Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
ISSN / EISSN : 0006-291X / 1090-2104
Published by: Elsevier BV (10.1016)
Total articles ≅ 94,228
Latest articles in this journal
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Volume 563, pp 79-84; doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.05.078
Junctophilin-2 (JPH2) was conventionally considered as a structural membrane binding protein. Recently, it was shown that proteolytically truncated mouse JPH2 variants are imported into nucleus to exert alternative functions. However, the intranuclear behaviors of human JPH2 (hJPH2) and underlying molecular determinants have not been explored. Here, we demonstrate that full-length hJPH2 is imported into nucleus in human cells by two nuclear localization signals (NLSs), including a newly discovered one at the C-terminus. Importantly, unlike the JPH2 N-terminal truncation which diffuses throughout the nucleus, full-length hJPH2 forms nuclear bodies behaving like liquid-liquid phase separated droplets that are separated from chromatin. The C-terminal transmembrane domain is required for the formation of hJPH2 droplets. Oxidation mimicking substitution of residues C678 and M679 augments the formation of hJPH2 nuclear droplets, suggesting nuclear hJPH2 liquid-liquid phase separation could be modulated by oxidative stress. Mutation A405D, which introduces a negatively charged residue into an intrinsic disordered region (IDR) of hJPH2, turns liquid-like droplets into amyloid-like aggregates. Depletion of an Alanine Rich Region in the IDR recapitulates the liquid-amyloid phase transition. The MORN repeat regions of hJPH2 encodes intrinsic tendency to form amyloid-like structure. Together, these data revealed the novel intrinsic properties of hJPH2 to form nuclear liquid droplets, and identified critical functional domains encoding these properties. We propose that hJPH2 droplets could function as membrane-less organelles participating in nuclear regulatory processes.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Volume 563, pp 73-78; doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.05.037
Flocking is a fascinating coordinated behavior of living organisms or self-propelled particles (SPPs). Particularly, monopolar flocking has been attractive due to its potential applications in various fields. However, the underlying mechanism behind flocking and emergence of monopolar motion in flocking of SPPs has remained obscured. Here, we demonstrate monopolar flocking of kinesin-driven microtubules, a self-propelled biomolecular motor system. Microtubules with an intrinsic structural chirality preferentially move towards counter-clockwise direction. At high density, the CCW motion of microtubules facilitates monopolar flocking and formation of a spiral pattern. The monopolar flocking of microtubules is accounted for by a torque generated when the motion of microtubules was obstructed due to collisions. Our results shed light on flocking and emergence of monopolar motion in flocking of chiral active matters. This work will help regulate the polarity in collective motion of SPPs which in turn will widen their applications in nanotechnology, materials science and engineering.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Volume 563, pp 85-91; doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.05.059
In Arabidopsis, ERECTA (ER) subfamily of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) play important roles in cell division and cell elongation. However, the functions of OsER genes in rice are still very much unknown. In this study, sixty-seven TILLING and four gene-edited mutants were identified for one of the three OsERs, OsERL, and used for functional analyses. Results showed that mutations in OsERL led to striking defects in anther development. Compete male sterility and reduced numbers of anther lobes, more severe than knockout mutants, were observed in mutants with amino acid substitutions in the kinase domain. Among alleles with amino acid changes in LRRs, only one mutation in the 16th LRR showed evident phenotype, suggesting a role of the LRR in ligand sensing. OsERL is expressed in shoot apcies, internodes and anthers, and within the anther OsERL is expressed in sporophytic and tapetal cells. Cell biological analyses revealed that mutations in OsERL led to defected periclinal division in archesporial cells in anthers, suggesting a critical role of OsERL in rice anther development.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Volume 563, pp 66-72; doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.05.063
