Reviews of Geophysics

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 87551209 / 19449208
Current Publisher: American Geophysical Union (AGU) (10.1029)
Former Publisher: Wiley (10.1002)
Total articles ≅ 2,215
Google Scholar h5-index: 46
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Latest articles in this journal

E. G. Nisbet, R. E. Fisher, D. Lowry, J. L. France, G. Allen, S. Bakkaloglu, T. J. Broderick, M. Cain, M. Coleman, J. Fernandez, et al.
Reviews of Geophysics, Volume 58; doi:10.1029/2019rg000675

Abstract:The atmospheric methane burden is increasing rapidly, contrary to pathways compatible with the goals of the 2015 UNFCCC Paris Agreement. Urgent action is required to bring methane back to a pathway more in line with the Paris goals. Emission reduction from ‘tractable’ (easier to mitigate) anthropogenic sources such as the fossil fuel industries and landfills is being much facilitated by technical advances in the past decade, which have radically improved our ability to locate, identify, quantify, and reduce emissions. Measures to reduce emissions from ‘intractable’ (harder to mitigate) anthropogenic sources such as agriculture and biomass burning have received less attention but are also becoming more feasible, including removal from elevated‐methane ambient air near to sources. The wider effort to use microbiological and dietary intervention to reduce emissions from cattle (and humans) is not addressed in detail in this essentially geophysical review. Though they cannot replace the need to reach ‘net‐zero’ emissions of CO2, significant reductions in the methane burden will ease the time‐scales needed to reach required CO2 reduction targets for any particular future temperature limit. There is no single magic bullet, but implementation of a wide array of mitigation and emission reduction strategies could substantially cut the global methane burden, at a cost that is relatively low compared to the parallel and necessary measures to reduce CO2, and thereby reduce the atmospheric methane burden back toward pathways consistent with the goals of the Paris Agreement.
Olivia E. Clifton, Arlene M. Fiore, William J. Massman, Colleen B. Baublitz, Mhairi Coyle, Lisa Emberson, Silvano Fares, Delphine K. Farmer, Pierre Gentine, Giacomo Gerosa, et al.
Reviews of Geophysics; doi:10.1029/2019rg000670

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Lei Li, Jingqiang Tan, Benjamin Schwarz, František Staněk, Natalia Poiata, Peidong Shi, Leon Diekmann, Leo Eisner, Dirk Gajewski
Reviews of Geophysics, Volume 58; doi:10.1029/2019rg000667

Abstract:Source locations provide fundamental information on earthquakes, and lay the foundation for seismic monitoring at all scales. Seismic source location as a classical inverse problem has experienced significant methodological progress during the past century. Unlike the conventional traveltime‐based location methods which mainly utilize kinematic information, a new category of waveform‐based methods, including partial waveform stacking, time reverse imaging, wavefront tomography, and full waveform inversion, adapted from migration or stacking techniques in exploration seismology has emerged. Waveform‐based methods have shown promising results in characterizing weak seismic events at multiple scales, especially for abundant microearthquakes induced by hydraulic fracturing in unconventional and geothermal reservoirs or foreshock and aftershock activity potentially preceding tectonic earthquakes. This review presents a comprehensive summary of the current status of waveform‐based location methods, through elaboration of the methodological principles, categorization, and connections, as well as illustration of the applications to natural and induced/triggered seismicity, ranging from laboratory acoustic emission to field hydraulic fracturing‐induced seismicity, regional tectonic and volcanic earthquakes. Taking into account recent developments in instrumentation and the increasing availability of more powerful computational resources, we highlight recent accomplishments and prevailing challenges of different waveform‐based location methods and what they promise to offer in the near future.
Bryan N. Duncan, Lesley E. Ott, James B. Abshire, Ludovic Brucker, Mark L. Carroll, James Carton, Josefino C. Comiso, Emmanuel P. Dinnat, Bruce C. Forbes, Alemu Gonsamo, et al.
Reviews of Geophysics, Volume 58; doi:10.1029/2019rg000652

