest articles in this journal

Mohammad Ali Ghaed, Seyed Alireza Makian, Asaad Moradi, Robab Maghsoudi, Alireza Gandomi-Mohammadabadi
Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia, Volume 92; doi:10.4081/aiua.2020.3.259

Abstract:
Objective: To estimate the duration of time required following varicocelectomy to wait for the improvements of semen parameters. Therefore, we characterized the changes with the time in sperm parameters in men after varicocelectomy. Materials and methods: In this prospective cohort study we included consecutively observed men who underwent varicocelectomy between September 2017 and September 2018 in a referral academic hospital. Clinical data of the patients, as well as their semen parameters, were measured before surgery and at 3 and 6 months afterward. Results: In this study, a total of 100 men with average age of 29.5 ± 6.2 years were included. Mean sperm concentration and sperm motility significantly improved by 3 (p < 0.05), but not by 6 months following varicocelectomy. The semen volume and sperm with normal morphology were the same before and after surgery (p > 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the improvement of semen parameters when comparing 6 months to 3 months postoperatively (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Sperm parameters (concentration and motility) improve by 3 months after varicocelectomy without further improvements. Consequently, physicians should decide quickly after 3-month of varicocelectomy if surgery has been not helpful and then plan other therapies, like assisted reproductive technology (ART) for managing infertility in couples.
Paulo Jorge Pinto Pe Leve, João Pedro Cardoso Felício, Pedro Simões De Oliveira, José Manuel Palma Dos Reis, Francisco Alves Estrócio Martins
Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia, Volume 92; doi:10.4081/aiua.2020.3.271

Abstract:
Lateral cylinder extrusion is a potential complication of penile prosthesis implantation. Several methods have been proposed for repairing this complication. We present a case where a cylinder re-routing technique, first described by Dr. John Mulcahy, was used and a revision of the literature.
Muhammad Faisal Khan, Maira Saeed Babar, Georgios Tsampoukas, Soumya Misra
Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia, Volume 92; doi:10.4081/aiua.2020.3.248

Abstract:
Objective: To report the outcomes of percutaneous nephroureterostomies performed in a single center a period of ten years. Materials and methods: We retrospectively collected and analyzed data for 52 nephroureterostomy procedures that were performed from September 2008 to August 2018. We present patient’s demographics, indications for the procedure, type of anesthesia, technical difficulties, length of stay in hospital and complications. Results: A total of 52 procedures including 13 bilateral nephroureterostomies were performed on 39 patients. Taking into account the need for replacement of nephroureterostomy procedures during the study period, total number of procedures was 168. Out of a total 39 patients, 32 (84%) of patients had advanced cancer. All procedures were performed as day cases using sedation and had no immediate or early complications. Ten patients or 16% (27 nephroureterostomies out of total 168 procedures) had minor complications. Conclusions: To the best of author’s knowledge, this is the largest case series reporting the outcome of percutaneous nephroureterostomies. We can therefore conclude that percutaneous nephroureterostomy is a useful palliative procedure to relieve ureteric obstruction, when other measures are not possible, and it has low incidence of complications. However, further studies are warranted to compare different procedures used to relieve ureteric obstruction.
Georgios Tsampoukas, Muhammad Faisal Khan, Antigoni Katsouri, Waseem Akhter, Mohamad Moussa, Konstantinos Deliveliotis, Athanasios Papatsoris, Noor Buchholz
Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia, Volume 92; doi:10.4081/aiua.2020.3.263

