Open Journal of Medical Microbiology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 21653372 / 21653380
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 195
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Quispe Pari Jhosef, Yauyo Ramirez, Aquino Almidon, Adauto Mallqui, Ochoa Salome, Rojas Armida, Montalvo Raul, Jhosef Quispe Pari, Ramirez Yauyo, Almidon Aquino, et al.
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology, Volume 10, pp 26-32; doi:10.4236/ojmm.2020.101003

Abstract:
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection whose clinical presentations depend on the human’s immune response. They can range from asymptomatic to rapidly progressive and deadly. There are no data on this disease in our population. Therefore, we have proposed to know the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in population risk groups through a descriptive, exploratory study in the 3 most populated districts of the province of Huancayo. The samples were processed by ELISA method and there were a total of 169 samples, 85 pregnant women and 84 cancer patients. The seroprevalence found in pregnant women was 44.7% and in cancer patients it was 26.2%. Finally, the only risk factor associated with positive serology was the place of origin, having a higher risk for those living in the district of Huancayo and Chilca compared to El Tambo (p < 0.05).
Mubarak Ismail, Abhishek Kumar Verma, Adamu Abdulkadir, Avinash Kumar, Dinesh Kumar Dhawan, Kinjal Bolya, Mayadhar Barik
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology, Volume 10, pp 89-101; doi:10.4236/ojmm.2020.102008

Abstract:
The new coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2 is a new type of virus named as COVID-19. Although, it has few similarities with pandemic flu viruses, the respiratory system and immune system are damaged through the viruses infected the population who has weakened immunity. SARS-CoV-2 spreads when people don’t have the sign and symptoms. This virus COVID-19 appears to spread more easily than the flu, and asymptomatic transmission may account for a greater proportion of COVID-19’s spreader over the World. In inundation of the current understanding, the roles of insect vectors are helping in the transmission of viral pathogens as well and the possible roles of some newly joined insects in the mechanical transmission of COVID-19. We also specifically provide the prevention and control methods related to contamination, disease burden, risk pattern in the family, near and dear to maintain the precision of social distancing and development of the immune system to fight against SARS-CoV-2.
Fatima S. Abdullahi, Amin O. Igwegbe, Bello A. Bello, Mamudu H. Badau, Sani Abashe, Imaan U. Igwegbe, Zainab Ali
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology, Volume 10, pp 71-88; doi:10.4236/ojmm.2020.102007

Abstract:
A comparative study of Fungi (yeast and moulds) and their toxic metabolites was carried out on offal and muscles of freshly fried and stored Sallah meats from rams, bulls, goats and camels slaughtered for sacrifice in Danbatta Local Government Area, Kano State, Nigeria. The objective was to determine the effects of frying and four weeks storage at ambient temperatures on the mycological loads of the fried and stored meats. A total of seventy two (72) samples of muscles and offal were collected from six different and randomly selected households that slaughtered and fried any of the four animals during that period. The samples were analyzed immediately as freshly fried, and then stored for a period of four weeks during which analyses were conducted at the second and fourth weeks. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare between the fungal loads and the toxin contents in the stored meat. Results revealed the presence of Mucor, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Saccharomycetes, Penicilium spp and Aspergillus flavus; and that, Aspergillus flavus and Mucor were the highest in the frequency of occurrence among the meat samples. The fungal counts expressed as colony forming units (cfu) per gram of meat, ranged from lowest of 0.43 × 103 and the highest of 5.40 × 103 cfu/g in offal of camels and goats, respectively. The results of analyses for aflatoxins revealed the presence of the four types of aflatoxins namely: B1, B2, G1 and G2, in very few of the samples analyzed. The concentrations, expressed in ppb, were in the order of B1 > B2 > G2 > G1 in the muscles and offal of the slaughtered animals; and the toxins were far below the lethal doses recorded in literature. It was concluded that, the fungal organisms were detected in the fried Sallah meats, but not in significant numbers as to cause health risks to the consumers within the short storage time.
Samah Sabry El-Kazzaz, Ghada El-Saeed Mashaly, Mayada S. Zeid
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology, Volume 10, pp 1-16; doi:10.4236/ojmm.2020.101001

Yutaka Midorikawa, Satoshi Nakamura, Yusuke Wakasugi, Kaoru Midorikawa
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology, Volume 10, pp 17-25; doi:10.4236/ojmm.2020.101002

