Open Journal of Soil Science

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2162-5360 / 2162-5379
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 349
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Fary Diome, Landing Biaye
Open Journal of Soil Science, Volume 12, pp 151-169; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojss.2022.124006

Abstract:
Soil degradation due to shrinkage and swelling of these clay soils is a problem for agriculture. To understand the physical properties of the soils in this agricultural area, we will use an undisturbed soil monolith 60 cm high and 23 cm in diameter in the laboratory. This study quantified the swelling and shrinkage of these soils during a 10-month experiment. The determination of the hydrodynamic parameters of this monolith made it possible to simulate water transfers in a soil of constant volume and a water transfer in a soil of variable volume. The results of this simulation show significant differences between these two cases, hence the need to integrate the variations in soil volume into the simulation processes of water transfers.
Jerome Wright, Scott Kenner, Bret Lingwall
Open Journal of Soil Science, Volume 12, pp 216-224; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojss.2022.126009

Abstract:
Compost amendments have remarkable potential for improving soil structure, porosity and water holding capacity. Soil health is the ability to function as a living system, to sustain plant and animal productivity, to enhance water and air quality, and to promote plant and animal health. Soil health can be estimated by measuring the total living microbial biomass, retained carbon, odor, and texture. Poor or deteriorating soil health is threatening food security. The potential for compost to reverse these negative trends is transformative if means and methods for large scale composting and compost amendments can be developed. A field-scale compost soil amendment project was implemented in Rapid City, South Dakota. The compost was added to a soil plot at 5 wt% and 10 wt% and the results were compared with an adjacent untreated plot without any compost addition. Measurements of soil health characteristics indicate that compost amendments improve soil health, crop yields, and soil water content. Treating soils with compost has the potential to reverse global deteriorating soil health.
Jerome Wright
Open Journal of Soil Science, Volume 12, pp 242-252; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojss.2022.126011

Abstract:
In quantifying the benefits of compost amendments to soils for agricultural and urban use in terms of water conservation, there are many difficulties in conveying “value” of water due to the many different aspects of value to individuals and organizations. Perhaps the most universal metric for value is through the net monetary impact of water. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify the benefits by placing a dollar value on the amount of water conserved by amending soils with compost. In most of the literature, the value of water is rarely defined, and when it is the value presented is actually the “cost” of water production or reclamation. However, to truly understand the impacts of water conservation, a fuller vision of the value of water is needed beyond the costs of water. In this paper, the value of water is developed for the Rapid City, South Dakota area. With a value of water established, the benefits of soil compost amendments are calculated by evaluating the reduction of irrigation water needed for comparable crops and the value of the conserved water. In developing a value of water for Rapid City, South Dakota, the direct costs for water production are compared with the retail value of water and the economic activity enabled by a water supply. The average cost of water production for South Dakota cities averaged $0.004 per gallon ($0.001/Liter). The analysis of retail value and economic impact showed that water is valued at $0.71 per gallon ($0.19/Liter) for Rapid City and nine other South Dakota communities when calculated using the community’s retail sales records and economic reports. Efforts to find similar findings for the US were not found. With the value of water established for Rapid City and other South Dakota communities, the value benefits of compost amendments on water conservation are shown in direct monetary terms.
M. Zoundji, Agassin Martinien Arcadius Ahoglé, Tobi Moriaque Akplo, Sèmèvo Oslo Gangnon, Diorel Montéiro, Yves Zanvo, Félix Kouelo Alladassi, Pascal Houngnandan
Open Journal of Soil Science, Volume 12, pp 193-215; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojss.2022.126008

