Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy
ISSN / EISSN : 1750-6204 / 1750-6204
Published by: Emerald (10.1108)
Total articles ≅ 540
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 30 September 2022
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-04-2022-0059
Purpose: Women entrepreneurs contribute significantly to Asian economies. However, women in this region face an alarming array of barriers to entrepreneurship. This research study aims to examine the factors, i.e. government support, family social support, financial literacy and managerial skills, in building the entrepreneurial capacity of women entrepreneurs under the lens of the person–environment (P-E) fit theory. Furthermore, the study also examines the moderating effect of socio-cultural barriers in the said relationships. Design/methodology/approach: For the study, the data was collected from the owners of 311 women-owned manufacturing and services sector enterprises from the northern Indian community. Findings: Findings suggest that all the factors significantly affect the entrepreneurial capacity of women entrepreneurs, and the barriers work as a moderator between the relationships. Originality/value: Based on P-E fit theory, this unique research study proposes a model to test the role of factors such as government support, family social support, financial literacy and managerial skills in developing women entrepreneurs’ entrepreneurial capacity along with examining the moderating role of socio-cultural factors contributing to the entrepreneurial capacity of women.
Published: 19 September 2022
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-06-2022-0090
Purpose: Altruism has an important place in shaping a healthy and developed society for the present and the future. Altruism refers to exhibiting good behavior that does not expect a reward in return. The fact that female entrepreneurs have busy working and private lives and try to be individuals who add value to life while striving for success in this intense tempo increases the investigation of altruism. This study aims to examine the differences in altruistic behaviors of female entrepreneurs according to demographic variables. Design/methodology/approach: The research sample consists of 120 female entrepreneurs belonging to the Turkish community in Kosovo. T-test and one-way ANOVA analysis were applied to examine the difference between altruism and demographic characteristics. Findings: This study determined that age and work experience influence altruism. Female entrepreneurs in the age group of 31+ had higher altruism scores than female entrepreneurs in the 21–24 and 25–30 age group. Additionally, it has been revealed that female entrepreneurs with 10 or more years of work experience have higher altruism scores than female entrepreneurs with under 1 year and 1–3 years of work experience. Findings also demonstrated that marital status, education level and income do not influence female entrepreneurs’ altruistic behaviors. Research limitations/implications: Results obtained from the research are limited to the responses given by the participants to the survey used within the scope of the research. Originality/value: As Turkish women are small community living in the country, it was interesting to see that apart from their entrepreneurial spirit do they also have altruistic behavior and how this behavior differs among different demographic characteristics. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this research will contribute to the literature as no similar study was done before.
Published: 31 August 2022
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-05-2022-0073
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the multinational oil companies’ (MOCs) corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in Nigeria. Its special focus is to investigate the impact of the global memorandum of understanding (GMoU) on women’s involvement in rural labour market in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: This paper adopts a survey research technique, aimed at gathering information from a representative sample of the population, as it is essentially cross-sectional, describing and interpreting the current situation. A total of 768 respondents were sampled across the rural areas of the Niger Delta region. Findings: The results from the use of a combined propensity score matching and logit model indicate that CSR of the MOCs using GMoU model has recorded little but significant success in improving women’s participation in the labour market by freeing women’s time through labour-saving technologies and the provision of public services, raising women’s capital through education, eliminating discriminatory employment practices and capitalizing on public works programmes. Practical implications: This suggest that the underlining causes of gender inequality in rural labour markets are institutional, including both social norms and the structure of labour market organizations, and can be holistically tackled through CSR programmes, government policies and building the strength of women in labour organizations. Social implications: This implies that reducing rural poverty requires not just the barriers to women’s participation in decent employment but also aiming for a policy that helps to change people’s perceptions of what is possible, beneficial and fair; fosters cooperative action; and strengthens women’s bargaining power in the work place, the home and the market place. Originality/value: This research contributes to the gender debate in agriculture from a CSR perspective in developing countries and rationale for demands for social project by host communities. It concludes that business has an obligation to help in solving problems of public concern.