Abstract:
Background: The symbiotic relationship between E. coli and Salmonella was demonstrated using hydrogen sulfide production named MY phenomenon, which is a feature of Salmonella. Methods: In order to confirm the hydrogen sulfide production of Salmonella by iron sulfide formation, deoxycholate-hydrogen sulfate-lactose agar medium having both a sulfur source and an iron source was used. The case where Salmonella was cultured alone was compared with the case co-cultured with E. coli. In the case of culture with Salmonella alone, the MY phenomenon has not occurred. When Salmonella was co-cultured with E. coli, Salmonella cultured near E. coli existing place showed a black color named MY phenomenon. When E. coli was cultured alone, it turned red due to the organic acid produced. However, when E. coli was cultured in the part where Salmonella. is inoculated on the surface of the medium, the MY phenomenon appeared there. Furthermore, hydrogen sulfide production was more active in Salmonella co-existing with E. coli. Conclusion: The study shows an important relation that E. coli is a promoting factor for Salmonella culture by NY phenomenon. The relation suggests that bacterial symbiosis relation exist in bacterial flora.
Emilia Enjema Lyonga Mbamyah, Michel Toukam, Marie-Claire Okomo Assoumou, Anthony M. Smith, Celine Nkenfou, Hortense Kamga Gonsu, Anicette Chafa Betbeui, Martha Tongo Mesembe, Agnes Bedie Eyoh, George Mondinde Ikomey, et al.
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology, Volume 10, pp 33-45; doi:10.4236/ojmm.2020.102004

Abstract:
Background: Enterobacteriaceae causes many types of infections which are often treated with quinolones and fluoroquinolone (Q/FQ). The resistance mechanisms to Q/FQ are usually associated with mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region which alter the conformation of target amino acid residues within the protein and in the qnr genes. This study aimed at determining the antimicrobial resistant profile of a sample of Enterobacteriaceae from Cameroon and the genetic diversity in quinolone-resistant isolates in view of implementing a better management, treatment, control and prevention of the transmission of these resistant strains. Methods: Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using VITEK 2. The detection of plamid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes was carried out using the conventional PCR method. Sequencing was done using the Applied Biosystem 3500 genetic analyser. DNA fingerprint was obtained using Pulsed-Field Gel electrophoresis. Results: Among 440 Enterobacteriaceae, the most prevalent genera were: Escherichia 178/440 (39.5%); Klebsiella 148/440 (33.6%); Enterobacter 35/440 (8%); Pantoea 28/440 (6.4%); Proteus 14/440 (3.2%) Salmonella 13/440 (3%). Ampicillin resistance showed the highest prevalence with 371/440 (81%) and Imipenem the lowest resistance 9/440 (2.1%). The ciprofloxacin resistance rate was 161/440 (36.6%). The detected plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes were: qnrA, 2/161 (1.2%); qnrB, 31/161 (19.3%); qnrS, 13/161 (8.1%): Aac (6')Ib-cr, 84/161 (52.2%) and qepA, 3/161 (1.9%). There were several mutations in the parC gene of Klebsiella leading to S80D and S80N substitutions. Two pairs of Klebsiella peumoniae strains were phenotypically and genotypically identical with 100% similarity in the dendrogramme. Conclusion: This study showed that quinolone resistance was high. The PMQR genes contributing to this resistance were diverse. This high PMQR indicates that there has been an unknown circulation of these genes in our community. To avoid the rapid dissemination of these PMQR genes continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance should be carried out not only in humans but also in animals to monitor the evolution of these genes.
Zinsou Franck Mignanwandé, Roch Christian Johnson, Armelle Sabine Yélignan Hounkpatin, Gratien Boni, Armel Géraldo Houndeton, Eustache Enock Houéto, Wilfrid Hinnoutondji Kpètèhoto, Madjid Olatoundé Amoussa
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology, Volume 10, pp 46-57; doi:10.4236/ojmm.2020.102005

Abstract:
Objective: The present was initiated to study the antibacterial properties of the Crateva adansonii DC extract on germs commonly identified in skin and digestive infections in Benin as well as the reversion of resistance to these aforementioned germs. Method: The bacteria’s sensitivity test to extracts was carried out by the microdilution method in liquid medium as well as the MIC and the reversion of bacterial resistance. For the determination of the MBC, this technique is used coupled with spreading on agar medium. Results: The results show an antibacterial activity of the extract with MICs between 0.625 - 5 mg/ml. The CMB of Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 is 2.5 mg/ml while that of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis CIP 8039 is 5 mg/ml. The reversion of bacterial resistance has shown a synergy of action between our extract and conventional antibiotics.
S. Fakoya, K. T. Adegbehingbe, I. S. Ademakinwa
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology, Volume 10, pp 58-70; doi:10.4236/ojmm.2020.102006