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G. D. McCarthy, P. J. Brown, C. N. Flagg, G. Goni, L. Houpert, C. W. Hughes, R. Hummels, M. Inall, K. Jochumsen, K. M. H. Larsen, et al.
Reviews of Geophysics, Volume 58; doi:10.1029/2019rg000654

Abstract:The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is a key mechanism of heat, freshwater, and carbon redistribution in the climate system. The precept that the AMOC has changed abruptly in the past, notably during and at the end of the last ice age, and that it is ‘very likely’ to weaken in the coming century due to anthropogenic climate change is a key motivation for sustained observations of the AMOC. This paper reviews the methodology and technology used to observe the AMOC and assesses these ideas and systems for accuracy, shortcomings, potential improvements and sustainability. We review hydrographic techniques and look at how these traditional techniques can meet modern requirements. Transport mooring arrays provide the ‘gold standard’ for sustained AMOC observing, utilizing dynamic height, current meter, and other instrumentation and techniques to produce continuous observations of the AMOC. We consider the principle of these systems and how they can be sustained and improved into the future. Techniques utilizing indirect measurements, such as satellite altimetry, coupled with in‐situ measurements, such as the Argo float array, are also discussed. Existing technologies that perhaps have not been fully exploited for estimating AMOC are reviewed and considered for this purpose. Technology is constantly evolving and we look to the future of technology and how it can be deployed for sustained and expanded AMOC measurements. Finally, all of these methodologies and technologies are considered with a view to a sustained and sustainable future for AMOC observation.
Thomas Pähtz, Abram H. Clark, Manousos Valyrakis, Orencio Durán
Reviews of Geophysics; doi:10.1029/2019rg000679

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Marcelo Chamecki, Tomas Chor, Di Yang, Charles Meneveau
Reviews of Geophysics, Volume 57, pp 1338-1371; doi:10.1029/2019rg000655

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S. Panovska, M. Korte, C. G. Constable
Reviews of Geophysics, Volume 57, pp 1289-1337; doi:10.1029/2019rg000656

Abstract:Paleomagnetic records from sediments, archeological artifacts, and lava flows provide the foundation for studying geomagnetic field changes over 0‐100 ka. Late Quaternary time‐varying spherical harmonic models for 0‐‐100 ka produce a global view used to evaluate new data records, study the paleomagnetic secular variation on centennial to multi‐millennial timescales, and investigate extreme regional or global events such as the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion. Recent modeling results (GGF100k and LSMOD.2) are compared to previous studies based on regional or global stacks and averages of relative geomagnetic paleointensity variations. Time‐averaged field structure is similar on Holocene, 100 ky, and million‐year timescales. Paleosecular variation activity varies greatly over 0‐100 ka, with large changes in field strength and significant morphological changes that are especially evident when field strength is low. GGF100k exhibits a factor of 4 variation in geomagnetic axial‐dipole moment, and higher resolution models suggest much larger changes are likely during global excursions. There is some suggestion of recurrent field states resembling the present day South Atlantic Anomaly, but these are not linked to initiation or evolution of excursions. Several properties used to characterize numerical dynamo simulations as ``Earth‐like” are evaluated and, in future, improved models may yet reveal systematic changes linked to the onset of geomagnetic excursions. Modeling results are useful in applications ranging from ground truth and data assimilation in geodynamo simulations to providing geochronological constraints, and modeling the influence of geomagnetic variations on cosmogenic isotope production rates.
Elvira Astafyeva
Reviews of Geophysics, Volume 57, pp 1265-1288; doi:10.1029/2019rg000668

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Ivan D. Haigh, Mark D. Pickering, J.A. Mattias Green, Brian K. Arbic, Arne Arns, Sönke Dangendorf, David Hill, Kevin Horsburgh, Tom Howard, Déborah Idier, et al.
Reviews of Geophysics; doi:10.1029/2018rg000636

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