Published: 30 August 2022
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-06-2022-0091
Purpose: This paper aims to add to the theorization of family dynamics and women’s entrepreneurship by examining women’s influence on decision-making in family businesses. Business decisions in family firms, in particular, are not free from family influence in terms of goals and strategies, and the role of women in decision-making processes is of particular interest. Consequently, the role of women entrepreneurs in family firms and their influence on business development requires a more fine-grained analysis of the family dynamic within the family and the business. Design/methodology/approach: This study draws on a qualitative study and focuses on the life story narratives of nine women in rural family businesses in rural communities of Småland province in Sweden to empirically examine the decision-making processes. This region is known both for its entrepreneurial culture and traditional gender order. Based on the narrative accounts of women entrepreneurs in family businesses, the data analysis method is thematic, using a Gioia-inspired method. Findings: The complexity of decision-making in rural family firms is further complicated in part due to a closeness with the rural community. Thus, a typology of three decision-making modes in family firms emerges an informal family-oriented mode, a semistructured family/employee consensus mode and a formal board mode with at least one nonfamily member. Moreover, the advantages, disadvantages and strategies that women use to influence decisions within the respective mode are outlined. Originality/value: This work contributes to the study of women’s agency and its implications in family business and entrepreneurship in the rural context. The study implies that women’s agency shapes the (rural) entrepreneurship context and, likewise, the (rural) entrepreneurship context influences women’s agency. Hence, the author challenges the view of women as only caregivers and sheds light on the practices and processes behind the scenes of entrepreneurial family businesses.
Published: 19 August 2022
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-02-2022-0022
Purpose: According to the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy, there are 7,275 indigenous tourism enterprises in Indonesia. However, only 0.5% of these are certified as a sustainable tourism village. One of them is the Karangrejo village in Borobudur, Indonesia. This village is able to sustain their enterprise, which is a unique and rare context. This study aims to address this gap by examining the sense of place value created from the collaboration between actors, mapping the actors and their resources who have crucial roles in indigenous tourism enterprise, and examining the relations between actors, mapping the characteristics and efforts made by the indigenous tourism enterprise. The novelty of this research is the unique context that it takes place, and the use of comprehensive theoretical perspectives combining architecture, sociological social psychology and marketing/business theories in tourism context, which is uncommon for research in this area. Design/methodology/approach: Participants in this study were 17 individuals, comprising Village Chief, accompanying state-owned enterprises, tourists, owners of micro, small and medium enterprises, village economic center manager and village-owned enterprises manager. Data were collected from interviews and field recordings using purposive sampling technique. The study design was a case study. The data were coded in two steps: first cycle and second cycle coding. Member checking with research participants was conducted to ensure data credibility. Findings: This study revealed several novel findings. First, sense of place value was not merely perceived as material and nonmaterial components, but also as networks between actors that were involved in creating such components within (value) exchange framework. Second, the actors involved in the exchange were provider actor, external supporter actor, internal supporter actor, collaborator actor and consumer actor. Each of these actors owned one or a combination of material and nonmaterial values that are exchangeable. Mapping of the actors involved was discussed using a combined perspective of consumer-centric and balanced network. Third, exchange relations that occurred between actors could be balanced or imbalanced, depending on the amount of resource owned by each actor. Nonetheless, imbalanced relations because of discrepancies in the value contributions could still have positive impact because it was motivated by the intention to help others. Fourth, this study identified the importance of having characteristics as resource integrator/gatherer for indigenous tourism enterprise (provider actor) to ensure the economic sustainability of their business. Research limitations/implications: This study was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic, where governments imposed strict travel restrictions. Consequently, data from tourists were limited in particular, the lack of perspectives from international tourists. During the data collection, the government were still limiting international travelers to visit the country, hence only domestic tourists were able to visit. The perspectives of international tourists would have added valuable data. Because of pandemic, the data collection process was initially conducted online, which was then followed by in-person data collection. Online data collection is common in research; however, in-person data collection would have been more preferred, where possible, so that the researchers could directly observe the situation in context. Future research could be conducted after the pandemic ends. Furthermore, findings of this research asserted the importance of actors’ motives, situations, quality of the values and relational attributes, but had not discussed these in detail, especially from the perspective of each actor. Future research could address this limitation. Practical implications: Enhancing material and nonmaterial sense of place value would involve multiple actors. Therefore, mapping of the resources owned by these actors as well as their roles is critical. To create sense of place value, synergy between actors is essential and could not be achieved by a single actor. Every actor is influenced by motives and circumstances when interacting with the other actor. Awareness of such motives and circumstances where the exchange takes place is necessary, to ensure that the cultivated relationship aligns with the goals and expectations. As exchange relations could be balanced or imbalanced, every actor also needs to be aware of their position and continuously evaluate it to avoid being constantly in a powerless position. Indigenous tourism enterprise could not singlehandedly provide every resource needed. Therefore, developing a character as a gatherer/resource integrator becomes crucial to gain access to all necessary resources. Currently, there are no tools available for identifying actors, resources and relational attributes. This could be a potential avenue for academics in this area. Further, the government should identify the best practice from the successful indigenous tourism enterprises, not only giving recognition awards or certifications to these enterprises. Originality/value: Findings from this study have several contributions; among others, it discussed sense of place value of indigenous tourism enterprise more comprehensively, as the essential actors who exchange resources were identified. This study also underlined positive power imbalance, which had been generally seen as a negative dynamic. Moreover, this study highlighted that indigenous people, despite living by communal value (non-transactional) in their daily lives, would need to engage in transactional relations and develop resource integrator characteristics to maintain tourism enterprise. Indigenous people have often been seen from their communal side, while their transactional (non-communal) side has been rarely seen.
