Materials

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ISSN / EISSN : 19961944 / 19961944
Current Publisher: MDPI (10.3390)
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Qingping Jin, Peixia Chen, Yonghong Gao, Aihua Du, Dongxu Liu, Lizhi Sun
Published: 11 August 2020
by MDPI
Materials, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/ma13163533

Abstract:
Mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites degrade under the combined effects of mechanical load and alkaline solution, affecting the service ability and safety of GFRP reinforced structures. In this study, GFRP bars were loaded with cyclic tension at different stress levels and immersed in alkaline solution for days to investigate the tensile properties and degradation law of GFRP bars. The degradation mechanisms were studied at micro-, meso- and macro-scales with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and three-dimensional X-ray microscopy, respectively. The results show that tensile strength and degradation rate of GFRP bars are mainly dependent on the different stress levels and alkaline solution. When stress level is higher, the tensile strength degrades more quickly, especially in the early stages of soaking. With the loading and immersion time, the elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio increase at first and then decrease. The ultimate tensile strain is relatively stable, whereas the ultimate elongation is significantly reduced. A strength-degradation model was proposed and fit well with experimental data, demonstrating that the model can be applied to predict tensile strength degradation under combined effects of the load and alkaline solution.
Bashar S. Mohammed, Lee Yin Yen, Sani Haruna, Michael Lim Seng Huat, Isyaka Abdulkadir, Amin Al-Fakih, M. S. Liew, Noor Amila Wan Abdullah Zawawi
Published: 10 August 2020
by MDPI
Materials, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/ma13163516

Abstract:
This paper reports the findings of the effect of elevated temperature on the compressive strength and durability properties of crumb rubber engineered cementitious composite (CR-ECC). The CR-ECC has been tested for its compressive strength and chemical resistance test against acid and sulphate attack. Different proportions of crumb rubber (CR) in partial replacement to the fine aggregate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber have been utilized from 0 to 5% and 0 to 2%. The experiments were designed based on a central composite design (CCD) technique of response surface methodology (RSM). After 28 days curing, the samples were preconditioned and exposed to high temperatures of 100 °C, 200 °C, 300 °C, 400 °C, 500 °C, 600 °C, 700 °C, 800 °C, 900 °C, and 1000 °C for one hour. Although the residual compressive strength of CR-ECC was negatively affected by elevated temperature, no explosive spalling was noticed for all mixes, even at 1000 °C. Results indicated that CR-ECC experiences slight weight gain and a reduction in strength when exposed to the acidic environment. Due to the reduced permeability, CR-ECC experienced less effect when in sulphate environment. The response models were generated and validated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The difference between adjusted R-squared and predicted R-squared values for each model was less than 0.2, and they possess at least a 95% level of confidence.
Raffaele Cesca, Vera Colombo, Bruna Ernst, Luigi Maria Gallo, Mutlu Özcan
Published: 10 August 2020
by MDPI
Materials, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/ma13163517

Abstract:
Perio-overdenture design helps to reduce periodontal diseases and secondary caries on abutment teeth. Composite copings can be cemented adhesively to the abutment teeth with different techniques. In this study, direct/indirect resin composite copings for perio-overdentures, luted using different adhesive cementation modalities were compared. Human teeth (N = 40) were prepared to receive spherical attachment copings and randomly divided into four groups: (1) resin-composite copings bonded directly (DC), (2) composite copings made indirectly, luted with dual-polymerized resin cement (ICV), (3) composite copings made indirectly, bonded with resin composite (ICT), (4) composite copings made indirectly, bonded with resin composite after the immediate dentin sealing method (IDS). Specimens were tested for tensile failure and one-way ANOVA (alpha = 0.05) was performed and the two-parameter Weibull modulus, scale (m) and shape (0) were calculated. Mean tensile load (N) was significantly higher for Group IDS (238 ± 81) than for the other groups (144 ± 53–184 ± 46) (p < 0.05). Group IDS (0.54 ± 0.25 mm) showed significantly higher deformation (mm) than other groups (0.2 ± 0.1–0.32 ± 0.15) (p < 0.05). Weibull distribution presented lower shape (0) for DC (3.33) compared to other groups (3.57–4.99). Cohesive coping failures were more frequent in Group IDS (60%) and mixed failures in other groups (40–60%). In conclusion, IDS copings could be preferred over other fabrication and adhesion modalities.
Xiao Liu, Lin Wang, Jun Shi
Published: 10 August 2020
by MDPI
Materials, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/ma13163519

