BMC Veterinary Research

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ISSN / EISSN : 1746-6148 / 1746-6148
Published by: Springer Nature (10.1186)
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Mohamed El-Saied, Magdy M. El-Mahdy, Mahmoud Bayoumi, Reem A. Soliman, Marwa. F. Elsayed, Ezz El-Din Sakr, Mostafa Bastami, Munir M. El-Safty, Mohamed Shaalan
Published: 26 September 2022
BMC Veterinary Research, Volume 18, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-022-03458-3

Abstract:
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an economically crucial respiratory disease of poultry that affects the industry worldwide. Vaccination is the principal tool in the control of the disease outbreak. In an earlier study, we comprehensively characterized the circulating strains in Egypt and identified both CEO-like and recombinant strains are dominant. Herein, we investigated the pathogenicity of two virulent strains representing the CEO-like (Sharkia_2018) and recombinant strain (Qalubia_2018). Additionally, we evaluated the efficacy of different commercial vaccines (HVT-LT, CEO, and TCO) against the two isolates in terms of the histopathological lesion scores and the viral (gC) gene load. A total of 270 White Leghorn-specific pathogen-free male chicks were divided into nine groups of 30 birds, each housed in separate isolators. Birds were distributed as follows; one group was non-vaccinated, non-challenged, and served as a negative control. Two groups were non-vaccinated and infected with the two isolates of interest and served as a positive control to test the pathogenicity. Six groups were vaccinated and challenged; two groups were vaccinated with vector vaccine at one day old. The other four groups were vaccinated with either the CEO- or TCO- vaccine (two groups each) at four weeks of age. Three weeks after vaccination, birds were infected with the virulent ILTV isolates. The larynx, trachea, and harderian gland samples were taken at 1, 3, and 7 days post-infection for histopathological lesion score and molecular detection. Notably, The recombinant strain was more virulent and pathogenic than CEO-like ILTV strains. Moreover, the TCO vaccine was less immunogenic than the vector and CEO vaccines.
, Mohammad Hasan Fathi Nasri, Seyyed Homayoun Farhangfar, Seyyed Ehsan Ghiasi,
Published: 24 September 2022
BMC Veterinary Research, Volume 18, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-022-03452-9

Abstract:
Background: Pregnancy, parturition, and the onset of lactation represent an enormous physiological and hormonal challenge to the homeostasis of dairy animals, being a risk for their health and reproduction. Thus, as a part of the homothetic changes in preparturition period, goats undergo a period of IR as well as uncoupled GH/IGF-1 axis. The objective for this study was to determine the effect of berberine (BBR) during the peripartal period on hormonal alteration and somatotropic axis in dairy goats as well as glucose and insulin kinetics during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). At 21 days before the expected kidding date, 24 primiparous Saanen goats were assigned randomly to 4 dietary treatments. Goats were fed a basal diet from wk. 3 antepartum (AP) until wk. 3 postpartum (PP) supplemented with 0 (CTRL), 1 (BBR1), 2 (BBR2), and 4 (BBR4) g/d BBR. Blood samples were collected on days − 21, − 14, − 7, 0, 7, 14, and 21 relative to the expected kidding date. An IVGTT was also performed on day 22 PP. Results: Compared with CTRL, supplementation with either BBR2 or BBR4 increased DMI at kidding day and PP, as well as body conditional score (BCS) and milk production (p ≤ 0.05). On d 7 and 14 PP plasma glucose was higher in BBR2- and BBR4-treated than in CTRL. The glucagon concentration was not affected by BBR during the experimental period. However, supplemental BBR indicated a tendency to decrease in cortisol concentration on days 7 (p = 0.093) and 14 (p = 0.100) PP. Lower plasma GH was observed in BBR than in non-BBR goats (p ≤ 0.05). Plasma IGF-1 concentration was enhanced in both BBR2 and BBR4 at kidding and day 7 PP (p ≤ 0.05). During the IVGTT, glucose area under the curve (AUC), clearance rate (CR), T1/2, and Tbasal was lower (p ≤ 0.05) in both BBR2 and BBR4 goats as compared with CTRL. Likewise, the insulin CR was higher (p ≤ 0.05) in goats receiving either BBR2 or BBR4 which was accompanied by a lower insulin T1/2 and AUC. Conclusions: Altogether, our results indicated an improved glucose and insulin status along with the modulation of the somatotropic axis and glucose and insulin response to IVGTT in dairy goats supplemented with 2 and 4 g/d BBR.
Mariam G. Ahmed, , Samir Z. El-Zarkouny, Eman A. Elwakeel
Published: 24 September 2022
BMC Veterinary Research, Volume 18, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-022-03457-4