Abstract:
Background: Varicocele has been found to impair the function of the epididymis resulting in subfertility whereas the varicocelectomy can resolve the phenomenon. L-carnitine is regarded as a biomarker for the function of the epididymis and has been found in reduced concentrations in infertile patients of various causes, including infertile men with varicocele. It seems that Lcarnitine and varicocele share clinical significance and the area of research looks promising. Objective: To identify the role of L-carnitine in the treatment of varicocele. Materials and methods: A systematic search was performed in Pubmed/Medline with the terms (L-carnitine) and (varicocele) and (L-carnitine) and (varicocelectomy). Inclusion criteria were studies reported outcomes of L-carnitine administration alone or in duet, as primary or adjuvant treatment to varicocele. Exclusion criteria were non-English language and animal studies. Studies using L-carnitine as part of a panel of therapeutic agents were avoided. Results: Only four suitable studies were identified for discussion. In one randomized study, the combination of L-carnitine and cinnoxicam improved semen parameters in patients with non-high-grade varicocele compared to L-carnitine alone and had a favourable effect on pregnancy rates but the effect of grade is unknown. In another study, as an adjuvant treatment to varicocelectomy, L-carnitine showed no clear benefit. Finally, in comparison to surgery, the results are inconclusive; two studies showed some benefit might be expected in low-grade or subclinical varicocele, but surgery appears superior. Conclusions: The evidence regarding the role of L-carnitine as a primary or adjuvant treatment of varicocele is sparse. The pathophysiological significance of L-carnitine implicates a potential role of the molecule in the management of varicocele, but the evidence so far is controversial for any recommendations. L-carnitine might be taken into consideration in selected cases; however, further search is needed in order the optimal role of L-carnitine in infertile patients with varicocele to be clarified.
Murad Asali, Muhammad Asali
Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia, Volume 92; doi:10.4081/aiua.2020.3.253

Abstract:
Objective: To assess the effectiveness of an intralesional injection of verapamil in men with Peyronie’s disease (PD). Materials and Methods: The data provided in the current review are based on a thorough review of the available original articles on PD retrieved with a systematic literature search using PubMed- Medline, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, up to December 2019, to identify studies dealing with Peyronie’s disease and its treatment. Included were only original articles, that we thoroughly evaluated. We searched for the primary and secondary terms of: “Peyronie’s disease,” “Penile curvature,” “Erectile dysfunction,” “Verapamil and Peyronie’s disease,” “Calcium channel blocker,” and “Intralesional injection.”Results: The initial search of the databases yielded a total of 1240 studies (PubMed: 1058; Cochrane: 182), as of December 2019. Seventy studies were removed due to duplication. Further 986 studies were removed due to not being in English (except for one study by Arena F. for which we got a translation form Italian), being about animal experimentations, not being full-text, and not being clinical trials. Likewise, studies not referring at all to verapamil were excluded (148). From the remaining 36 full-text articles we focused on 13 studies which met the inclusion criteria, mainly being deemed relevant to the context of this study. Conclusions: Calcium channel blockers have been shown in both in vitro and in vivo studies to inhibit the synthesis and secretion of extracellular matrix molecules, as well as to increase collagenase activity. Patients with localised plaque are the best candidates for intralesional injections of verapamil. The beneficial effects of intralesional verapamil are apparent within the first three months. For patients who respond to treatment, the injections should be continued for six months. Patients who fail to respond to intralesional verapamil or whose angulation is greater than 30° at presentation should be considered candidates for surgery. Injection of verapamil is clinically safe for patients with Peyronie’s disease, and it appears to induce a rapid, beneficial effect in patients for the reduction of plaque size. Intralesional verapamil injection for Peyronie’s disease could reduce pain, decrease penile curvature, and improve sexual function.
Bilal Eryildirim, Ahmet Şahan, Özlem Türkoğlu, Murat Tuncer, Övünç Kavukoğlu, Berkan Şimsek, Alkan Çubuk, Kemal Sarica
Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia, Volume 92; doi:10.4081/aiua.2020.3.244

Abstract:
Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate prediction of postoperative ureteral obstruction needing ureteral stent insertion by evaluating the resistive index (RI) values and the grade of hydronephrosis. Material and Methods: A total of 66 adult patients undergoing stentless endoscopic ureteral stone treatment (URS) between January 2018 and January 2019 were included in this prospective study. Preoperative patient and stone characteristics were noted. All patients were evaluated with renal Doppler ultrasonography study to assess degree of hydronephrosis and RI values. A renal Doppler ultrasonography was repeated at postoperative 1st, 3rd and 7th days. Changes in both RI and hydronephrosis levels before and after the procedures were noted. On the postoperative 7th day, patients were divided into two groups including obstructive and non-obstructive cases according to RI values assessed where a RI value of 0.7 was accepted as the cut-off for obstruction. The preoperative and perioperative characteristics of both groups were evaluated in a comparative manner. Results: The mean patient age was 43.6 ± 1.72 years. Significant improvements were noted in RI and grade of hydronephrosis after the operation. The grade of hydronephrosis and RI values were found to improve more significantly on postoperative 3rd day when compared to the postoperative 7th day (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01). A significant correlation was detected between the grade of hydronephrosis (>grade 2) and obstructive RI values (> 0.7) in each postoperative visits (p: 0.001). RI values (> 0.7) at postoperative seventh days were correlated with larger mean stone size, increased ureteral wall thickness, increased diameter of the ureter proximal to the stone, and longer duration of the operation. Preoperative high-grade hydronephrosis indicated obstructive RI values at postoperative seventh day (p = 0.001) Conclusion: Changes in RI values on Doppler sonography and the grade of hydronephrosis may be a guiding parameter in assessing postoperative ureteral obstruction.
Emanuele Corongiu, Pietro Grande, Emanuele Liberati, Roberto Iacovelli, Mostafà Amini, Paola Mascioli, Giorgio Pagliarella, Stefano Squillacciotti, Angelo Di Santo, Alessandra Zampelli, et al.
Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia, Volume 92; doi:10.4081/aiua.2020.3.218