Published: 27 July 2022
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-01-2022-0019
Purpose: This paper intends to analyze a social enterprise as a case example of fulfilling social missions and achieving financial profitability at the same time. This paper aims to illustrate a business partnership that helps to bridge the gap in business and employment opportunities between megacities and suburban areas and examine value-creating activities that generate healthy income stream for the business. Design/methodology/approach: This paper follows a quantitative methodology in the form of case study. The data are collected through interviews, personal observation and document analysis; direct quotes from interviewees are used to describe the phenomenon. Value chain framework is adopted to analyze company activities and deduce key success factors as well as value creations of the company. Findings: The case demonstrates that social enterprises can be self-sustained financially, which would help them to better fulfill their social missions. Financial profitability can be achieved through good management of production, marketing and sales activities. Besides, value creation achieved through activities in the value chain is not only for customers but also for suppliers – a beneficiary within the social impact created by the case company. Practical implications: The case demonstrates the necessity of establishing strong alliance with suppliers and customers in ensuring business success, which implies that leaders need to equip themselves with good business skills. Entrepreneurship support should include educational and training assistance besides the usual legal and financial support. Social implications: The case provides an exemplary partnership model that helps social enterprises to achieve financial security and social mission at the same time. This model can be applied anywhere in the world to create benefits for vulnerable communities. Originality/value: The case study contributes to the limited understanding of social entrepreneurship in Vietnam, and demonstrates a social innovation in business partnership that helps to diminish the inequality of income and employment opportunities between suburban areas and big cities.
Published: 26 July 2022
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-03-2022-0046
Purpose: Drawing upon stewardship and resource-based view theories, the purpose of this study is to empirically examine the impacts of management committee effectiveness (MCE), member economic participation (MEP), innovation (INNOV) and internal control systems (ICS) on the performance of employee-based savings and credit cooperatives (SACCOs) in Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopted a survey research design. Thus, a structured questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 295 members of six employee-based SACCOs in Nigeria. To test the study hypotheses, partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM), through SmartPLS version 2, was used. Findings: The results show that MCE, MEP, INNOV and ICS have significant positive links with the performance of employee-based SACCOs. Further analysis reveals that MCE has the greatest impact on performance, followed by MEP, ICS and INNOV, respectively. Practical implications: The findings provide practical and managerial implications for members and management committees of employee-based SACCOs. Originality/value: There is a paucity of studies on the impacts of MCE, MEP, INNOV and ICS on cooperative performance. This study contributes to the literature on cooperatives by demonstrating the positive impacts of MCE, MEP, INNOV and ICS on cooperative performance in a single study.
Published: 26 July 2022
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-01-2022-0017
Purpose: This paper aims to explore how Maori entrepreneurs in Aotearoa New Zealand negotiate cultural and commercial imperatives in their entrepreneurial practice. Culture is integral to Indigenous entrepreneurship, an example being tikanga Maori (Maori cultural values) and Maori entrepreneurship. This study discusses the tensions and synergies inherent in the negotiation of seemingly conflicting imperatives both theoretically and practically. Design/methodology/approach: This study reports on a thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews involving ten Maori enterprises of the Ngati Porou tribe on the east coast of Aotearoa New Zealand. Findings: This study finds that depending on their contextual and cultural orientation, Maori entrepreneurs use tikanga to help negotiate cultural and commercial imperatives. The contingency of entrepreneurial situations and the heterogeneity of Maori perspectives on whether (and in what way) tikanga influences entrepreneurial practice appear influential. The authors propose a typology of Maori entrepreneurs’ approaches to explain the negotiation of cultural and commercial imperatives comprising the “culturally engaged Maori entrepreneur”; the “culturally responsive Maori entrepreneur”; and the “culturally ambivalent Maori entrepreneur.” Originality/value: This study proposes a typology to analyse entrepreneurial practices of Indigenous entrepreneurs’ negotiation of cultural and commercial imperatives.
