Materials

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ISSN / EISSN : 1996-1944 / 1996-1944
Current Publisher: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 16,123
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Paweł Strzępek, Andrzej Mamala, Małgorzata Zasadzińska, Piotr Noga, Michał Sadzikowski
Published: 28 October 2020
by MDPI
Materials, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/ma13214805

Abstract:
Constant tendency toward the improvement of the material properties nowadays creates opportunities for the scientists all over the world to design and manufacture new alloys almost every day. Considering the fact that companies all over the world desire alloys with the highest values of mechanical properties often coexisting with a reasonable electrical conductivity made it necessary to develop new materials based on Cu, such as CuMg alloys. However, before such new material may be mass produced it must undergo a series of tests in order to determine the production technology, its parameters and influence on the chemical composition, microstructural properties, and both mechanical and physical properties of CuMg alloys. The research tests have shown that with the increase of the casting feed the Brinell’s hardness of each material slightly increases (by 5 HB2.5/62.5). There is little to none impact of the casting feed on the electrical conductivity, values of which are between 20.6 and 21.4 MS/m (around 40% IACS-International Annealed Copper Standard) depending on the Mg content. The conducted scanning electron microstopy (SEM) analysis has shown that the magnesium precipitations are evenly distributed among the volume of the alloy, however, a significant difference in the density and shape of the Cu + Cu2Mg aggregates was noticed regarding various casting feed. Static compression test proved that these alloys may be subjected to strain hardening as the hardness of the material after compression increases by approximately 40 HB2.5/62.5.
Francesca Lionetto, Anna Moscatello, Giuseppe Totaro, Marco Raffone, Alfonso Maffezzoli
Published: 28 October 2020
by MDPI
Materials, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/ma13214800

Abstract:
Liquid resin infusion processes are becoming attractive for aeronautic applications as an alternative to conventional autoclave-based processes. They still present several challenges, which can be faced only with an accurate simulation able to optimize the process parameters and to replace traditional time-consuming trial-and-error procedures. This paper presents an experimentally validated model to simulate the resin infusion process of an aeronautical component by accounting for the anisotropic permeability of the reinforcement and the chemophysical and rheological changes in the crosslinking resin. The input parameters of the model have been experimentally determined. The experimental work has been devoted to the study of the curing kinetics and chemorheological behavior of the thermosetting epoxy matrix and to the determination of both the in-plane and out-of-plane permeability of two carbon fiber preforms using an ultrasonic-based method, recently developed by the authors. The numerical simulation of the resin infusion process involved the modeling of the resin flow through the reinforcement, the heat exchange in the part and within the mold, and the crosslinking reaction of the resin. The time necessary to fill the component has been measured by an optical fiber-based equipment and compared with the simulation results.
Yasir Kirmasha, Mohaiman Sharba, Zulkiflle Leman, Mohamed Sultan
Published: 28 October 2020
by MDPI
Materials, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/ma13214801

Abstract:
Fiber composites are known to have poor through-thickness mechanical properties due to the absence of a Z-direction binder. This issue is more critical with the use of natural fibers due to their low strength compared to synthetic fibers. Stitching is a through-thickness toughening method that is used to introduce fibers in the Z-direction, which will result in better through-thickness mechanical properties. This research was carried out to determine the mechanical properties of unstitched and silk fiber-stitched woven kenaf-reinforced epoxy composites. The woven kenaf mat was stitched with silk fiber using a commercial sewing machine. The specimens were fabricated using a hand lay-up method. Three specimens were fabricated, one unstitched and two silk-stitched with deferent stitching orientations. The results show that the stitched specimens have comparable in-plane mechanical properties to the unstitched specimens. For the tensile mechanical test, stitched specimens show similar and 17.1% higher tensile strength compared to the unstitched specimens. The flexural mechanical test results show around a 9% decrease in the flexural strength for the stitched specimens. On the other hand, the Izod impact mechanical test results show a significant improvement of 33% for the stitched specimens, which means that stitching has successfully improved the out-of-plane mechanical properties. The outcome of this research indicates that the stitched specimens have better mechanical performance compared to the unstitched specimens and that the decrease in the flexural strength is insignificant in contrast with the remarkable enhancement in the impact strength.
Omid Emadinia, Aníbal Guedes, Carlos Tavares, Sónia Simões
Published: 28 October 2020
by MDPI
Materials, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/ma13214802