Abstract:
Introduction: Bladder cancer is a condition characterized by a broad spectrum of histological variants and clinical courses. The morphological description of histological variants is becoming increasingly important. The 75% of cases of these cancers are classified as pure urothelial carcinoma, while the remaining 25% is represented by other histological variants. The clear cell carcinoma is part of urothelial group and is a very rare entity. Oncological outcomes of this variant are still uncertain, but seems to be worst than for patiens with pure urothelial carcinoma. Moreover it seems to metastasize more easily to the lymph nodes. Case report: We present a case of a Caucasian 73 year old woman who, after an episode of gross hematuria, underwent an ultrasound of the urinary system, a cystoscopy and a total body computed tomography (CT) which confirmed the presence of a bladder neoformation. A transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) was performed: the result of the histological examination was "poorly differentiated clear cell carcinoma". Given the rarity of histological characterization, we required a PET CT scan for more accurate staging, at which a suspected right pelvic lymph node was detected. We proposed a radical cystectomy with hysteroannessiectomy and extended lymphadenectomy. During the pre-hospitalization process, the patient developed anuria, with acute renal failure and bilateral hydronephrosis, which required the placement of bilateral nephrostomies; we performed the planned surgical procedure and the histological exam confirmed: high grade urothelial carcinoma with a high percentage (more than 70%) of clear cell carcinoma, with a strong local aggression and lymphnode metastates. We referred the patient to the oncologist who suggested a treatment plan within an immunotherapy based clinical trial and cisplatin. Conclusions: The morphological description of histological variants in bladder cancer is gaining increasing importance, especially for infiltrating and aggressive forms. The clear cell carcinoma is a very rare entity part of the urothelial group; they would seem more aggressive forms with an early lymph node involvement. This evidence is confirmed by the clinical case described, in which we have seen a large local aggression with an involvement of the lymph nodes of the right side of the pelvis of the pre-sacral ones. In these cases, the multimodal approach is crucial.
Valerio Olivieri, Gabriele Ruggiero, Danilo Abate, Nicoletta Serra, Valentina Fortunati, Daniele Griffa, Flavio Forte, Emanuele Corongiu
Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia, Volume 92; doi:10.4081/aiua.2020.3.213

Abstract:
Background: Fournier disease (FD) is a worrisome infection of genital area caused by a polimicrobial infection and characterized by a rapid progression to necrosis. Scrotum, perineum and lower abdomen represent the primary sites of origin. Clinical presentation and laboratory strongly suggest FD, but if not precociously diagnosed, it may quickly evolve into septic syndrome and patient’s death. Case report: A 62 years old Caucasian male presented for fever and penile gross oedema recently occurred. No history of previous urinary tract infection, hematuria or genital trauma was referred. He did not complain any storage or voiding low urinary tract symptom (LUTS); no foci of infection in genitoperineal area was observed nor urethral discharge. The ultrasound (US) revealed a disomogeneous broad thickening of subcutaneous tissues with increased vascularity on Color-Doppler. When the penis was manipulated in order to reduce oedema, retract foreskin and evaluate the glans, clinical parametres rapidly worsened and the patient developed a septic shock with blood pressure falling down, dyspnoea and tachyarrhythmia, and he was fastly sent to Intensive Care Unit where it has been hemodynamically stabilized and subjected to antibiotic therapy. Considering the clinical absence of gangrene’s foci, we opted for a conservative treatment by maintaining bladder catheter and drug therapy.
Valerio Olivieri, Valentina Fortunati, Luca Bellei, Massimo Massarelli, Gabriele Ruggiero, Danilo Abate, Nicoletta Serra, Daniele Griffa, Flavio Forte, Emanuele Corongiu
Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia, Volume 92; doi:10.4081/aiua.2020.3.211