Abstract:
Ammonia nitrogen and natural organic matter (NOM) seriously degrade the quality of surface waters. In this study, the optimum preparation conditions of a yeast-chitosan bio-microcapsule of the Candida tropicalis strain, used to treat micro-polluted surface water, were investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the bio-microcapsules. A continuous laboratory-scale reaction apparatus was built to evaluate the engineering applications of the bio-microcapsules and their treatment efficiency for major pollutants in micro-polluted raw water. The yeast-chitosan bio-microcapsules were found to rapidly and effectively remove suspended solids and ammonia nitrogen. Moreover, the bio-microcapsule pre-treatment process was capable of resisting impact loads and fluctuations in water quality. Even at low temperatures (12 °C), the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen still reached 79%. The treatment did not lead to a temporary increase in nitrite concentration, nor to the excessive accumulation of nitrogen. The application of bio-microcapsules is simple; it only requires aeration and certain nutrient substrates, and can be adapted to treat raw drinking water with a poor nutrient substrate, therefore showing promise for future use in engineering applications.
Taek Lee, Soomin Kim, Jinmyeong Kim, Sang-Chan Park, Jinho Yoon, Chulhwan Park, Hiesang Sohn, Jae-Hyuk Ahn, Junhong Min
Published: 10 August 2020
by MDPI
Materials, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/ma13163520

Abstract:
With the acceleration of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the development of information and communications technology requires innovative information storage devices and processing devices with low power and ultrahigh stability. Accordingly, bioelectronic devices have gained considerable attention as a promising alternative to silicon-based devices because of their various applications, including human-body-attached devices, biomaterial-based computation systems, and biomaterial–nanomaterial hybrid-based charge storage devices. Nanomaterial-based charge storage devices have witnessed considerable development owing to their similarity to conventional charge storage devices and their ease of applicability. The introduction of a biomaterial-to-nanomaterial-based system using a combination of biomolecules and nanostructures provides outstanding electrochemical, electrical, and optical properties that can be applied to the fabrication of charge storage devices. Here, we describe the recent advances in charge storage devices containing a biomolecule and nanoparticle heterolayer including (1) electrical resistive charge storage devices, (2) electrochemical biomemory devices, (3) field-effect transistors, and (4) biomemristors. Progress in biomolecule–nanomaterial heterolayer-based charge storage devices will lead to unprecedented opportunities for the integration of information and communications technology, biotechnology, and nanotechnology for the Fourth Industrial Revolution.
Shrikant V. Joshi
Published: 10 August 2020
by MDPI
Materials, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/ma13163521

Abstract:
Coatings deposited utilizing different thermal spray variants have been widely used for diverse industrial applications
Su Jeong Lee, Jun Hee Lee, Jisun Park, Wan Doo Kim, Su A Park
Published: 10 August 2020
by MDPI
Materials, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/ma13163522

Abstract:
Recently, many research groups have investigated three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting techniques for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The bio-ink used in 3D bioprinting is typically a combination of synthetic and natural materials. In this study, we prepared bio-ink containing porcine skin powder (PSP) to determine rheological properties, biocompatibility, and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation in cells in PSP-ink after 3D printing. PSP was extracted without cells by mechanical, enzymatic, and chemical treatments of porcine dermis tissue. Our developed PSP-containing bio-ink showed enhanced printability and biocompatibility. To identify whether the bio-ink was printable, the viscosity of bio-ink and alginate hydrogel was analyzed with different concentration of PSP. As the PSP concentration increased, viscosity also increased. To assess the biocompatibility of the PSP-containing bio-ink, cells mixed with bio-ink printed structures were measured using a live/dead assay and WST-1 assay. Nearly no dead cells were observed in the structure containing 10 mg/mL PSP-ink, indicating that the amounts of PSP-ink used were nontoxic. In conclusion, the proposed skin dermis decellularized bio-ink is a candidate for 3D bioprinting.
Wiesław Trąmpczyński, Barbara Goszczyńska, Magdalena Bacharz
Published: 10 August 2020
by MDPI
Materials, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/ma13163523