Abstract:
Background: In recent years, researchers have become increasingly interested in developing natural feed additives that can stabilize ruminal pH and thus prevent or eliminate the risk of severe subacute rumen acidosis. Herein, 3 experiments were conducted using a semi-automated in vitro gas production technique. In the experiment (Exp.) 1, the efficacy of 9 plant extracts (1.5 mg/ml), compared to monensin (MON; 12 μg/ml), to counteract ruminal acidosis stimulated by adding glucose (0.1 g/ml) as a fermentable carbohydrate without buffer was assessed for 6 h. In Exp. 2, cinnamon extract (CIN) and MON were evaluated to combat glucose-induced acidosis with buffer use for 24 h. In Exp. 3, the effect of CIN and MON on preventing acidosis when corn or barley grains were used as substrate was examined. Results: In Exp. 1, cinnamon, grape seeds, orange, pomegranate peels, propolis, and guava extracts significantly increased (P < 0.05) pH compared to control (CON). Both CIN and MON significantly increased the pH (P < 0.001) but reduced cumulated gas production (P < 0.01) compared to the other treatments. In Exp. 2, the addition of CIN extract increased (P < 0.01) pH value compared to CON at the first 6 h of incubation. However, no significant differences in pH values between CIN and CON at 24 h of incubation were observed. The addition of CIN extract and MON decreased (P < 0.001) lactic acid concentration and TVFA compared to CON at 24 h. The CIN significantly (P < 0.01) increased acetate: propionate ratio while MON reduced it. In Exp. 3, both CIN and MON significantly increased (P < 0.05) ruminal pH at 6 and 24 h and reduced lactic acid concentration at 24 h compared to CON with corn as substrate. However, CIN had no effect on pH with barley substrate at all incubation times. Conclusions: It can be concluded that CIN can be used effectively as an alternative antibiotic to MON to control ruminal acidosis when corn is used as a basal diet.
Matias Aguilera-Rojas, Soroush Sharbati, Torsten Stein, Mario Candela Andrade, Barbara Kohn,
Published: 22 September 2022
BMC Veterinary Research, Volume 18, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-022-03445-8

Abstract:
Background: Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are described as promising non-invasive biomarkers for diagnostics and therapeutics. Human studies have shown that haemolysis occurring during blood collection or due to improper sample processing/storage significantly alters the miRNA content in plasma and serum. Nevertheless, no similar research has been performed in dogs so far. We therefore investigated the effects of different degrees of haemolysis on the levels of selected miRNAs in serum and serum-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) from dogs, by inducing a controlled in vitro haemolysis experiment. Results: The abundance of miR-16, miR-92a, miR-191, miR-451 and miR-486 was significantly sensitive to haemolysis in serum and serum-derived EVs, while other selected miRNAs were not influenced by haemolysis. Furthermore, we found that the abundance of some canine miRNAs differs from data reported in the human system. Conclusions: Our results describe for the first time the impact of haemolysis on circulating miRNAs not only in whole serum, but also in serum-derived EVs from dogs. Hence, we provide novel data for further analyses in the discovery of canine circulating biomarkers. Our findings suggest that haemolysis should be carefully assessed to assure accuracy when investigating circulating miRNA in serum or plasma-based tests.
, , Muhammad Mobashar, Hazem G. M. El-Sayed
Published: 21 September 2022
BMC Veterinary Research, Volume 18, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-022-03451-w

Abstract:
Background: This study evaluated the modulatory effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) supplementations on the productive performance, blood biochemistry, carcass criteria, and meat quality of White New Zealand rabbits reared under hot conditions. A total of 125 White New Zealand male rabbits (body weight, “650 ± 11”, 30 days old) were assigned to five treatment diets: basal diets supplemented with ZnO-NPs at 0, 20, 40, 60, or 80 mg/kg for 60 days. Each treatment was replicated 25 times with one rabbit each. Results: The body weight (BW), BW gain, and feed intake linearly increased with zinc oxide nanoparticle supplements. Supplementation of ZnO-NPs at 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg/kg significantly improved (linear, P < 0.05) the feed conversion ratio compared to the control group. Moreover, supplementation of ZnO-NPs at these inclusions 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the serum cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, and urea compared to control group. The lipid oxidation was lower, and the water holding capacity of rabbit meat was improved (P < 0.001) in rabbits fed on 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg/kg ZnO-NPs supplemented diets compared to control. Conclusion: The results suggested that dietary supplementation of ZnO-NPs (20–80 mg/kg) can mitigate the negative impacts of heat stress on rabbit performance and health. Its supplementation improved growth performance and meat physicochemical properties, and blood biochemistry parameters of White New Zealand rabbits.
Turke Shawaf, Hans-Joachim Schuberth,
Published: 21 September 2022
BMC Veterinary Research, Volume 18, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-022-03446-7