Abstract:
Background: Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are extremely rare and aggressive. Although they commonly affect intestine, many organs may be involved such as pancreas, lung or urinary tract. Bladder is rarely involved. Actually, two main forms of bladder NET have been described: small-cell and large-cell. The first one is considered highly agressive since it shows poor oncologic outcomes being mainly diagnosed at advanced stage: the second one is extremely rare and equally aggressive. Case report: A 78-years-old Caucasian male presented to our facility for lower urinary tract symptoms and gross hematuria recently occurred. He was a strong smoker since many years. No familiarity for urothelial cancer was referred nor previous episodes of hematuria until that time. Citology was negative; outpatient ultrasound of the bladder revealed a 3 cm bladder thickening highly suspicious for bladder cancer; patient underwent TC scan that confirmed the bladder lesion. A transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) was performed. After 3 months total body TC showed multiple visceral metastases also involving brain and lymph nodes. Best supportive care was offered but the patient died 6 months later. Results: Pathology revealed a mixed bladder tumor: 30% of the specimen resulted as an high-grade urothelial cancer (G3) and 70% as small-cell neuroendocrine variant.Microscopic muscle involvement was excluded.Conclusions: Neuroendocrine tumors are uncommon entities which origin from cells of neuro-endocrine system and may potentially involve all human tissues. Neuroendocrine smallcell carcinoma of the bladder is a non-urothelial histotype: it is highly aggressive and diagnosed mainly at advanced stages. Whenever considering the high risk of metastatic spread and the poor prognosis, a multimodal approach is highly suggested. TURB alone is uneffective in disease control due to its aggressive nature. Unless metastatic, radical cystectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy represent the gold standard.
Emanuele Corongiu, Pietro Grande, Emanuele Liberati, Roberto Iacovelli, Mostafà Amini, Paola Mascioli, Giorgio Pagliarella, Stefano Squillacciotti, Angelo Di Santo, Alessandra Zampelli, et al.
Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia, Volume 92; doi:10.4081/aiua.2020.3.217

Abstract:
Introduction: Bladder cancer is a condition characterized by a broad spectrum of histological variants and clinical courses. The morphological description of histological variants is becoming increasingly important. The 75% of cases of these cancers are classified as pure urothelial carcinoma, while the remaining 25% is represented by other histological variants. The clear cell carcinoma is part of urothelial group and is a very rare entity. Oncological outcomes of this variant are still uncertain, but seems to be worst than for patiens with pure urothelial carcinoma. Moreover it seems to metastasize more easily to the lymph nodes. Case report: We present a case of a Caucasian 73 year old woman who, after an episode of gross hematuria, underwent an ultrasound of the urinary system, a cystoscopy and a total body computed tomography (CT) which confirmed the presence of a bladder neoformation. A transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) was performed: the result of the histological examination was "poorly differentiated clear cell carcinoma". Given the rarity of histological characterization, we required a PET CT scan for more accurate staging, at which a suspected right pelvic lymph node was detected. We proposed a radical cystectomy with hysteroannessiectomy and extended lymphadenectomy. During the pre-hospitalization process, the patient developed anuria, with acute renal failure and bilateral hydronephrosis, which required the placement of bilateral nephrostomies; we performed the planned surgical procedure and the histological exam confirmed: high grade urothelial carcinoma with a high percentage (more than 70%) of clear cell carcinoma, with a strong local aggression and lymphnode metastates. We referred the patient to the oncologist who suggested a treatment plan within an immunotherapy based clinical trial and cisplatin. Conclusions: The morphological description of histological variants in bladder cancer is gaining increasing importance, especially for infiltrating and aggressive forms. The clear cell carcinoma is a very rare entity part of the urothelial group; they would seem more aggressive forms with an early lymph node involvement. This evidence is confirmed by the clinical case described, in which we have seen a large local aggression with an involvement of the lymph nodes of the right side of the pelvis of the pre-sacral ones. In these cases, the multimodal approach is crucial.
Back to Top Top