Indian Journal of Science and Technology

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ISSN / EISSN : 0974-6846 / 0974-5645
Total articles ≅ 13,137
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B Iswarya, B Radha
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2410-2419; https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/v14i29.438

Abstract:
Objective: The objective of this work is to enhance Adhoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol for better communication through reliable routing scheme. Methods: In this paper, a reliable path selection algorithm is proposed to find the Most Reliable Path (MRP) between the source and destination vehicles. Reliable Path Ad-hoc On demand Distance Vector (RPAODV) is proposed for efficient route discovery in Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET). The algorithm divide network into manageable group and it maintains Cluster Member (CM) updates handling, Cluster Head (CH) re-selection, Cluster merging. The efficient routing decisions would lead to better communication in VANET. It is made by assigning dynamic and static information appropriately to the variables in process. The dataset used is both static and dynamic which is efficient in when compared with existing protocols. Findings: The finding of most reliable path in the network of VANET is carried out by the proposed reliable path selection algorithm. The algorithm divides the network as various parts that comprise the information of clustering. The clustering is the mechanism of grouping of nodes into clusters. Clusters possess members and head. The cluster head would be the point of initiation of communication and any node can be re-selected as cluster head. The members of clusters would be updated as per changes in clustering mechanism. The uniqueness of the proposed algorithm revealed through easy identification of vehicles to form a cluster, cluster members maintenance, and fast data communication over the network. The proposed RPAODV adds the extra fields for RouteREQuest (RREQ) and RouteREPly (RREP) messages (CH and CM information). It also works out for static and dynamic topology in good manner by the implementation of modified AODV algorithm. The scalability is also taken care by enhancing topology variant. The performance of the algorithm is measured and analyzed with the existing protocols and posted in graphs. Novelty: The simulation results show that the proposed work outperforms 60% than the existing schemes works Cluster-based VANET-oriented Evolving Graph( CVoEG), Leapfrog-Anti-Colony Optimization(LP-ACO) in terms of route reliability (0.11s high), packet delivery ratio (20% high), end to end delay (0.5 saverage), and throughput (10 kbps high). Keywords: VANET; Routing Protocol; RPAODV; Clustering; Reliable Routing; and Cluster message
Rahul Singh, Ram Chandra Singh Chauhan
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2448-2459; https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/v14i29.2293

Abstract:
Objectives: To present a power efficient Universal Biquad Operational Transconductance Amplifier circuit. Methods: OTA (operational transconductance amplifier) based Biquad filter is analyzed using three different simulated tools three different tools (CADENCE, XILINX, ORCAD and MATLAB tools) are used for designing the circuit. The 0.18mm CMOS technique is used using the Cadence tool for plan and reproduction. The same circuit has been implemented on ORCAD tool as well as Xilinx tool. Findings: The proposed Biquad filter improves the frequency response, power dissipation and provides vary of the KHN biquadratic filter circuits it uses minimum numbers of Operational Transconductance phenomenon Amplifier (OTA) to realize an equivalent. The assorted parameters specifically Center frequency, dcgain, Bandwidth, Power Dissipation and Quality issue are all electronically tunable. OTA based Biquad filter is simulated in CADENCE Virtuoso tool. Opamp-RC Biquad filter offers a bandwidth of 425 kHz, pass band gain of zero DB, whereas Gm-C measuring system based mostly filter offers 85MHz, passband gain of zero DB. Over-all power dissipation of the Biquad filter is 4.3mW with 1.8V DC Supply has basing current of 50mA with gracefully voltage 2.5v. by keeping the supply voltage, bias current and load capacitor as 2.5V, 50mA and 10pFrespectively, it has been seen that the power is reduced using the CADENCE virtuoso tool. Novelty : This study presents a Universal Biquadratic filter having less power dissipation. The circuit was optimized for gain, GBP, slew rate, areas, voltage offset, phase margin, power area etc. compared to all the previous filter circuits (OTA GMC filters, OTA type-C filters) designed with the help of OTA. Keywords: OTA; CMOS; CADENCE Virtuoso; Static Power; Dynamic Power; MOSFET
K Packialakshmi, Liji Sara Varghese, K Thenesha
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2420-2426; https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/v14i29.608