Abstract:
The joining of alumina (Al2O3) to γ-TiAl and Ti6Al4V alloys, using Ag-Cu sputter-coated Ti brazing filler foil, was investigated. Brazing experiments were performed at 980 °C for 30 min in vacuum. The microstructure and chemical composition of the brazed interfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. A microstructural characterization of joints revealed that sound multilayered interfaces were produced using this novel brazing filler. Both interfaces are composed mainly of α-Ti, along with Ti2(Ag,Cu) and TiAg intermetallics. In the case of the brazing of γ-TiAl alloys, α2-Ti3Al and γ-TiAl intermetallics are also detected at the interface. Bonding to Al2O3 is promoted by the formation of a quite hard Ti-rich layer, which may reach a hardness up to 1872 HV 0.01 and is possibly composed of a mixture of α-Ti and Ti oxides. Hardness distribution maps indicate that no segregation of either soft or brittle phases occurs at the central regions of the interfaces or near the base Ti alloys. In addition, a smooth hardness transition was established between the interface of Al2O3 to either γ-TiAl or Ti6Al4V alloys.
Reynier Revilla, Donovan Verkens, Tim Rubben, Iris De Graeve
Published: 28 October 2020
by MDPI
Materials, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/ma13214804

Abstract:
Metal additive manufacturing (MAM), also known as metal 3D printing, is a rapidly growing industry based on the fabrication of complex metal parts with improved functionalities. During MAM, metal parts are produced in a layer by layer fashion using 3D computer-aided design models. The advantages of using this technology include the reduction of materials waste, high efficiency for small production runs, near net shape manufacturing, ease of change or revision of versions of a product, support of lattice structures, and rapid prototyping. Numerous metals and alloys can nowadays be processed by additive manufacturing techniques. Among them, Al-based alloys are of great interest in the automotive and aeronautic industry due to their relatively high strength and stiffness to weight ratio, good wear and corrosion resistance, and recycling potential. The special conditions associated with the MAM processes are known to produce in these materials a fine microstructure with unique directional growth features far from equilibrium. This distinctive microstructure, together with other special features and microstructural defects originating from the additive manufacturing process, is known to greatly influence the corrosion behaviour of these materials. Several works have already been conducted in this direction. However, several issues concerning the corrosion and corrosion protection of these materials are still not well understood. This work reviews the main studies to date investigating the corrosion aspects of additively manufactured aluminium alloys. It also provides a summary and outlook of relevant directions to be explored in future research.
Agnieszka Wdowiak-Postulak
Published: 27 October 2020
by MDPI
Materials, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/ma13214799

Abstract:
In recent years, we have seen the construction of numerous good-looking buildings, each of which is perfectly safe, resistant to weather conditions, durable and economically efficient. Apart from their use in the structures of new buildings, natural fibres are even more important in the field of restoring historical heritage. The article presents experimental testing of old wooden beams made of the European larch Larix decidua Mill. with natural defects (knots, natural grain, deviations, cracks and voids) on a technical scale, reinforced with natural fibre. The tests were carried out to examine the response of heterogeneous wooden beams during bending with reinforced basalt fibres (BFRP). The wooden beams were cut out from the ceiling of an old building from 1860. The tests of reinforced wooden beams were intended to determine the increase in bearing capacity and rigidity after providing natural reinforcement. The tests allowed for determining the deflection, the distribution of deformations and images of failure for non-reinforced and reinforced beams. The performed tests have shown the effectiveness of the application of basalt fibres (BFRP) to the improvement of structural properties of existing beams, thus allowing an increase in flexural strength. It can be concluded that reinforcements using BFRP materials can be applied both to strengthening the existing structures with deteriorated mechanical properties, as well as to reduce the dimensions of a structure. Experimental tests have proven that, in the case of beams reinforced with natural basalt (BFRP), their rigidity increases by ca. 15.17% compared to the reference beams.
Mateusz Kukla, Łukasz Warguła, Krzysztof Talaśka, Dominik Wojtkowiak
Published: 27 October 2020
by MDPI
Materials, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/ma13214795

Abstract:
Materials characterized by magnetorheological properties are non-classic engineering materials. A significant increase in the interest of the scientific community about this group of materials could be observed over the recent years. The results of research presented in this article are oriented on the examination of the said materials’ mechanical properties. Stress relaxation tests were carried out on cylindrical samples of magnetorheological elastomers loaded with compressive stress, for various values of magnetic induction (B1 = 0 mT, B2 = 32 mT, B3 = 48 mT, and B4 = 64 mT) and temperature (T1 = 25 °C, T2 = 30 °C, and T3 = 40 °C). The results of these tests indicate that the stiffness of the examined samples increased along with the increase of magnetic field induction, and decreased along with the increase of temperature. On this basis, it has been determined that: the biggest stress amplitude change, caused by the influence of magnetic field, was σ0ΔB = 12.7%, and the biggest stress amplitude change, caused by the influence of temperature, was σ0ΔT = 11.3%. As a result of applying a mathematical model, it was indicated that the stress relaxation in the examined magnetorheological elastomer, for the adopted time range (t = 3600 s), had a hyperbolic decline nature. The collected test results point to the examined materials being characterized by extensive rheological properties, which leads to the conclusion that it is necessary to conduct further tests in this area.
Joanna Thomas, Sagar Patel, Leia Troop, Robyn Guru, Nicholas Faist, Brian Bellott, Bethany Esterlen
Published: 27 October 2020
by MDPI
Materials, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/ma13214788