Abstract:
Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.], as a legume, can establish relationships with nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as Rhizobium. However, Rhizobium efficacy is not always optimal due to the lack or poor efficient strains in the soil. This study aimed to evaluate symbiotic efficiency of endogenous Rhizobia nodulating Bambara groundnut and their resistance to abiotic conditions. Root nodules were randomly sampled from three agroecological zones across the country, surface sterilized, ground and paste plated on YEMA media. After 24 hours, the bacterial colonies were purified. The pure cultures were further characterized using morphological and biochemical methods and their resistance to antibiotics and heavy metals was evaluated. Lastly, the symbiotic efficiency of the isolates was assessed through a greenhouse experiment. A total of eighty-five presumptive strains were isolated from Bambara groundnut roots nodules obtained from the farms. The physiological characterization of the isolated showed a decrease in isolates growth when NaCl concentration was more than 7%. In addition, 47% of the isolates were tolerant to a temperature of 40°C. Most of the isolates were highly resistant to Erythromycin in all its concentration levels and to Kanamycin, Spectinomycin, Neomycin and Ampicillin at 10 μg⋅mL−1. Most of them showed resistance to Cu and Zn at 10 μg⋅mL−1. Results of the effectiveness test on two Bambara groundnut varieties yielded dry shoot matter varying from 3.33 g⋅plant−1 to 7.21 g⋅plant−1 for variety 1 and from 4.38 g⋅plant−1 to 8.38 g⋅plant−1 on variety 2. N uptake ranged between 0.09 g⋅plant−1 and 0.29 g⋅plant−1 for variety 1 and between 0.12 and 0.29 g⋅plant−1 for variety 2. The isolates yielding higher shoot dry weight and N uptake were LMSEM312, LMSEM338, LMSEM307, LMSEM351 for variety 1 and LMSEM338, LMSEM309, LMSEM307 for variety 2. The isolates showing better performance can be used to develop bio-fertilizer for sustainable Bambara groundnut production in Benin.
Kouelo Alladassi Félix, Medezo Arnaud, Akplo Tobi Moriaque, Houenou Saïdi, Avakoudjo Julien, Agodo Lambert, Dotonhoue Coffi Fulgence G., Sogbegnon Ahowanou Roméo, Amadji Firmin, Zoundji Mahougnon Carmelle C., et al.
Open Journal of Soil Science, Volume 12, pp 323-337; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojss.2022.127014

Abstract:
The soils of Benin in general and those of the department of Zou, in particular, are highly degraded. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of sustainable land management practices on soil erodibility in two villages in the Plateau of Abomey. Soil samples were collected on plots under Sustainable Land Management (SLM) measures (direct seeding, maize residue management and soybean-cereal rotation) and on their adjacent control. The soil samples were prepared and analyzed in laboratory to determine variables such as soil permeability, organic matter content, and particle size. Soil erodibility was determined as proposed by Wischmeier & Smith. The effect of SLM practices was significant (0.02) on soil permeability. On plots under SLM measurements, soil permeability is higher with an average of 93.97 mm/h at Folly and 82.43 mm/h at Hanagbo. SLM measurements significantly (0.04) added organic matter to the soil. The average organic matter of the plots under SLM measures in Folly varies from 0.73% to 1.39% while it varies from 0.49% to 0.73% in the control plots. In Hanagbo, the average organic matter of the plots under SLM measures varies from 1.86% to 2.48% against 1.41% to 1.66% for the control plots. Regarding soil erodibility, it was found that the influence of SLM measures is significant in both villages. In villages, direct seeding and maize residue management significantly (0.008) reduced soil erodibility compared to their adjacent controls, while the soybean-cereal rotation measure increased soil erodibility compared to plot witnesses. The average soil erodibility of plots under SLM measures varies by 0.21 t⋅h/Mj⋅mm at 0.38 t⋅h/Mj⋅mm in the village of Hanagbo and 0.25 t⋅h/Mj⋅mm at 0.38 t⋅h/Mj⋅mm in the village of Folly. It varies from 0.24 t⋅h/Mj⋅mm at 0.28 t⋅h/Mj⋅mm for the control plots at Hanagbo and 0.31 t⋅h/Mj⋅mm at 0.37 t⋅h/Mj⋅mm in Folly. These practices can therefore be used for the sustainable use of agricultural land.
Kenneth R. Olson, Larry Cihacek
Open Journal of Soil Science, Volume 12, pp 13-81; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojss.2022.122002

Abstract:
Discoveries in Charles Darwin’s laboratory led to modern herbicides. Darwin discovered the internal mechanism that directed plants to grow toward sunlight and sources of water. Scientists in Europe and America later called this mechanism a plant’s hormone response system. Administrators and scientists, including Dr. Ezra J. Kraus, the Head of the Botany Department at the University of Chicago and a plant physiologist, suggested on the eve of WWII that weed killers had significant military value as chemical weapons. Dr. Kraus obtained access to a synthetic chemical, 2,4-D, and found that when the chemical was absorbed through the leaves of plants, it destroyed a plant’s hormones. After exposure, the plant experienced rapid and uncontrolled growth, and then the leaves shriveled, died and fell off. Dr. Kraus obtained funding for his Department of Botany research program from Department of Defense (DOD) during World War II (WWII). Camp Detrick (Biological Weapons Laboratory) scientists later obtained samples of newly created 2,4,5-T which contained unknown amounts of the by-product dioxin TCDD. In the 1950s and 1960s, Fort Detrick military scientists formulated the herbicide Agent Orange, which was a 50 - 50 mixture of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. These dual purpose herbicides were used by DOD and USDA. American and European farmers in the 1940s used 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T to eliminate weeds from pastureland and cropland. After WWII, synthetic herbicides (and pesticides) development continued in tandem with production of synthetic fertilizers and breeding of high-yield plant varieties. These new agricultural products were then shipped worldwide to increase crop yields, as part of the Green Revolution. This new system of agricultural technologies was intended to eliminate global starvation and increase food security by increasing field and farm crop yields. In contrast, the goal of military use of herbicides, as chemical weapons, was to defoliate jungle forests and destroy food crops as a strategy to win battles and wars. The primary objective of this research study is to describe how agricultural herbicides became tactical chemical weapons. A current assessment will address the environmental impacts of military and environmental chemical weapons on the United States and Vietnam ecosystems and need for additional dioxin TCDD hotspot clean-up efforts.
Lois Wright Morton, Casey Culbertson
Open Journal of Soil Science, Volume 12, pp 119-150; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojss.2022.124005