Abstract:
Objectives : To assess the reading habits in digital era during COVID-19 lockdown period and to find the association between reading habits with selected demographic variables. Methods: A descriptive study design was adopted among 300 undergraduate students of Chennai, India using three tools such as Reading Attitude Scale, Self-Report Habit Index Questionnaire and Self-structured questionnaire on Reading Habit in Digital Era. The data was collected by using Google Forms considering the surge in COVID-19. Findings: Most of the samples 132 (44%) were reading newspaper during the lockdown. Many of the samples 114 (38%) were using google classroom for their academic activity, 131 (44%) samples were spending 1 to 3 hours per day for academic work. Half of the samples 151 (50.33%) accepted that reading online increases access to information sources. LinkedIn is famous among UG students. The study concluded that the undergraduate students are interested in digital reading during this lockdown period. The undergraduate students spent most of their time in digital reading, and they are connected with their studies during lockdown. Novelty: Many review articles have been published in online learning and related to education. Due to Covid-19 pandemic, many are forced to be away from direct books and started online reading. Therefore, our current review article highlights reading habits among adolescent during lockdown. Keywords: Key Word: Reading Habits; Reading Attitude; Digital Era; Reading Attitude Scale; SelfReport Habit Index Questionnaire; Lockdown; Adolescent
A Gnanavelu, Chennai Manali Petrochemicals Ltd, T S Shanmuganathan, V Deepesh, S Suresh
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2391-2399; https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/v14i29.1412

Abstract:
Background/ Objectives: Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) is a widely used aggregate organic pollutant index in national discharge standards and is one of the critical parameters for water quality assessment. The conventional COD determination by wet oxidative method encounters the problem of chloride interference in water samples with high chloride content. The dichromate reflux method oxidizes 85-95% of organic matter and also 100% of chloride ions in the samples, without an appropriate chloride masking strategy. The standard method cannot measure COD accurately in samples containing more than 2000 mg L-1 chloride. The present study demonstrates and validates a modified procedure for the determination of COD in industrial sample with high calcium chloride content and low organic load. Method: Petrochemical industries manufacturing Propylene Oxide and Propylene Glycol via chlorohydrin route generate wastewater with high calcium chloride content. Due to high chloride content, the standard analysis method could not produce reliable data for COD values with known precision and accuracy. The standard method based on dichromate was modified, with an additional mixing step for a specified time to enhance the chloride masking by mercuric sulphate. Undiluted sample (20 mL) was mixed with the required amount of mercuric sulpahte to maintain 10:1 ratio to chloride content and 10 mL of sulphuric acid at 150-175 RPM for 20 minutes at room temperature to increase the contact time/ chloride masking. Method validation attributes of the modified procedure were assessed and found to be complying with the acceptance criteria. Findings: We developed a modified procedure for the standard dichromate based chemical oxygen demand (COD) determination in industrial wastewater samples rich in calcium chloride. An additional mixing step is introduced in the standard procedure to enhance the chloride masking with mercuric sulphate in samples containing high chloride. The amended procedure resulted in accurate COD values in samples with low organic load, rich in calcium chloride and the modifiedmethod was successfully validated. Novelty: The modified procedure with mixing step to enhance chloride masking was found to be satisfactory for determining COD in calcium chloride-rich industrial effluent. Keywords: Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD); Chloride interference; Modification of standard method; Wastewater analysis; Calcium chloride; Validation
Minendra L Surve, Katraj Pune-Satara Road, Sanket S Unde, Kailasnath B Sutar, Priyanka Dhurpate, Dnyaneshwar G Kumbhar
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2427-2438; https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/v14i29.824

Abstract:
Objectives: To design a blade profile suitable for a micro-capacity wind turbines. To analyze the performance of a new blade profile in terms of lift to drag ratio using simulation software such as QBlade and ANSYS Fluent CFD. Methods: A new airfoil for a micro capacity horizontal axis wind turbine is designed using QBlade software. A 3D model of the airfoil is prepared using CATIA. 2D and 3D CFD simulations of this airfoil are carried out using ANSYS Fluent and the simulation results are compared with those obtained from QBlade. Findings: It is found that QBlade results for the lift to drag ratio fairly match with the experimental results at all values of angles of attack (0◦ to 20◦). 3D CFD results also fairly match with experimental results at lower values of angles of attack (0◦ to 3◦). The optimum value of lift to drag ratio is obtained for the angle of attack of 3◦-4◦. 3D CFD simulation under predicts lift to drag ratio at higher angles of attack as compared to the experimental values. Novelty: The study reports simulation results for an airfoil blade profile of a micro-capacity wind turbine using both QBlade and ANSYS Fluent CFD (both 2D and 3D). The simulation results fairly match with the available experimental results. Keywords: airfoil; microcapacity; wind turbine; lift to drag ratio; angle of attack; CFD
Oliver U Ekwueme, Daniel N Obiora, Francisca N Okeke, Johnson C Ibuot
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2400-2409; https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/v14i29.933