Published: 20 July 2022
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-02-2022-0020
Purpose: The upsurge in global youth migration remains a major concern for policymakers, politicians and academia at large. Given the emerging interests in youth migration and informal jobs in cities around the world, this study aims to establish the barriers limiting the transition of migrant youths, in informal settings, into formal jobs and the consequent impact on their livelihood. Design/methodology/approach: Leveraging the push-pull approach of the functionalist migration school, this study uses a primary research design. A structured questionnaire was administered among 150 migrant youths who were selected across informal settings in Lagos, using a convenient sampling technique. Then, a structured face-to-face interview was later conducted among 40 selected migrant youths. Findings: There is a skill mismatch between the competence of the youths and the requirements of firms in the formal sector, and the migrant youths are largely disenfranchised from opportunities that flow within certain networks. Another critical constraint includes language barrier, ethnicity and religious biases by certain employers. Most migrant youths are economically better off compared to where they came from, even though they are yet to exit the poverty trap. Originality/value: This study critically examined the challenges faced by the migrant youth population in Lagos, Nigeria, in their bid to transition from informal employment to formal employment.
Published: 15 July 2022
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy; https://doi.org/10.1108/jec-12-2021-0175
Purpose: This paper aims to show the pragmatic studies that examine whether novel COVID-19 affects the national and international stock markets and reinforces the existing literature by highlighting the factors that are resultant from COVID 19. Design/methodology/approach: The systematic literature review and bibliometric approach have been used in the study covering 585 selected articles published in journals of high repute from January 2020 to January 2022. The process of bibliometric analysis has been divided into three stages, namely, assembling, arranging and assessing. From the Scopus database, one of the most reliable and authentic database total of 585 records were collected, out of which 12 were specifically focused on communities, and information gathered in the comma-separated value documents design was compared and interpreted based on year, document types, subject area, country and research fields with the help of graphs and pie charts. The study has analyzed fact-based and reliable studies to draw inferences from existing literature regarding the pandemic impacting the financial markets. In the extant study, an attempt has been made to explore the factors that are resultant from the COVID-19 pandemic and affects the stock market performance, which can be further classified into a few common factors by using factor analysis. Findings: It originated from the majority of the studies that the stock market retorted destructively to the upsurge in the figure of COVID-19 cases and fatalities. It also emphasized that the market has reacted differently in comparison to earlier catastrophes such as the great depression of 2008 and the Spanish flu. Various factors such as fear of losing capital, standstill economy, lower valuation, increased mortality rate, halt in business operations, retrenchment, trade war, liquidity issues, panic buying and selling, digitalization, negative media coverage, government interference, financial behavior of investors, hoarding of COVID supplies, promotion of start-up in health-care and education sector, news bulletins, prevention campaigns, use of medical devices and COVID-19 vaccination, etc. have been conferred from the studies that have an immediate consequence on the actions of investors in the stock market. It was further highlighted in the study that the Indian stock market has been less explored in respect of implications of COVID-19 contagion as the majority of studies were based on either international stock exchanges or combinations of varied nation’s stock markets. It was witnessed in the interpretation section that the number of studies is increasing at a fast pace as new variants of COVID-19 are emerging over time. Significant contribution has been done in enhancing the literature on COVID-19 and the stock market by China and the USA. The maximum contribution in this domain has been done in the form of articles in the present literature. Few studies were focusing on communities, so the present study will try to fill this research gap to some extent. Research limitations/implications: This conceptual paper is demarcated by unsatisfactory analyses of writings from multi-discipline to get a comprehensive scope of notional understanding. Furthermore, there is a perchance that some other imperative phenomena or variables that prejudiced trading bustle have not been captured by present reviews of research papers. The influences of other macroeconomic variables should be explored to understand the concrete results of this pandemic. Practical implications: Most of the studies were based on foreign stock exchanges, so there is an opportunity to explore the Indian stock market concerning the implications of the coronavirus pandemic. In the literature, it was examined that short-term studies have been undertaken, which cannot determine the long-term implications of COVID-19. Over time, besides COVID-19, various other factors have started impacting the stock market, so it has become difficult to examine the influence of COVID-19 on the stock market in isolation. Social implications: The study will be helpful for future learnings in the arena of the stock market as it provides vast exposure to the present literature related to the impact of COVID-19 on economic markets. On the other hand, investors will also become aware of factors that are resultant of COVID-19 and will take the right decisions to save their investments in light of pandemic implications. The extensive review of studies will also help enterprising communities to take judicial steps to remain active in the period of economic slowdown. Originality/value: The paper provides significant implications to the investors in the stock market, and it will provide useful insight to improve their returns on their portfolios. The learning from the study will help investors to take fruitful decisions considering the uncertainty during the pandemic period. The inferences drawn from rich existing literature will be guiding enterprises to take timely actions to avoid the situation of loss in the market and adapt new models to ensure continuity of business operations. Different markets had reacted differently, so investors need to be cautious before taking trading decisions.