Revista de Biología Tropical

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ISSN / EISSN : 0034-7744 / 2215-2075
Published by: Universidad de Costa Rica (10.15517)
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Pablo-E. Meretta, Carlos-Renato Rezende-Ventura
Revista de Biología Tropical, Volume 69, pp 501-513; https://doi.org/10.15517/rbt.v69isuppl.1.46392

Abstract:
Introduction: The locomotion behavior of an organism involves the integration of aspects like body symmetry, sensory and locomotor systems. Furthermore, various ecological factors seem to be related to locomotion characteristics, such as foraging strategy, migration trends, response to predators and competitors, and environmental stress. Objective: To analyze locomotion and the influence of body symmetry in the crawling and righting movements of the sea star Asterina stellifera. Methods: We carried out laboratory experiments in aquariums in the presence/absence of water current and on a horizontal and vertical surface. Results: The speed is similar to speed in other species of similar size. Both the speed and linearity of displacement were independent of individual body size. A water current leads to faster crawling and straight paths, but there is no rheotaxis: streams do not affect locomotion. Speed and linearity of displacement were independent of individual body size. The displacement pattern described here may be an adaptation of organisms that present dense populations in communities with high prey abundance, as is the case of A. stellifera. Conclusions: Like other asteroids, this species did not show an Anterior/Posterior plane of symmetry during locomotion, or righting movement: it does not tend to bilaterality.
Jimena Pía-Fernández, Florencia Belén-Chaar, Lucía Epherra, Jorge-Marcelo González-Aravena, Tamara Rubilar
Revista de Biología Tropical, Volume 69, pp 452-463; https://doi.org/10.15517/rbt.v69isuppl.1.46384

Abstract:
Introduction: Embryonic and larval development in sea urchins is highly dependent on maternal nutritional status and on the environmental conditions of the seawater. Objective: To compare the development of Arbacia dufresnii in two different water temperatures and in progeny with varying maternal origins. Methods: We induced A. dufresnii females and males from Nuevo Gulf to spawn, collected the eggs of each female individually (progeny), separated them into two seawater temperatures (12 and 17 °C), and fertilized them. We recorded the percentage of fertilized eggs and embryos per developmental stage according to time, temperature and progeny. We measured larval growth by total length (TL) and midline body length (M) according to time post fecundation (DPF), temperature, and progeny. Results: Temperature did not affect fertilization, but embryo development was faster and more synchronized in the high temperature treatment. The generalized linear models indicate that embryo development depends on a quadruple interaction between the embryonic stage, time (h), seawater temperature and progeny. Larval growth was faster, producing larger larvae at the highest temperature. Larval growth depends on a triple interaction between time (DPF), seawater temperature and progeny. Conclusions: We found a temperature and progeny impact during embryonic and larval development and, in both cases, these factors generate a synergistic effect on developmental timing and larval size. This probably provides a survival advantage as a more rapid speed of development implies a decrease in the time spent in the water column, where the sea urchins are vulnerable to biotic and abiotic stressors.
Mariana-P. Ruiz-Nava, Carlos-A. Conejeros-Vargas, Francisco-A. Solís-Marín
Revista de Biología Tropical, Volume 69, pp 438-451; https://doi.org/10.15517/rbt.v69isuppl.1.46383

Abstract:
Introduction: Eucidaris thouarsii is a cidaroid sea urchin found from the Gulf of California to Ecuador. Its taxonomy is based on general descriptions of test shape, primary and secondary spines, the Aristotle’s lantern, apical system, and peristome. Objective: To redescribe E. thouarsii with detailed descriptions, adding new taxonomic characters. Methods: We examined and reidentified 792 specimens, measuring and analyzing in detail structures of taxonomic value. Results: The horizontal diameter of the test ranges from 2.8 to 48.45 mm; the peristome corresponds to 40-60 % of that diameter, proportionally bigger than the apical system; the interambulacral areas are four times larger than the ambulacral areas. The variation of the pedicellariae is shown with scanning electron microscopy. The specimens of the Mexican oceanic islands are markedly different when compared to those of the mainland. Conclusions: Eucidaris thouarsii has five well differentiated secondary spines, and also specific regionalization; the apical system varies according to the size of the Horizontal Diameter of the Test; the globiferous pedicellariae have intraspecific differences; and the tridentate pedicellariae are specifically regionalized.
Andrea-Alejandra Caballero-Ochoa, Blanca-E. Buitrón-Sánchez, Carlos-A. Conejeros-Vargas, Brenda-L. Esteban-Vázquez, Mariana-P. Ruiz-Nava, José-Carlos Jiménez-López, Francisco-A. Solís-Marín, Alfredo Laguarda-Figueras
Revista de Biología Tropical, Volume 69, pp 423-437; https://doi.org/10.15517/rbt.v69isuppl.1.46382