Abstract:
Background: Respiratory diseases are among the most common and expensive to treat diseases in camels with a great economic impact on camel health, welfare, and production. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) has been proven as a valuable sample for investigating the leukocyte populations in the respiratory tract of several species. In the present study, fluorescent antibody labeling and flow cytometry were used to study the immune cell composition of BALF in dromedary camels. Animals with clinical respiratory diseases (n = seven) were compared with apparently healthy animals (n = 10). In addition, blood leukocytes from the same animals were stained in parallel with the same antibodies and analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: Camel BALF macrophages, granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes were identified based on their forward and side scatter properties. The expression pattern of the cell markers CD172a, CD14, CD163, and MHCII molecules on BALF cells indicates a similar phenotype for camel, bovine, and porcine BALF myeloid cells. The comparison between camels with respiratory disease and healthy camels regarding cellular composition in their BALF revealed a higher total cell count, a higher fraction of granulocytes, and a lower fraction of macrophages in diseased than healthy camels. Within the lymphocyte population, the percentages of helper T cells and B cells were also higher in diseased than healthy camels. The elevated expression of the activation marker CD11a on helper T cells of diseased camels is an indication of the expansion of helper T cells population due to infection and exposure to respiratory pathogens. The higher abundance of MHCII molecules on BALF macrophages from diseased camels indicates a polarization toward an inflammatory macrophage phenotype (M1) in respiratory diseased camels. No significant differences were observed in the systemic leukogram between healthy and diseased animals. Conclusions: Collectively, the current study represents the first report on flow cytometric analysis of immune cell composition of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in dromedary camels.
, H. Hodgkiss-Geere, G. R. T. Woods, J. Dukes-McEwan, J. Flanagan, V. Biourge, A. J. German
Published: 20 September 2022
BMC Veterinary Research, Volume 18, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-022-03449-4

Abstract:
Background: In people, the cardiovascular effects of obesity include systemic hypertension, cardiac remodelling and both systolic and diastolic dysfunction, whilst weight reduction can reverse myocardial remodelling and reduce risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease. To date, variable results are reported in studies of the effect of obesity and controlled weight reduction on cardiovascular morphology and function in dogs. This prospective study aimed to assess cardiac function, heart rate variability, cardiac biomarkers and body composition before and after weight reduction in pet dogs with obesity. Twenty-four client-owned dogs referred for weight management due to obesity were recruited. To assess the cardiac effects of obesity, body composition analysis (by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, DEXA) and cardiovascular assessment (echocardiography, Doppler blood pressure, electrocardiography, cardiac biomarkers) were performed prior to weight management. Twelve dogs completed the study and reached target weight, receiving a further cardiovascular assessment and DEXA. A Wilcoxon-signed rank test was used to compare each variable pre- and post- weight reduction. Results: Median (interquartile range) duration of weight loss was 224 days (124–245 days), percentage weight loss was 23% (18–31%) of starting weight. Median change in body fat mass was -50% (-44% to -55%; P = 0.004), whilst median change in lean mass was -7% (+ 1% to -18%, P = 0.083). Before weight reduction, diastolic dysfunction (evidence of impaired relaxation in all dogs), increased left ventricular wall thickness and mildly elevated systolic blood pressure (14/24 ≥ 160 mmHg, median 165 mmHg (140–183)) were common features in dogs with obesity. However, systolic left ventricular wall dimensions were the only variables that changed after weight reduction, with a decrease in both the systolic interventricular septum (P = 0.029) and systolic left ventricular free wall (P = 0.017). There was no evidence of decreased heart rate variability in dogs with obesity (P = 0.367), and no change in cardiac biomarker concentrations with weight reduction (N-terminal proBNP, P = 0.262; cardiac troponin I P = 0.657). Conclusions: Canine obesity results in diastolic dysfunction and left ventricular hypertrophy, the latter of which improves with significant weight and fat mass reduction. Further studies are required to clarify the clinical consequences of these findings.
, Claudia Perea, Josep Estruch, Carlos Solano-Manrique, Carles Riera, Albert Sanz, Enric Vidal, Roser Velarde
Published: 20 September 2022
BMC Veterinary Research, Volume 18, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-022-03454-7

