International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2168-5452 / 2168-5460
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 413
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SHERPA/ROMEO
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Daniel Margain, Rodrigo Arrangoiz, Adrian Legaspi, Vanitha Vasudevan, Amit Sastry, Frank De La Cruz, Jeronimo Garcialopez De Llano, Jennifer Fernandez, Loisani Galindo, Noah Llaneras, et al.
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, Volume 11, pp 91-105; https://doi.org/10.4236/ijohns.2022.112010

Abstract:
Background: Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is one of the most common endocrine diseases and the most common cause of hypercalcemia. Since routine laboratory testing, the prevalence of the disease has increased from 0.1% to 0.4% worldwide. The only curative treatment is parathyroidectomy. Nowadays, preoperative localization studies have become standard before surgical treatment, and the first stage imaging methods are cervical ultrasonography (US) and/or Sestamibi scintigraphy. Objectives: To describe the accuracy of US and Sestamibi for detection of hyperfunctioning parathyroid adenomas preoperatively in patients with confirmed pHPT from our medical institution. Results: This is a retrospective study from a prospectively kept database that included thirty-one patients with the confirmed diagnosis of pHPT clinically and biochemically. The average age was 57.8 years old. Preoperative US and surgery findings were compared with a sensitivity of 51%. Preoperative Sestamibi and surgery findings were compared resulting in a sensitivity of 71%. Both imaging methods combined, resulted in a sensitivity of 80%. Conclusion: In patients with pHPT, Sestamibi is an effective method for localizing parathyroid pathology preoperatively, but the false negative rate can be high. US tends to have a wider range explained by the operator-dependent factor. The combination of US and Sestamibi reduces the rate of false negatives, as reported in international literature. It is important to mention that these studies cannot be used as a confirmatory test for this disease. It should only be used as an adjunct to help plan the operation.
Marius Claude Flatin, Alexis Awc Do Santos Zounon, Cocouvi Bruno Ametonou, Fatiou Alabi Bouraima, Méré Roland Kimba, Spéro Hr Hounkpatin, Wassi Adjibabi, Bernadette Vignikin-Yehouessi
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, Volume 11, pp 56-73; https://doi.org/10.4236/ijohns.2022.111007

Abstract:
Introduction: Presbycusis or age-related hearing loss is a condition of in-sidious onset with significant socio-professional repercussions. The objec-tive of this study was to determine the impact and factors associated with presbycusis among 50 years aged people or older in Parakou commune during 2021. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study with prospective data collection. The study has involved 541 50 years aged people or older, from February to May 2021. For each of them, a questionnaire was completed, otoscopy and tone audiometry performed. The ERSA questionnaire and the logistic regression model were used to determine the impact and factors associated with presbycusis. Results: The mean age was 59.48 ± 9.80 years and the sex ratio was 1.23. The prevalence of presbycusis was 50.28%. Age ≥ 80 years (p = 0.002), male sex (p = 0.016), low educational level (p = 0.001), family history of age-related hearing loss (p = 0.018) and presence of hearing loss (p = 0.001) were significantly associated with presbycusis in multivariate analysis. Of the life domains studied, personal life (mean score = 32.9 ± 10.52) was the most affected. Similarly, communication in a noisy environment (mean score = 4.39 ± 2.39) was the most affected aspect of personal life. Conclusion: Presbycusis leads to an impairment of personal life. A good knowledge of the associated factors and an early management could contribute to the improvement of the hearing health of the elderly.
Amady Coulibaly, Sibiri Traoré, Sory Ibrahima Sidibé, Koniba Diabaté, Youssouf Sidibé, Garango A. Allaye, Mariam G. Diallo, Abdramane S. Maiga, Boubacar Ba, Hamady Traoré, et al.
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, Volume 11, pp 31-38; https://doi.org/10.4236/ijohns.2022.111005

Abstract:
Albinism represents a set of genetic abnormalities characterized by a decrease or absence of melanin. Albinism in the black subject combines white skin and other morphological characteristics of the black race. Squamous cell carcinomas of the face in albinos are a common reason for consultation. Management remains most often complex. The objective of this work was to describe the management of a case of skin cancer of the face in an albino woman. She was a 26-year-old albino woman. She is a housewife and married. She consulted on 02/04/17 for a tumor of the right side. The tumour was about 6 cm in diameter and had been growing for 7 months. There was no palpable head and neck disease. The rest of the clinical examination was normal. The biopsy concluded that there was squamous cell carcinoma. The extension assessment had not found a secondary location. She received an excision of the tumor with a margin of 10 mm and a total skin graft. The trend has been favourable after three years. No recurrence was observed. The management of facial skin cancer should be the subject of a multidisciplinary consultation. Surgery occupies an important place in the therapeutic arsenal.
Worood Husain, Maryam Alderazi, Fatema Alasfoor
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, Volume 11, pp 12-17; https://doi.org/10.4236/ijohns.2022.111002

Abstract:
Foreign body ingestion in children is considered an emergency. The most common ingested foreign bodies are coins; however, the ingestion of disc batteries is on the rise requiring urgent rigid esophagoscopy. In the literature, multiple foreign body ingestion is very rare and only a few cases of multiple coins and multiple battery ingestion have been reported in the past. Herein, a case of simultaneous coin and battery ingestion requiring foreign bodies removal on two sequential endoscopies due to improper initial evaluation in a pediatric patient is reported which, to our knowledge, is the first reported case.
Ghislaine Neuilly Ngniée Tafo, Koné Fatogoma Issa, Samaké Djibril, Timbo Samba Karim, Keita Mohamed
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, Volume 11, pp 119-125; https://doi.org/10.4236/ijohns.2022.113013