Abstract:
Phenomena occurring during the curing of concrete can decrease its mechanical properties, specifically strength, and serviceability, even before it is placed. This is due to excessive stresses caused by temperature gradients, moisture changes, and chemical processes arising during the concreting and in hardened concrete. At stress concentration sites, microcracks form in the interfacial transition zones (ITZ) in the early phase and propagate deeper into the cement paste or to the surface of the element. Microcracks can contribute to the development of larger cracks, reduce the durability of structures, limit their serviceability, and, in rare cases, lead to their failure. It is thus important to search for a tool that allows objective assessment of damage initiation and development in concrete. Objectivity of the assessment lies in it being independent of the constituents and additives used in the concrete or of external influences. The acoustic emission-based method presented in this paper allows damage detection and identification in the early age concrete (before loading) for different concrete compositions, curing conditions, temperature variations, and in reinforced concrete. As such, this method is an objective and effective tool for damage processes detection.
Bartłomiej Konieczny, Agata Szczesio-Wlodarczyk, Jerzy Sokolowski, Kinga Bociong
Published: 10 August 2020
by MDPI
Materials, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/ma13163524

Abstract:
Complex dental components which are individually tailored to the patient can be obtained due to new additive manufacturing technology. This paper reviews the metallic powders used in dental applications, the fabrication process (build orientation, process parameters) and post-processing processes (stress relieving, surface finishing). A review of the literature was performed using PubMed, ScienceDirect, Mendeley and Google Scholar. Over eighty articles were selected based on relevance to this review. This paper attempts to include the latest research from 2010 until 2020, however, older manuscripts (10 articles) were also selected. Over 1200 records were identified through the search; these were screened for title and/or summary. Over eighty articles were selected based on relevance to this review. In order to obtain a product which can be used in clinical applications, the appropriate manufacturing parameters should be selected. A discussion was made on optimal selective laser melting (SLM) parameters in dentistry. In addition, this paper includes a critical review of applied thermal treatment methods for Co–Cr alloys used in dentistry.
Kai Oliver Böker, Frederick Kleinwort, Jan-Hendrick Klein-Wiele, Peter Simon, Katharina Jäckle, Shahed Taheri, Wolfgang Lehmann, Arndt F. Schilling
Published: 10 August 2020
by MDPI
Materials, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/ma13163526

Abstract:
Metal implants used in trauma surgeries are sometimes difficult to remove after the completion of the healing process due to the strong integration with the bone tissue. Periodic surface micro- and nanostructures can directly influence cell adhesion and differentiation on metallic implant materials. However, the fabrication of such structures with classical lithographic methods is too slow and cost-intensive to be of practical relevance. Therefore, we used laser beam interference ablation structuring to systematically generate periodic nanostructures on titanium and steel plates. The newly developed laser process uses a special grating interferometer in combination with an industrial laser scanner and ultrashort pulse laser source, allowing for fast, precise, and cost-effective modification of metal surfaces in a single step process. A total of 30 different periodic topologies reaching from linear over crossed to complex crossed nanostructures with varying depths were generated on steel and titanium plates and tested in bone cell culture. Reduced cell adhesion was found for four different structure types, while cell morphology was influenced by two different structures. Furthermore, we observed impaired osteogenic differentiation for three structures, indicating reduced bone formation around the implant. This efficient way of surface structuring in combination with new insights about its influence on bone cells could lead to newly designed implant surfaces for trauma surgeries with reduced adhesion, resulting in faster removal times, reduced operation times, and reduced complication rates.
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