Abstract:
Objectives: To assess gully erosion in parts of Enugu north, Southeastern Nigeria using some geotechnical parameters. Method: The soil samples were collected from different gully point and some geotechnical parameters was analyzed in Soil Science Department, University of Nigeria in accordance with the specified standard procedures. Finding: The assessment of gully erosion inparts of Enugu north, southeastern Nigeria, has been carried out. Soil samples were collected from the four major gully points, at the depth range of 0.5 to 1.0m using soil auger, core samplers and hammer. The soil classification shows that the textural characteristics were predominantly sandy, loamy and clayey. Liquid limit (LL) ranged from 16.67 to 46.89%. Plastic limit (PL) was 33.45% in Igbo-Eze South and 22.38% in Nsukka. None plastic limit were observed in Igbo-Eze North and Udenu. Percentage plasticity index (PI) of 13.44% was depictedin Igbo-Eze South and 9.90% in Nsukka. Zero plasticity indexes were noted in Igbo-Eze North and Udenu. Bulk density test ranged from 1.39 to 1.56 g/cm3. Porosity ranged from 41.13 to 47.55%. The hydraulic conductivity and moisture content are ranged from 8.89 to 22.73 m/day and 7.07 to 31.73% respectively.These results indicate presence of coarse sand, fine sand, low amount of clay and silt in small proportion, loosed soil with low binding materials, instability of soil structure, low moisture content and other bio-activities that contribute to the rate of increase of gully erosion in the study area. Novelty : The estimated geotechnical parameters, including Atterberg limit (plastic limit, liquid limit and plasticity index), hydraulic conductivity of the soil, soil aggregate stability, particle size distribution, bulk density, total porosity proffers solutions to the gully problem in the area. Keywords: Enugu north; gully erosion; geotechnical
Kamakshi Singh, Ramakar Jha
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2439-2447; https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/v14i29.242

Abstract:
Objectives: To assess the impact of urban city Patna on water quality of the river Ganga during pre and post COVID-19 lockdown. Method: A study is done to assess the impact of point and nonpoint source pollution at different reaches of river Ganga for the years 2017 to 2020 (at a stretch of 40 km of a urban city in lower Ganga plains). A total of 450 datasets have been collected from eight river locations and two major drains. The equations of deoxygenation and reaeration coefficient used in water quality modelling have been tested for their applicability in the study area. Findings: Analysis of water quality data collected from 8 river locations and 2-drains for the year 2017-2020 shows significant improvement in water quality variables observed in river Ganga at Patna due to reduction in influx of point and non-point source pollution including floating population at Patna during COVID19 lockdown (March- June 2020). The use of BOD-DO developed by Streeter-Phelps (1925) as Oxygen-Sag curve is still valid, if input variables are limited. However, Camp (1963) and Jha et al. (2007) may be used effectively for comprehensive input data sets. Moreover, the refined model for predicting reaeration coefficient has been tested for the developed dissolved oxygen (DO) model and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) model for pre- and post COVID19 lockdown individually. The water quality maps developed using satellite (Landsat-8) data provides the turbidity levels during pre and post COVID19 countrywide lockdown period and resulted in a significant improvement. Novelty: The study is unique due to water quality analysis during COVID19 and its comparison with previous year data. The deoxygenation and reaeration coefficients values are established for pre-and post COVID period. Also use of Landsat-8 data is used for assessing turbidity for pre- and post-COVID19. Keywords: point source pollution; COVID 19; BODDO modelling; nonpoint pollution
Aswant Kumar Sharma, Dhanesh Kumar Sambariya
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2380-2390; https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/v14i28.1054

