Journal of Virology

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ISSN / EISSN : 0022-538X / 1098-5514
Published by: American Society for Microbiology (10.1128)
Total articles ≅ 69,324
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Vlad Petrovan, Anusyah Rathakrishnan, Muneeb Islam, Lynnette C. Goatley, Katy Moffat, Pedro J. Sanchez-Cordon1, Ana L. Reis,
Abstract:
The limited knowledge on the role of many of the approximately 170 proteins encoded by African swine fever virus restricts progress towards vaccine development. Previously, the DP148R gene was deleted from the genome of genotype I virulent Benin 97/1 isolate. This virus, BeninΔDP148R, induced transient moderate clinical signs after immunization and high levels of protection against challenge. However, the BeninΔDP148R virus and genome persisted in blood over a prolonged period. In the current study deletion of either EP402R or EP153R genes individually or in combination from BeninΔDP148R genome was shown not to reduce virus replication in macrophages in vitro. However, deletion of EP402R dramatically reduced the period of infectious virus persistence in blood in immunized pigs from 28 to 14 days and virus genome from 59 to 14 days, whilst maintaining high levels of protection against challenge. The additional deletion of EP153R (BeninΔDP148RΔEP153RΔEP402R) further attenuated the virus and no viremia or clinical signs were observed post-immunization. This was associated with decreased protection and detection of moderate levels of challenge virus in blood. Interestingly, the deletion of EP153R alone from BeninΔDP148R did not result in further virus attenuation and did not reduce the period of virus persistence in blood. These results show that EP402R and EP153R have a synergistic role in reducing clinical signs and levels of virus in blood. Importance: African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a disease of domestic pigs and wild boar which results in death of almost all infected animals. The disease has a high economic impact, and no vaccine is available. We investigated the role of two ASFV proteins, called EP402R and EP153R, in determining the levels and length of time virus persists in blood from infected pigs. EP402R causes ASFV particles and infected cells to bind to red blood cells. Deletion of the EP402R gene dramatically reduced virus persistence in blood but did not reduce the level of virus. Deletion of the EP153R alone did not reduce the period or level of virus persistence in blood. However, deleting both EP153R and EP402R resulted in undetectable levels of virus in blood and no clinical signs showing the proteins act synergistically. Importantly the infected pigs were protected following infection with the wildtype virus that kills pigs.
Han Chiu, Hsin-Ping Chiu, Han-Pang Yu, Li-Hsiung Lin, Zih-Ping Chen, Yi-Ling Lin, Ren-Jye Lin
Abstract:
Zinc-finger protein 36, CCCH type-like 1 (ZFP36L1), containing tandem CCCH-type zinc-finger motifs with an RNA-binding property, plays an important role in cellular RNA metabolism mainly via RNA decay pathways. Recently, we demonstrated that human ZFP36L1 has potent antiviral activity against influenza A virus infection. However, its role in the host defense response against flaviviruses has not been addressed. Here, we demonstrate that ZFP36L1 functions as a host innate defender against flaviviruses, including Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and dengue virus (DENV). Overexpression of ZFP36L1 reduced JEV and DENV infection, and ZFP36L1 knockdown enhanced viral replication. ZFP36L1 destabilized the JEV genome by targeting and degrading viral RNA mediated by both 5′-3′ XRN1 and 3′-5′ RNA-exosome RNA decay pathways. Mutation in both zinc-finger motifs of ZFP36L1 disrupted RNA-binding and antiviral activity. Furthermore, the viral RNA sequences specifically recognized by ZFP36L1 were mapped to the 3'-untranslated region of the JEV genome with the AU-rich element (AUUUA) motif. We extend the function of ZFP36L1 to host antiviral defense by directly binding and destabilizing the viral genome via recruiting cellular mRNA decay machineries. Importance Cellular RNA-binding proteins are among the first lines of defense against various viruses, particularly RNA viruses. ZFP36L1 belongs to the CCCH-type zinc-finger protein family and has RNA-binding activity; it has been reported to directly bind to the AU-rich elements (AREs) of a subset of cellular mRNAs and then lead to mRNA decay by recruiting mRNA degrading enzymes. However, the antiviral potential of ZFP36L1 against flaviviruses has not yet been fully demonstrated. Here, we reveal the antiviral potential of human ZFP36L1 against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and dengue virus (DENV). ZFP36L1 specifically targeted the ARE motif within viral RNA and triggered the degradation of viral RNA transcripts via cellular degrading enzymes, 5′-3′ XRN1 and 3′-5′ RNA exosome. These findings provide mechanistic insights into how human ZFP36L1 serves as a host antiviral factor to restrict flavivirus replication.
Biju George, Pratik Dave, Priya Rani, Padmanava Behera, Saumitra Das
Journal of Virology, Volume 95; https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.00915-21

Abstract:
A positive-strand RNA virus must balance the availability of its genomic template for different viral processes at different stages of its life cycle. A few host proteins are shown to be important to help the virus in switching the usage of a template between these processes.
Meng Xiao, Yuhai Chen, Song Wang, Shasha Liu, Kul Raj Rai, Biao Chen, Fang Li, Yingying Li, ,
Journal of Virology, Volume 95; https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.00277-21

Abstract:
LncRNAs play important roles in various biological processes, but their involvement in host antiviral responses remains largely unknown. In this study, we revealed that the pseudogene IFITM4P belonging to the IFITM family can transcribe a functional long noncoding RNA termed lncRNA IFITM4P.
Journal of Virology, Volume 95; https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.01264-21

Abstract:
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common cause of congenital infection for which a vaccine is not yet available. Subunit vaccine candidates have failed to achieve licensure.
Kazi Rahman,
Journal of Virology, Volume 95; https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.00680-21

Abstract:
The interferon-induced transmembrane ( IFITM ) gene family performs multiple functions in immunity, including inhibition of virus entry into cells. The IFITM repertoire varies widely between species and consists of protein-coding genes and pseudogenes.
Catherine D. Aimone, Leandro De León, Mary M. Dallas, Joseph Ndunguru, José T. Ascencio-Ibáñez, Linda Hanley-Bowdoin
Journal of Virology, Volume 95; https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.00432-21

Abstract:
Cassava is an important root crop in the developing world and a food and income crop for more than 300 million African farmers. Cassava is rising in global importance and trade as the demands for biofuels and commercial starch increase.
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