Kin of irregular chiasm-like 3 (Kirrel3), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is expressed in the central nervous system during development and in adulthood. It has been reported that Kirrel3 is involved in the axonal fasciculation in the olfactory bulb, the neuronal migration in the pontine nucleus, and the synapse formation in the hippocampal neurons in mice. Although KIRREL3 mutations have been implicated in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability in humans, the comprehensive expression pattern of Kirrel3 in the adult brain is not fully understood. To better visualize Kirrel3 expression pattern and to gain insight into the role of Kirrel3 in the brain, we investigated the expression of Kirrel3 in the adult brain of Kirrel3-heterozygous (Kirrel3+/−) mice, in which Kirrel3-expressing cells could be identified by the expression of β-galactosidase (β-gal) in the nucleus of cells. The strong expression of β-gal was observed in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb, amygdala, thalamus, and cerebellum. In the hippocampus, β-gal was detected in the dentate gyrus and in the ventral parts of CA1 and CA3, which are known to be involved in the social recognition memory. Within the cerebral cortex, many cells with β-gal expression were observed in the olfactory area and auditory area. In the striatum, neurons with β-gal expression were mainly observed in the ventral striatum. Expression of β-gal was observed in all layers in the cerebellum and olfactory bulb, except for the olfactory nerve layer. Double-immunofluorescence staining of β-galactosidase with neuronal markers revealed that β-gal expression was exclusively detected in neurons. These results suggest that Kirrel3 may be involved in the maintenance of neuronal networks, such as the maintenance of synaptic connectivity and plasticity in the motor, sensory, and cognitive circuits of adult brain.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Volume 563, pp 60-65; doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.05.077
Reversible acylation of lysine ε-amino groups, e.g., acetylation, succinylation, maronylation, and myristoylation, is involved in basic physiological processes such as metabolism, cell signaling and aging. In this study, we developed a novel enrichment method for acylated peptides without the use of antibodies, in which endogenously acylated peptides are deacylated by recombinant lysine deacylases based on the enzyme-substrate relationship and enriched by N-hydroxysuccinimidyl chemistry for identification of the acylated sites by nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis. To demonstrate the validity of this acylomics platform, we used it to identify acylated sites on chemically acylated model protein samples. We also applied it to the nuclei of HeLa cells to identify endogenous acylated sites.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Volume 563, pp 15-22; doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.05.076
Helicobacter pylori infection is a crucial factor in the development of gastric cancer (GC). Molecular therapeutic targets and mechanisms contributing to H. pylori infection-associated GC induction are poorly understood and this study aimed to fill that research gap. We found that the nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor gamma (ESRRG) is a candidate factor influencing H. pylori infection-driven GC. ESRRG suppressed H. pylori infection and cell growth induced by H. pylori infection in GC cells and organoid models In addition, H. pylori infection downregulates ESRRG expression. Gene expression profiling revealed that trefoil factor 1 (TFF1), a well-known tumor suppressor in GC, is a downstream target of ESRRG. Mechanistically, ESRRG directly binds to the TFF1 promoter and induces TFF1 gene expression. Furthermore, TFF1 activation by ESRRG was inhibited by nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)/p65, which is induced by inflammation, such as by H. pylori infection. Our current study provides new molecular insights into how ESRRG regulates H. pylori infection, contributing to GC development. We suggest that modulation of ESRRG-suppressing H. pylori infection could be a therapeutic target for the treatment of GC patients.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Volume 563, pp 98-104; doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.05.051
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer to cause liver cancer related deaths worldwide. Zinc finger protein 746 (ZNF746), initially identified as a Parkin-interacting substrate (PARIS), acts as a transcriptional repressor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) in Parkinson's disease. As recent studies reported that PARIS is associated with cancer onset, we investigated whether PARIS is associated with HCC. We found an increase in insoluble parkin and PARIS accumulation in the liver of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-injected mice, leading to the downregulation of PGC-1α and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1). Interestingly, the occurrence of DEN-induced tumors was significantly alleviated in the livers of DEN-injected PARIS knockout mice compared to DEN-injected wild-type mice, suggesting that PARIS is involved in DEN-induced hepatocellular tumorigenesis. Moreover, H2O2-treated Chang liver cells showed accumulation of PARIS and downregulation of PGC-1α and NRF1. Thus, these results suggest that PARIS upregulation by oncogenic stresses can promote cancer progression by suppressing the transcriptional level of PGC-1α, and the modulation of PARIS can be a promising therapeutic target for HCC.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Volume 563, pp 40-46; doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.05.066