Abstract:
Ntroduction: In Mexico, there are two recorded living species of Cassiduloida: Cassidulus caribaearum and Rhyncholampas pacifica. Most of the taxonomic studies on cassiduloids have used external morphology, pedicellariae and morphometric characters; however, the intraspecific variation of quantitative and qualitative characters has been poorly evaluated. Objective: To compare the basic morphology of R. pacifica and C. caribaearum. Methods: We examined a total of 2 158 specimens of R. pacifica and C. caribaearum, selecting 50 to evaluate shape and size with linear regression and Principal Component analysis. We selected an additional 62 specimens per species to identify significant character correlations and morphological groups within species. Results: There is a direct relationship between Test length and Test width. Test height/Test width, and Total length (oral view)/Distance from the ambitus to the peristome apex, are the two main ratios to distinguish both species. C. caribaearum is more dorsoventrally compressed and has a round peristome base; versus R. pacifica has a tall and triangular one. There are four morphological groups of C. caribaearum and two groups for R. pacifica. Conclusions: These two species can be distinguished with reliable morphological characters, in which peristome shape suggests that R. pacifica is more adapted to burrowing deeper into certain types of substratum.
José-Leonardo Chacón-Monge, Juan-Carlos Azofeifa-Solano, Juan-José Alvarado, Jorge Cortés
Revista de Biología Tropical, Volume 69, pp 487-500; https://doi.org/10.15517/rbt.v69isuppl.1.46391

Abstract:
Introducción: El estudio de la diversidad marina del Pacífico Norte de Costa Rica inició con expediciones extranjeras aisladas en la década de 1930, y fue desarrollado sistemáticamente a mediados de la década de 1990 por el Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología de la Universidad de Costa Rica, como consecuencia ahora se reporta un total de 1 479 especies en esta región. Objetivo: Presentar una actualización de la riqueza de equinodermos del Área de Conservación Guanacaste. Métodos: Realizamos muestreos exhaustivos en 25 localidades y estimamos la similitud entre sitios con base en la riqueaza de familias y la heterogeneidad ambiental. Resultados: Encontramos 61 taxa, que representan el 26% de las especies reportadas para la costa pacífica del país. De estas, 43 especies son nuevos registros para el Área de Conservación Guanacaste y siete para las costas de Costa Rica y el Pacífico centroamericano. Tres morfoespecies no coinciden con las descripciones disponibles para las especies del Pacífico Tropical Oriental. Por último, hallamos un ejemplar del holoturoideo Epitomapta tabogae y otro del ofiuroideo Ophioplocus hancocki, considerados endémicos para Panamá y las Islas Galápagos respectivamente. La proximidad entre los sitios muestreados y la redundancia de ciertas familias pueden explicar por qué no se encontraron diferencias entre las localidades. Conclusiones: La riqueza de equinodermos de esta área de conservación es al menos 20% mayor que la reportada anteriormente, alcanzando niveles similares a los de otros sitios de alta diversidad del Pacífico Tropical Oriental.
Jorge-I. Sonnenholzner-Varas
Revista de Biología Tropical, Volume 69, pp 514-549; https://doi.org/10.15517/rbt.v69isuppl.1.46393

Abstract:
Introducción: La acuicultura de equinodermos en América Latina es incipiente, pero representa una nueva frontera para la producción de alimentos marinos altamente nutritivos, con especies nativas de alto valor comercial que ofrecen un gran potencial en comparación con las debilitadas pesquerías bentónicas artesanales. Metodología: Se revisó la literatura sobre pepinos de mar, erizos de mar y estrellas de mar hasta el año 2020. Resultados: Para el 2020, había 17 especies nativas con importantes avances en reproducción, larvicultura, crecimiento, tratamiento e identificación de enfermedades y nutrición en México, Belice, Panamá, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, Brasil, Chile y Argentina. Conclusiones: La acuicultura de equinodermos en América Latina está avanzando y se beneficiaría de los sistemas multitróficos para expandirse y diversificarse, reduciendo la presión sobre las pesquerías agotadas.
Carlos-Renato Rezende-Ventura, Monalisa-Sousa Pinto-De-Oliveira
Revista de Biología Tropical, Volume 69, pp 550-557; https://doi.org/10.15517/rbt.v69isuppl.1.46394