Abstract:
Several inflammatory conditions of the bile ducts cause strictures that prevent the drainage of bile into the gastrointestinal tract. Non-pharmacological treatments to re-establish bile flow include plastic or self-expanding metal stents (SEMs) that are inserted in the bile ducts during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedures. The focus of this study was to 3D print an anatomically accurate model of the extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBDs) with tissue-like mechanical properties to improve in vitro testing of stent prototypes. Following generation of an EHBD model via computer aided design (CAD), we tested the ability of Formlabs SLA 3D printers to precisely print the model with polymers selected based on the desired mechanical properties. We found the printers were reliable in printing the dimensionally accurate EHBD model with candidate polymers. Next, we evaluated the mechanical properties of Formlabs Elastic (FE), Flexible (FF), and Durable (FD) resins pre- and post-exposure to water, saline, or bile acid solution at 37 °C for up to one week. FE possessed the most bile duct-like mechanical properties based on its elastic moduli, percent elongations at break, and changes in mass under all liquid exposure conditions. EHBD models printed in FE sustained no functional damage during biliary stent deployment or when tube connectors were inserted, and provided a high level of visualization of deployed stents. These results demonstrate that our 3D printed EHBD model facilitates more realistic pre-clinical in vitro testing of biliary stent prototypes.
Tea Mihelj Josipović, Monika Kovačević, Sarah Mateša, Marina Kostešić, Nives Matijaković, Borna Radatović, Daniel M. Lyons, Damir Kralj, Maja Dutour Sikirić
Published: 27 October 2020
by MDPI
Materials, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/ma13214798

Abstract:
Amino acids (AAs) attract attention for elucidating the role of proteins in biomineralization and the preparation of functionalized biomaterials. The influence that AAs exert on calcium phosphate (CaP) mineralization is still not completely understood, as contradictory results have been reported. In this paper, the influence of the addition of different classes of AAs, charged (L-aspartic acid, Asp; L-lysine, Lys), polar (L-asparagine, Asn; L-serine, Ser; L-tyrosine, Tyr), and non-polar (L-phenylalanine, Phe), on CaP growth in the presence of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and calcium hydrogenphosphate dihydrate (DCPD) seeds was investigated. In control systems (without AAs), a calcium-deficient apatite (CaDHA) layer was formed on the surface of OCP, while a mixture of CaDHA and OCP in the form of spherical aggregates was formed on the surface of DCPD crystals. Charged and non-polar promoted, while polar AAs inhibited CaDHA formation on the OCP seeds. In the case of DCPD, Lys, Asp, and Phe promoted CaP formation, while the influence of other AAs was negligible. The most efficient promotor of precipitation in both cases was non-polar Phe. No significant influence of AAs on the composition and morphology of precipitates was observed. The obtained results are of interest for understanding biomineralization processes and additive controlled material synthesis.
Maria Zielecka, Anna Rabajczyk, Krzysztof Cygańczuk, Łukasz Pastuszka, Leszek Jurecki
Published: 27 October 2020
by MDPI
Materials, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/ma13214785

Abstract:
Silicone resins are widely applied as coating materials due to their unique properties, especially those related to very good heat resistance. The most important effect on the long-term heat resistance of the coating is connected with the type of resin. Moreover, this structure is stabilized by a chemical reaction between the hydroxyl groups from the organoclay and the silicone resin. The novel trends in application of silicone resins in intumescent paints used mostly for protection of steel structures against fire will be presented based on literature review. Some examples of innovative applications for fire protection of other materials will be also presented. The effect of silicone resin structure and the type of filler used in these paints on the properties of the char formed during the thermal decomposition of the intumescent paint will be discussed in detail. The most frequently used additives are expanded graphite and organoclay. It has been demonstrated that silicate platelets are intercalated in the silicone matrix, significantly increasing its mechanical strength and resulting in high protection against fire.
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