Abstract:
Waterlogged soils and submerged sediments in wetlands and agricultural lands used for rice paddies and aquaculture have anaerobic conditions that slow and prevent the photo and microbial degradation of dioxin TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetracholorodibenzo-p-dioxin), enabling it to persist in environments for long periods. Over 1.6 million ha of land in southern Vietnam were sprayed with 2,4,5-T herbicides (e.g. Agent Orange) contaminated with dioxin TCDD during the Vietnam War (1961-1971); 45% of these ha received four or more spray flight missions. Dioxins are endocrine disrupters and may induce cardiovascular disease, growth, and developmental defects, diabetes, hormonal dysfunctions and disruptions, certain cancers, and chloracne. Outpatient screening clinic 2020 data on Vietnamese children suspected of congenital heart disease (CHD) showed the childhood CHD prevalence rate in Vietnam of 13.356/1000, significantly elevated compared to the Asian CHD prevalence rate of 3.531/1000. CHD prevalence rate differences between North Vietnam (2.541/1000) and south of the 17th parallel (10.809/1000) were significant. Vietnamese farmers, especially pregnant women whose occupations involve daily contact with soil and sediments where dioxin TCDD persists in the environment may be at risk of dioxin accumulation from dermal exposure and bioaccumulation via diet. There is an urgent need for funded longitudinal genetic and clinical studies to assess CHD and other organ system childhood malformations due to in utero TCDD exposure. We recommend an integrated research design involving 1) site-specific locations that received high volumes and multiple spray loads of herbicides during the Vietnam War; 2) soil sampling of submerged and waterlogged soils and sediments where TCDD may not have degraded; 3) production areas of agriculture, fisheries, and other aquatic products; 4) risk assessment dioxin levels in foods where TCDD is likely to bioaccumulate; 5) child-bearing age and pregnant women with potentially high sensitivity to long-term low dose exposure, and 6) men and women in occupations that are in daily contact with contaminated soil and sediments as part of their job routines.
Shamima Sabreen, Suguru Saiga, Rafiq Islam, Hasinur Rahman
Open Journal of Soil Science, Volume 12, pp 97-118; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojss.2022.124004

Abstract:
Economic losses associated with grass tetany either of death or poor growth performance of livestock are a growing concern. Breeding of high magnesium (high-Mg) cool-season forage grass (C3) has been a challenging process to minimize the hazards of grass tetany. For appraising the breeding of high Mg-containing cultivars in Japanese Andisol, agronomic properties and grass tetany risk of high-Mg cultivars were compared with commercial cultivars. The high-Mg cultivars of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) were “Magnet”, “HiMag” and “Mgwell”, respectively. The commercial cultivars were viz., Ace, Tachiwase, and Waseyutaka of Italian ryegrass, Hokuryo, Kentucky-31 (Ky-31), and Fawn of tall fescue, and Akimidori and Okamidori of orchardgrass, respectively. Grasses were grown in temperate Andisol under field conditions with standard management practices and were harvested four times during the year. The average plant heights of the high-Mg containing cultivars were lower than the commercial cultivars with the relative range of −7.4%, −3.7%, and −1.5% for Italian ryegrass, tall fescue, and orchard grass species, respectively. The seasonal yield of high-Mg cultivars was ranked as Magnet > HiMag > Mgwell. The Mgwell orchard grass had lower potassium (K) content compared with their respective commercial cultivars with a relative range of −2.2%. Across four harvests, a significantly higher calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) content, and lower grass tetany potential were recorded in high-Mg cultivars when compared to commercial cultivars, irrespective of species. Across four harvests, the lowest grass tetany index, [K/(Ca + Mg)] of 1.36 was recorded in Mgwell orchard grass. The high-Mg cultivars showed the lowest [K/(Ca + Mg)] across four harvests compared to commercial cultivars, promoting the effectiveness of breeding cool-season grass species to control grass tetany in temperate regions (Andisol) and climatic conditions.
Wright Jerome, Kenner Scott, Lingwall Bret
Open Journal of Soil Science, Volume 12, pp 295-322; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojss.2022.127013

