Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
ISSN / EISSN : 2451-9103 / 2451-9111
Published by: Elsevier BV (10.1016)
Total articles ≅ 821
Latest articles in this journal
Current Opinion in Electrochemistry; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coelec.2021.100847
Platinum group metal (PGM)-free catalysts are promising low-cost materials for the oxygen reduction reaction in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). A variety of chemical precursors and synthesis methods have been proposed to increase their catalytic activity. In comparison, significantly less attention has been dedicated to the integration of these PGM-free catalysts into operating electrodes by investigating the role of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) fabrication on the PEMFC performance. We discuss here some remarkable performance improvements recently achieved by tuning catalyst loading, ionomer content, and ink solvent composition, and call for further explorations of the ink processing and MEA fabrication to improve performance.
Current Opinion in Electrochemistry; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coelec.2021.100846
CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR), as a promising carbon-neutral strategy, enables the production of valuable chemicals and fuels from greenhouse gas. Despite tremendous efforts in developing CO2RR catalysts to improve activity, selectivity, and stability, mechanisms behind the catalytic performance, however, are still under-explored due largely to limited characterisation capability. In this review, advances of in-situ imaging technologies for studying CO2RR have been overviewed. These technologies emerge as powerful tools to track the transformation of catalyst materials over real-time and space, under CO2RR operating conditions. The review discusses emerging opportunities in the direction of combined in-situ characterisation techniques as well as machine learning to aid further discovery of structure-function relationships in CO2RR.
Current Opinion in Electrochemistry; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coelec.2021.100840
Fabrication of new high-energy batteries is an imperative both for Li and Na-ion systems in order to consolidate and expand electric transportation and grid storage in a more economic and sustainable way. Current research appears to focus on negative electrodes for high-energy systems that will be discussed in this review with a particular focus on C, Si and P. This new generation of batteries requires the optimization of Si and black and red phosphorus in the case of Li-ion technology, and hard carbons, black and red phosphorus for Na-ion systems. At present, Si and hard carbons are closer to their deployment in industry, while new phosphorus-based materials still comprise complicated synthetic methods and need a more thorough study before reaching this final step in application.
Current Opinion in Electrochemistry; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coelec.2021.100837
Alzheimer disease is a progressive age-related neurodegenerative disorder estimated to affect up to 107 million people by 2050, its pathology being associated with the dysfunction of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide mechanism, among others. Electrochemical methods were successfully applied for Aβ electrochemical characterisation, and have received increased attention in Aβ research. This review discusses the recent advances on the direct electrochemical detection of Aβ redox mechanisms, fibrilization, and interaction with metal ions, based on the electrochemical detection of the Aβ’s , and amino acid residues oxidation peaks.
Current Opinion in Electrochemistry; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coelec.2021.100838
Virus infections and parasitic diseases that are often found in tropical countries of the planet represent a large burden on societies in those regions, but are unfortunately rarely studied by electrochemistry. These neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a concerning issue, especially in developing nations, because a challenged health care system often negatively affects the economy. Besides the exploration of new treatment strategies, the development of early diagnostic methods is crucial to attenuate negative impacts related to NDTs. This review highlights the most recent developments of electrochemical biosensing efforts of five NTDs: Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, sleeping sickness, dengue fever and Zika virus infection, which affect a number of American, African, and Asian countries. Special focus is placed on the design and fabrication of geno- and immunosensors, designed as innovative and promising diagnostic tools with the potential of being integrated into portable systems to advance the development of point-of-care devices.
Current Opinion in Electrochemistry; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coelec.2021.100839
This report describes a general method to correlate the features determining the performance of an electrocatalyst (EC), including the accessibility of O2 to the active sites and the kinetic activation barrier, with the outcome of conventional electrochemical experiments. The method has been implemented for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) ECs by cyclic voltammetry with the thin-film rotating ring-disk electrode (CV-TF-RRDE) setup. The method: (i) does not rely on the simplifications associated with the Butler-Volmer (BV) kinetic description of electrochemical processes; and (ii) does not make assumptions on the specific features of the EC, allowing to compare accurately the kinetic performance of ORR ECs with a completely different chemistry. Finally, with respect to other widespread figures of merit (e.g., the half-wave potential E1/2), the figure of merit here proposed i.e., E(jPt(5%)), allows for much more accurate comparisons of the kinetic performance of ECs.
Current Opinion in Electrochemistry; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coelec.2021.100843
Automotive proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stacks need to meet manufacturer specified rated beginning-of-life (BOL) performance before being assembled into vehicles and shipped off to customers. The process of ‘breaking-in’ of a freshly assembled stack is often referred to as ‘conditioning’. It has become an intensely researched area especially in automotive companies where imminent commercialization of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) demands a short, energy efficient, cost efficient and practical conditioning protocol. Significant advances in reducing the conditioning time from 1–2 days to as low as 4 hours or less, in some cases without the use of additional inert gases such as nitrogen, and with minimal use of hydrogen and specialized test stations are discussed.
Current Opinion in Electrochemistry; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coelec.2021.100844
Recently, the synthesis of boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes on different substrates and shapes has reached a promising development stage. Now, these electrodes can also be effectively used to destroy toxic or biorefractory organics in real effluents, such as municipal wastewaters effluents, hospital wastewaters, groundwater, petrochemical effluent, wastewaters from agri-food activities, etc. The results of this mini-review show that BDD is effectively even for such real effluents, allowing removal of pollutants under several different conditions. Nevertheless, further efforts are necessary to reach a wider market, in particular next stages must face the optimization of cell design and the integration of electrochemical system with other water treatment and renewable energy sources.
Current Opinion in Electrochemistry; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coelec.2021.100845
The development of catalysts with an enhanced activity for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) compared to the traditionally used metal oxide catalysts is crucial for further commercialization of electrolyzers. Due to their high surface area and adjustable pore structure, metal organic framework (MOF) based catalysts represent a promising alternative. During OER in alkaline media, the MOF structure can transform dramatically and act as a precursor through decomposition of the organic backbone and/or metal oxide, hydroxide and oxyhydroxide formation, respectively. Hence, operando characterizations of MOF catalysts during OER are crucial to understand the material’s progressive changes and extract the OER catalytic mechanism. This article discusses existing operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of MOF(-derived) catalysts during OER and extracts important parameters for future research regarding operando XAS characterizations of MOFs in alkaline electrolysis.
Current Opinion in Electrochemistry; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coelec.2021.100841
Thermodynamic data indicate that the oxidation of oxygenated organic species originating form biomass instead of water at the anode of an electrolysis cell should allow decreasing the cell voltage below 1.23 V. Bio-sourced alcohols, polyols, sugars, lignocellulosic compounds, and their derivatives are then electro-reformed to produce clean hydrogen at the cathode and compounds at the anode of electrolysis cells. The reported studies highlight the main challenges to make electro-reforming a future industrial process: higher reaction kinetics and hydrogen evolution rate, better selectivity of anode catalysts towards the formation of CO2 or added-value compounds, and utilization of non-strategical metals. An attractive solution to decrease hydrogen production costs and to make bankable other economic activities consists in directly valuing wastes from agriculture/forestry (lignocellulosic raw materials) and/or wastes from biofuel industries.