Abstract:
A physical system is of higher-order and it is hectic for researchers to understand these systems in higher mathematical form. So, there is a requirement for systematic conversion of higher-order into a lower order. The lower order approximately gives the same result as that of the higher-order by preserving the important properties of higher-order. But the lower order retains some approximation error. Objective: The objective is to optimise the reduced-order by minimizing the integral square error between the higherorder system (HOS) and the lower-order system (LOS). Methodology: For the optimization process the novel harris hawk hunting behaviour is optimized. It is applied to find the unknown numerator by applying the novel algorithm. The denominator parameter is obtained by the Routh Hurwitz Array technique. Finding: The proposed technique is applied on a linear time-invariant single input single output system of higher-order which is randomly selected from the literature. To justify the proposed technique, the result obtained is compared with the result available in the literature. The comparison is based on the step response characteristics of the diminished order with original and result accessed from literature. The response indices such as integral square, integral absolute, integral time absolute errors are also compared. The error gets minimized and results improved as associated with the result presented in the literature. Keywords: Harris Hawk Optimization; Routh Array Technique; Integral square error; step response characteristics; reduced order
Ketan Soni, Kavita Sharma
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2337-2341; https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/v14i28.476

Abstract:
Objectives: To investigate an eco-friendly method to enhance the solubility of Mefenamic acid. The present investigation was to employ these hydrotropic solutions to extract the drugs from their dosage forms, precluding the use of costlier and harmful organic solvents. Methodology: Mefenamic acid was analyzed by using UV Visible spectrophotometer (Model 1800, Shimadzu), and its solubility (poorly water-soluble drug) measured by mixed solvency method. Sodium caprylate solution was used as a hydrotropic solubilizing agent. Findings: The solubility of the Mefenamic acid drug in water was very low at about 0.2 mg/ml and the solubility of Mefenamic acid in the 20% sodium caprylate solution was 10 mg/ml. The value of percentage estimation obtained was from 98.6 (tablet II) to 98.8 (tablet I). This value is obtained near to 100% hence, we can say that the proposed method is correct. Standard deviation (0.173 to 0.346), percentage coefficient of variation (0.175 to 0.350) and the value of standard error (0.101 to 0.202) are also very low to validate the accuracy of the proposed method. Novelty: Mixed solvency concept can be utilized for spectrophotometric estimation of poorly water-soluble drugs from their bulk drug samples to avoid the use of organic solvents that provide a new, economical, environmentally friendly, safe, and reliable analytical mechanism. Keywords: Mixed solvency; solubility; hydrotropic; mefenamic acid; sodium caprylate
Piyush Pratap Singh, Laitumkhrah Nit Meghalaya
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2351-2367; https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/v14i28.1035

Abstract:
Objective: To investigate a novel chaotic system with unique features, its synchronization using nonlinear active control, analog circuit design and application to secure communication. Methods/Analysis: Dynamical tools such as dissipative analysis, instability of equilibrium points, sensitivity to initial conditions, 0-1 test, recurrence plot, Poincare map, Lyapunov exponents, Lyapunov dimension, frequency spectrum and basin of attraction. Synchronization is achieved using modified nonlinear active control technique and analog circuit design, implementation is done in NI Multisim platform. MATLAB and Multisim results are presented to meet the adequate verification of theoretical approach. Findings: A three-dimensional chaotic system with only two nonlinear terms, three parameters and a total of eight terms are proposed. The proposed system has three saddle focus type equilibria. The proposed system is topologically different from Lorenz’s and Rossler’s, Lu’s, Chen’s, and Liu’s families. Such dynamic systems are very few in the literature as per authors best knowledge. The system has basin of chaotic attractors for which first Lyapunov exponent ranges between 2.5 to 3. Frequency spectrum and large positive Lyapunov exponent result comparatively large bandwidth of the proposed systems against some well-known chaotic systems. Chaos, periodic and stable behaviors are obtained by altering the system parameters. Novelty/Application: The proposed three-dimensional chaotic system has significant chaotic behavior and broader spectrum than the six chaotic systems like Lorenz, Rossler, Lu, Chen, BG and Liu systems. Unlike the conventional active control approach, the proposed nonlinear active control does not result decoupled error dynamics. The system has significantly large bandwidth which is helpful in the masking of message signals and enhances the security of transmitted signals during communication. Keywords: Analog circuit design; Chaos; Chaotic system; Chaosbased communication; Chaos synchronization; Nonlinear active control
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