Abstract:
Pleurotus ostreatus was obtained from the wild and evaluated for its antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The antibacterial activities of the methanolic and aqueous extracts against clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli with vancomycine and amicosin as positive control against the isolates were examined using agar well diffusion assay and the zones of inhibition for the methanolic extract varied for different organisms as zones of inhibition were highly pronounced in Escherichia coli having 18.0 ± 1.41 mm followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae of 17.0 ± 0.58 mm then Staphylococcus aureus of 14.0 ± 1.53 mm and finally Pseudomonas aeruginosa 13.0 ± 0.58 mm. While for the aqueous extract, no inhibition was observed in three isolates apart from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in which the zone of inhibition was just 8.0 ± 1.00 mm. The total antioxidant activity of aqueous Pleurotus ostreatus differed significantly with total phenolic of 12.55 ± 0.11 mg GAE/g, total flavonoid of 7.22 ± 1.60 mg QE/g, ABTS of 1.99 ± 0.06 mmol TEAC/100g, FRAP of mean value of 5.25 ± 0.25 mg/g and also Pleurotus ostreatus was able to scavenged DPPH in a dose-dependent manner of 0 - 13.3 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect of Pleurotus ostreatus can therefore be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in the extract. Also, the result of the ABTS+ scavenging ability of Pleurotus ostreatus as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) revealed that the extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus has ABTS scavenging ability. The FRAP mean value shows the ability of Pleurotus ostreatus extract to reduced Iron (III) to Iron (II) indicates its redox potential which presents the mushroom a good antioxidant source, suitable for health benefits when consumed.
Mounerou Salou, Kossi Akomola Sabi, Amen Tevi, Koumavi Ekouevi, Sika Dossim, Fiali Lack, Maléwé Kolou, Yaotsè Anoumou Dagnra
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology, Volume 9, pp 16-27; doi:10.4236/ojmm.2019.91003

Abstract:
Introduction: In haemodialysis patients, the risk of acquiring blood-borne viral infections is an important cause of the dialysis’s process. Indeed, viral infections are quite common in chronic haemodialysis patients including those due to viral hepatitis B and HIV. Objective: Determine the prevalence of HIV infection and hepatitis B infection among chronic hemodialysis patients of Togo. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in chronic hemodialysis patients of Togo from January 1st to December 31st, 2016. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected. Antigen HBs was screened by a rapid immunochromatographic test (SD BIOLINE® HBsAg), and HIV antibodies were detected using a combination of 2 rapid diagnostic test, SD BIOLINE® HIV-1/2 (first step) and TRIDOT test (second step). Results: During the study period, 95 subjects were included. Patient’s age was ranking from 13 to 80 years with a mean of 46.6 years. The sex-ratio (M/F) was 1.8 and a duration average of dialysis was 51.7 months. The aetiologies of the chronic endstage kidney failure were related respectively to a vascular renal disease for 42.1% of the patients, glomerular nephropaty for 34.74%, interstitial nephropaty for 9.47% and hereditary for 3.16%. For 10.53% of the patients, the initial renal disease remained indefinite. Prevalence of antigen HBs and HIV antibodies were respectively 10.5% and 7.4%. The frequency of co-infection HBV and HIV was 1.1%. Conclusion: The rates of HBV infection and HIV infection remain high in chronic hemodialysis in Togo, somewhat which is linked to an endemic aspect of these two viruses in the country. The type of initial renal disease (glomerular) and the vascular way (the central catheters) established the risk factors for the HIV infection while for the infection of HVB no factor was incriminated.
O. C. Adekunle, A. A. Onilude, T. O. Sanusi
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology, Volume 9, pp 8-15; doi:10.4236/ojmm.2019.91002

Abstract:
Death of infants from diarrhoea is a common occurrence in sub-Saharan Africa. This is attributed to unhygienic practices which aid the proliferation of diarrhoea-causing microorganisms. Among these microorganisms, Cam- pylobacter species have been reported as one of the causal agents, Campylobacter spp. are human intestinal pathogens of global importance and their pathogenicity mechanisms are not well understood. This study was designed to investigate the molecular characterisation of Campylobacter gotten from cultural methods in Osun State. Campylobacters isolated were biochemically characterized and biotyped. Confirmation of Campylobacter was done using flaA gene, hippuricase O for Campylobacter jejuni and aspartokinase gene for Campylobacter coli and single locus sequencing glnA gene were performed by PCR. Twenty five samples were amplified by PCR out of 57 Campylobacter strains that were positive for cultural methods from 815 stool samples with diarrhoea and 100 stool samples without diarrhoea. No Campylobacter was isolated from stools of children in the control group. Twenty-five isolates comprising of 18 Campylobater jejuni and 7 C. coli were identified. The nucleotide sequence of the gln A for all the isolated Campylobacter spp. showed 91.0% similarity with the ones in the GenBank. The C. jejuni was classified into biotypes I (44.4%) and II (55.6%) and all C. coli were of biotype I.
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