Abstract:
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) due to Mycobacterium caprae is endemic in goat herds and free-ranging wild boars in Spain, causing infections in other livestock or wild animals to a lesser extent. TB infection in foxes is infrequently reported and they are usually considered spillover hosts of TB. Case presentation: A blind, depressed and severely emaciated red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was admitted to a rehabilitation center. After clinical examination it was humanely sacrificed. At necropsy, generalized TB lesions were observed that were subsequently confirmed by histopathology along with a co-infection with canine distemper virus. M. caprae was isolated from mycobacterial culture and spoligotype SB0415 was identified. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of the isolated M. caprae was carried out and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were compared with other sequences of M. caprae isolated from livestock and wildlife of the same area throughout the last decade. Conclusions: This is the first reported case of TB due to M. caprae in a fox in the Iberian Peninsula. WGS and SNP analysis, together with spatial-temporal investigations, associated this case with recent M. caprae outbreaks in cattle and goat herds of the area. The results indicated transmission of M. caprae between livestock and the fox, suggesting that this species may occasionally play a role in the epidemiology of animal TB.
Heba A. Sharawy, Abdelraouf O. Hegab, Engy F. Risha, Mohamed El-Adl, Walid T. Soliman, Mohamed A. Gohar, Reham A. Fahmy, Virginia M. Farag, Kazuhiko Imakawa, Fuller W. Bazer, et al.
Published: 17 September 2022
BMC Veterinary Research, Volume 18, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-022-03444-9

Abstract:
Aim: OvSynch is a hormonal protocol for synchronization of estrus and use of artificial insemination (AI) at an optimal time without adverse effects on the ovaries or uterus. This study investigated the use of noninvasive color Doppler ultrasound to assess changes in uterine and vaginal blood flow during the Ovsynch program for synchronization of estrus and its relation to the pregnancy rates in Holstein cows. Materials and methods: The experimental cows received an intramuscular dose of 10 μg of a GnRH analogue (G1), followed 7 days later with an intramuscular injection of synthetic prostaglandin F2α (P: PGF2α) analogue (500 μg cloprostenol sodium), and given a 10 μg, injection of the GnRH analogue (G2) i.m. 48 h after the PGF2α treatment, and the cows were bred 14-16 h after. Uterine and vaginal perfusion were investigated by performing transrectal Doppler ultrasonography of both the uterine and vaginal arteries in Holstein cows at different time points during the Ovsynch program to determine: peak systolic velocity (PSV), time-averaged maximum velocity (TAMV), the volume of blood flow (BFV), pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI), resistance impedance (S/D) and diameters of uterine (UA) and vaginal (VA) arteries. Steroid hormones were also assayed. Transrectal ultrasonography (TUS) was performed at 32 and 60 days to confirm the pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI). Results: The uterine PSV, TAMV, and PV were greater at the time of the cloprostenol sodium and second GnRH injections (p<0.05) than at the time of the first GnRH injection. The vaginal PSV, PV were greater at the time of the cloprostenol sodium than at the time of the first and second GnRH injections (p<0.05). The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) indicated a high correlation between the uterine and vaginal blood flow and the rate of the pregnancy (p<0.05). The area under the ROC curve was 0.920 and 0.87 (p<0.05) for vaginal and uterine arteries respectively at time of G2. The serum levels of progesterone, estrogen and cortisol were correlated with the P/AI (p<0.05). The P/AI significantly decreased from 43.9 % at 32 d to 35.37 % at 60 d. Conclusion: These results indicate that noninvasive Doppler ultrasonography is a valid method to evaluate changes in the characteristics of uterine and vaginal blood flow in cows during the Ovsynch protocol. Furthermore, vaginal and uterine blood flow are two determinant factors for the higher conception rates in Holstein dairy cows.
, Gabriel Aboge, George Obiero, Angélique Ingabire, Natasha Beeton, Evodie Uwibambe, Phiyani Lebea
Published: 16 September 2022
BMC Veterinary Research, Volume 18, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-022-03430-1

Abstract:
Background: Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) is a positive-sense RNA virus of the family of the picornaviridæ that is responsible for one of the livestock diseases with the highest economic impact, the Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD). FMD is endemic in Rwanda but there are gaps in knowing its seroprevalence and molecular epidemiology. This study reports the FMD seroprevalence and molecular characterization of FMDV in Eastern Rwanda. Results: The overall seroprevalence of FMD in the study area is at 9.36% in cattle and 2.65% in goats. We detected FMDV using molecular diagnostic tools such as RT-PCR and RT-LAMP and the phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences revealed the presence of FMDV serotype SAT 2, lineage II. Sequencing of the oropharyngeal fluid samples collected from African buffaloes revealed the presence of Prevotela ruminicola, Spathidium amphoriforme, Moraxella bovoculi Onchocerca flexuosa, Eudiplodinium moggii, Metadinium medium and Verrucomicrobia bacterium among other pathogens but no FMDV was detected in African buffaloes. Conclusions: We recommend further studies to focus on sampling more African buffaloes since the number sampled was statistically insignificant to conclusively exclude the presence or absence of FMDV in Eastern Rwanda buffaloes. The use of RT-PCR alongside RT-LAMP demonstrates that the latter can be adopted in endemic areas such as Rwanda to fill in the gaps in terms of molecular diagnostics. The identification of lineage II of SAT 2 in Rwanda for the first time shows that the categorised FMDV pools as previously established are not static over time.
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