Standard chemotherapy for ovarian cancers is often abrogated by drug resistance. Specifically, resistance to cisplatin is a major clinical obstacle to successful treatment of ovarian cancers. The aim of this study was to develop a therapeutic strategy using natural killer (NK) cells to treat cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancers. First, we compared the responses of ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and its cisplatin-resistant counterpart, A2780cis, to treatment with cisplatin plus NK92MI cells. Although combined treatment induces apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells via ROS-dependent and -independent mechanisms, A2780cis were resistant to NK92MI cell-mediated cytotoxicity. We found that A2780cis cells showed markedly higher expression of immune checkpoint protein, PD-L1, than the parental cells. Although pretreatment of A2780cis cells with cisplatin stimulated further expression of PD-L1, it also increased expression of ULBP ligands, which are activating receptors on NK92MI cells, both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that combined use of cisplatin plus NK cell-mediated immunotherapy could overcome immunoresistance of chemoresistant ovarian cancers.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Volume 563, pp 54-59; doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.05.053
Proteins function through interactions with other molecules. In protein engineering, scientists often engineer proteins by mutating their amino acid sequences on the protein surface to improve various physicochemical properties. “Supercharging” is a method to design proteins by mutating surface residues with charged amino acids. Previous studies demonstrated that supercharging mutations conferred better thermal resistance, solubility, and cell penetration to proteins. Likewise, antibodies recognize antigens through the antigen-binding site on the surface. The genetic and structural diversity of antibodies leads to high specificity and affinity toward antigens, enabling antibodies to be versatile tools in various applications. When assessing therapeutic antibodies, surface charge is an important factor to consider because the isoelectric point plays a role in protein clearance inside the body. In this study, we explored how supercharging mutations affect physicochemical properties of antibodies. Starting from a crystal structure of an antibody with the net charge of −4, we computationally designed a supercharged variant possessing the net charge of +10. The positive-supercharged antibody exhibited marginal improvement in thermal stability, but the secondary structure and the binding affinity to the antigen (net charge of +8) were preserved. We also used physicochemical measurements and molecular dynamics simulations to analyze the effects of supercharging mutations in sodium phosphate buffer with different pH and ion concentrations, which revealed preferential solvation of phosphate ions to the supercharged surface relative to the wild-type surface. These results suggest that supercharging would be a useful approach to preserving thermal stability of antibodies in a wide range of pH, which may enable further diversification of antibody repertoires beyond natural evolution.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Volume 563, pp 47-53; doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.05.067
Biomimetic materials inspired by biominerals have substantial applications in various fields. The prismatic layer of bivalve molluscs has extraordinary flexibility compared to inorganic CaCO3. Previous studies showed that in the early stage, minerals expanded horizontally and formed prism domains as a Voronoi division, while the evolution of the mature prisms were thermodynamically driven, which was similar to grain growth. However, it was unclear how the two processes were correlated during shell formation. In this study, we used scanning electronic microscopy and laser confocal scanning microscopy to look into the microstructure of the columnar prismatic layer in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. The Dirichlet centers of the growing domains in mature prisms were calculated, and the corresponding Voronoi division was reconstructed. It was found that the domain pattern did not fit the Voronoi division, indicating the driving forces of the mature prisms evolution and the initiation stage were different. During the transition from horizontal expansion to vertical growth, the minerals broke through the inner periostracum and squeezed out the organic materials to the inter-prism space. Re-arrangement of the organic framework pattern was driven by elastic relaxation at the vertices, indicating the transition process was thermodynamically driven. Our study provided insights into shell growth in bivalves and pave the way to synthesize three-dimensional material biomimetically.