Abstract:
Water is a finite but vital resource, and the volume of water used in arid and semi-arid regions must be managed to its fullest and best use. Irrigation water is approximately 37% of the total water used in the United States by volume annually. Thus, this area of water use is critical for local and national water conservation. Irrigation is primarily used to increase soil water content above that which precipitation can supply. Soil structure and associated effects on drainage and evapotranspiration, however, largely control soil water content, no matter the amount of applied water. Therefore, improving soil structure to hold more water decreases the amount of water needed for irrigation, which frees that water for other uses. In this paper, organic compost amendments are studied to determine the change in soil structure and accompanying improvements in soil water content over a 4-year period. A uniform field site was selected for this research in the high plains of South Dakota, where irrigation water was available for crop growth. The test site was divided into two equal area fields; one without compost and a field with compost amendments added to 20 cm depth. Compost was incorporated into the treated field at rates of 5% and 10% by weight. Both fields received the same tillage, seed, fertilizer, weather and irrigation. Weekly to monthly in-situ water content measurements from both fields were recorded at the surface and the depths of 20, 40 and 60 cm from 2017 to 2020. Precipitation and applied irrigation water were recorded at the site. No irrigation occurred in 2019 and 2020, and moisture content was dependent on natural precipitation in those years. Results of water content and soil structure show significant differences in the water contents of the soils with the compost amendments compared to baseline, with higher compost content resulting in higher water contents without the soil becoming over-saturated. These results were consistent at all depths and across all growing seasons. This work demonstrates the efficacy of compost soil amendments in regulating soil moisture, which has profound impacts on crop yields, topsoil erosion losses, carbon sequestration, and water conservation.
Kenneth R. Olson, Larry Cihacek
Open Journal of Soil Science, Volume 12, pp 253-294; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojss.2022.127012

Abstract:
Agent Blue, a mixture of cacodylic acid (CH3) As O2H) and sodium cacodylate (C2H6 AsNaO2), was a tactical arsenic-based herbicide used during the Vietnam War to destroy grasses and rice crops. Natural and synthetic sources of arsenic can degrade into water-soluble forms and persist in groundwater and potentially contribute to elevating As levels in drinking water. The United States Department of Defense (DOD) and United States Department of Agricultural (USDA) Operation Ranch Hand records for tactical herbicides including Agent Blue sprayed in southern Vietnam during the Vietnam War (1961-1971) are very detailed, rather complete and publicly available. The same is not true for tactical herbicides sprayed by the Republic of Vietnam (RV) during the Khai Quang program which was supported by the U.S. Army, U.S. Navy and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the Mekong Delta. Agent Blue was sprayed by the RV military for three years before the official start of the American-Vietnam War. Few, if any, RV military, US Army, US Navy and CIA spray records exist from 1962 to 1965. Vietnam War veterans, historians and scholars have reported the spraying of 3.2 million liters (468,008 kg As) of Agent Blue on rice paddies and mangrove forests in the Mekong Delta and Central Highlands by the RV military with the support of the US Army, US Navy and CIA. The Institute of Medicine estimated that 3.2 million liters (468,000 kg As) were sprayed during the RV Khai Quang program. This was in addition to the U.S. Air Force’s Operation Ranch Hand spraying of the tactical herbicide Agent Blue primarily by C-123 aircraft. The Operation Ranch Hand missions maintained location and quantities of herbicides sprayed (over 4,712,000 liters (664,392 kg As) from 1961-1971. The RV military and US military (Army and Navy) spray equipment included hand and backpack sprayers, sprayers mounted on Brown Water Navy boats, on Army track vehicles and Army land-based helicopters and helicopters based on the decks of Blue Water Navy ships. Some of these spray missions were a military secret and spray records were classified or if kept were not maintained. Agent Blue containing cacodylic acid had a short half-life and degraded to water-soluble arsenic, which was released into the surface water and/or leached into the groundwater. Once the water-soluble arsenic leached into the Vietnam Mekong Delta groundwater, the arsenic-rich water was pumped back to the surface by tens of thousands of tube wells for urban and agricultural use. The primary objectives of this research are to explore the conditions during the Vietnam War under which 1) the RV military herbicide spray program with the support of the US Navy, CIA and US Army, and 2) the US Air Force spray program during Operation Ranch Hand may have significantly contributed to the natural and anthropic As spikes found in the Mekong Delta today. The environmental impacts of Agent Blue, on the Menominee River at manufacturing sites in the United States, were studied to identify possible As remediation and mitigation strategies. The lessons previously learned at the manufacturing sites in Wisconsin and Michigan, United States can be considered and applied to the Mekong Delta to help mitigate and remediate the arsenic-rich surface water, soil, sediment and groundwater found in the Mekong Delta.
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