Abstract:
Introduction: Cassiduloids play a prominent role in echinoid evolutionary history because they probably are the ancestral group of clypeasteroids. Some extant species are brooding and rare in the environment. Consequently, there are no studies on their maintenance in the laboratory. Objective: Establish an efficient aquarium system for C. mitis, endemic to Brazil, for ontogenetic studies. Methods: Four aquarium systems were built, with 3 replicates each one: (1) with seawater flow [F]; (2) with seawater flow and air injection into sediment [FA]; (3) without seawater flow but with air injection into the sediment [A]; and (4) without both seawater flow and air injection into the sediment [C]. Each experimental aquarium (three per treatment) had two adults. Each of the two sets of experiments lasted about 60 days. Results: We observed low mortality in the first 30 days in all systems and, after 30 days, it was higher in those with air-pumped into the sediment (system A in the first set of experiments, and system FA in the second one). Conclusions: For experiments lasting 30 days, our four systems are suitable. For longer periods, we recommend aquaria with seawater flow and without air-pumps into the sediment.
Lucas-R. Sepúlveda, Jimena Pía-Fernandez, Mercedes Vera-Piombo, Florencia Belén-Chaar, Tamara Rubilar
Revista de Biología Tropical, Volume 69, pp 464-473; https://doi.org/10.15517/rbt.v69isuppl.1.46386

Abstract:
Introduction: Photoperiod is, together with temperature and food availability, one of the main stimuli in the regulation of gametogenesis in a wide variety of species. Objective: To evaluate the effect of photoperiod on the production of mature gametes in cultured Arbacia dufresnii. Methods: An experiment was carried out with three varying light-dark regimes/treatments: constant light (24 h light), neutral photoperiod (12 h light, 12 h darkness), and constant darkness (24 h darkness). Twenty females were used in each treatment. All were induced to spawn and, ten randomly selected females from each treatment were induced to spawn again after 30 days. After 60 days, spawning was induced in the remaining females. The gametes were collected in filtered seawater, fixed in Davidson solution, quantified and measured per individual in triplicate in a Sedgewick-Rafter chamber. To determine maturation, fertilization success was evaluated 30 minutes after fertilization. Results: Our results showed that in the aquaculture system, after only two months, mature gametes were obtained, and in the neutral light regime there were 10 times more gametes than the number produced in wild sea urchins during the spawning period in question. We also found that with a greater exposure to light, a lower number of mature gametes was produced. Conclusions: This study suggests the viability of the production of mature gametes in a short period of time as regards Arbacia dufresnii.
Brenda-Lizbeth Esteban-Vázquez, Magdalena De-Los-Palos-Peña, Francisco-Alonso Solís-Marín, Alfredo Laguarda-Figueras
Revista de Biología Tropical, Volume 69, pp 404-422; https://doi.org/10.15517/rbt.v69isuppl.1.46381

Abstract:
Introduction. The deep-sea asteroid species of Brisingida have a nearly global distribution but have remained poorly understood due to their deep bathymetric distributions and fragile skeletons. Objective. To describe the external and internal morphology of Midgardia xandaros including the skeletal arrangement, through multifocal and SEM techniques. Methods. We examined a total of 21 specimens, including 27 arm fragments, from the Gulf of Mexico and Honduras. Two specimens were dissected. Results. Detailed descriptions of pedicellariae, abactinal, intercostal, inferomarginal, adambulacral, ambulacral, odontophore, and oral ossicles, and their spines are provided, emphasizing the articulations and muscle attachments. C-shaped valves pedicellariae and small pedicellariae valves with shorter denticulation areas were recognized. Conclusions. The morphological description of M. xandaros is expanded, providing the most extensive description of abactinal, first adambulacral, first and subsequent inferomarginal ossicles, abactinal spines, and C-shaped, crossed pedicellariae, as well as the distal arm plates, for a brisingid species using SEM to date.
Tamara Rubilar, Dana Cardozo
Revista de Biología Tropical, Volume 69, pp 474-486; https://doi.org/10.15517/rbt.v69isuppl.1.46388

Abstract:
Introduction: “Blue Economy” refers to ocean-based economies with a sustainable approach. It focuses in smaller carbon footprints and efficiency, principles that can be applied to aquaculture. However, it has been difficult to develop successful blue economy projects in sea urchin aquaculture. Objective: To compare URCHINOMICS (Norway) and ARBACIA (Argentina), two aquaculture projects with different business models. Methods: We used publicly available information to compare both companies on the basis of their value proposition and tensions (e.g. cultural, social economic and technological). Results: To be successful, sea urchin aquaculture requires development of appropriate technology, open innovation and cooperation of people with different academic, business and organizational backgrounds. Conclusion: The ultimate success of these and similar companies will depend on free interaction of experts from multiple fields and on technological innovation.
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