Abstract:
Otological injuries are common during cervicofacial trauma. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiological characteristics and to map otological injuries during head and neck trauma. This was an observational, descriptive, prospective study conducted at the ENT unit of the Referral Health Center Hospital in Mali from January 2017 to September 2018. Patients with middle and/or inner ear injuries due to trauma were included. The prevalence of otologic injuries was 34.54% of cases. The mean age was 25 years and the sex ratio was 1.11. Students accounted for 42.10%. The mechanism of occurrence was an intentional assault in 68.42% of the cases followed by road traffic accidents (15.79%). The most common functional signs were hearing loss (68.42%), tinnitus (57.89%), and facial paralysis in 5.26%. Otoscopy showed tympanic perforation (47.83%), otorrhagia (21.05%) and otoliquorrhea (5.26%). Rock fractures with osteodural breach (10.53%) and pneumencephaly were found on a CT scan of the rock. The evolution was marked by the regression of the facial paralysis and the healing of the tympanum in 45.45% of the cases. Sequelae persisted in the form of sensorineural deafness (17%). The otological lesions observed during cervicofacial trauma are varied. The challenges in our context are felt at three levels: the improvement of the technical platform, the long-term follow-up of patients, and the cost of care in terms of equipment. These lesions are responsible for disabling deafness, a source of difficulty in social and school integration.
Ali Abdullah Alshehri
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, Volume 11, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.4236/ijohns.2022.111001

Abstract:
Purpose: The timing, schedule, and doses of dexamethasone administration to control edema are a topic of debate. This prospective observational study was performed to evaluate the effects of perioperative and intraoperative administration of dexamethasone on the occurrence of edema in patients who underwent rhinoplasty. Methods: This study was conducted at Najran University Hospital, Najran University, Saudi Arabia, from June 2019 to August 2020. Seventy-five patients who underwent open rhinoplasty were assigned using a consecutive non-random sampling method into three groups, with 25 patients in each group. Group A patients received three doses of intravenous 8 mg dexamethasone perioperatively, and group B patients received a single dose of intravenous 8 mg dexamethasone intraoperatively. Group C patients received intravenous 2 mL of 0.9% normal saline solution intraoperatively and were considered as a control group. Digital photographs of patients were obtained and assessed on the 1st, 7th, and 14th days post-operatively. Results: The mean duration of operation was comparable between the studied groups (p = 0.368). On comparing the studied groups, significant differences in the edema scores were observed on the 1st and 7th day post-operatively (p th day (p = 0.079). When comparing each group against the postoperative day of evaluation, statistically significant differences were detected between the 1st vs. 7th day and 1st vs. 14th day in Group A, whereas, in the other groups, no significant difference was detected (all p > 0.05). No Dexamethasone-related complications were observed. Conclusion: Dexamethasone significantly reduced periorbital swelling and edema after rhinoplasty compared to the control group. A short course of triple dose perioperative administration of dexamethasone is more potent in reducing edema from 1st to 7th day postoperative than a single dose intraoperatively.
Amady Coulibaly, Abdoulaye Kassambara, Youssouf Sidibé, Diomanténé Camara, Abdramane S. Maïga, Kadia Keita, Alphousseiny Touré, Boubacar Ba, Hamady Traoré, Daouda K. Minta
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, Volume 11, pp 18-24; https://doi.org/10.4236/ijohns.2022.111003

Abstract:
Cervico-facial cellulitis is a serious poly-microbial infection of the deep fascial spaces of the face and neck which may be life-threatening. The existence of an underlying ground that causes immune failure may promote or complicate this infection. The aim of this work was to describe the socio-demographic and clinical aspects of dental cervicofacial cellulitis associated with HIV in our context. It was a descriptive cross-sectional study that concerned all cases of cervico-facial cellulitis with positive HIV serology encountered at the CHU-CNOS of Bamako from May 2017 to January 2018. Twenty-four cases were collected. Cellulite with positive HIV accounted for 1.14% of consultations in the service. Females accounted for 67.66% of cases with a sex ratio of 0.5. The average age was 33.58 years old. Housewives accounted for 33.33% of cases. The bride and groom represented 83% of the cases. The triad (pain, swelling, and trismus) was the most common reason for consultation with 41.7% of cases. The tooth 37 was involved in 25% of the cases. In 87% of cases, patients were screened in the service. HIV-1 was found in 75.0% of cases. Complications such as peripheral facial palsy were found in three cases. The medico-surgical treatment was performed in 23 cases with a favorable evolution. The search for an underlying ground, in particular HIV infection, must be systematic in the face of diffuse cervicofacial cellulitis.
Azeddine Lachkar, Amine Salek, Drissia Benfadil, Fahd Elayoubi, Mohammed Rachid Ghailan
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, Volume 11, pp 107-111; https://doi.org/10.4236/ijohns.2022.113011

Abstract:
Subcutaneous orbital and facial emphysema is a rare condition that may occur after a direct or indirect sinus trauma. A case report of a 25-year-old female complaining of bilateral swelling of the eyelid, orbital area, and facial puffiness, secondary to a violent nose-blowing. Computed tomography (CT) confirmed the diagnosis of subcutaneous emphysema. The initial treatment plan was puncture-suction and prophylactic intravenous antibiotic therapy. The patient was advised to not blow her nose. There has been no improvement in the patient’s condition on the tenth day, so we performed a bilateral nasal packing by two Merocels (R), maintained for five days. After two weeks, the condition had completely resolved.
Adèle-Rose Ngo Nyeki, Caroline Mvilongo, Esthelle Minka Ngom, Valentin Fokouo, Roger Meva’A, Léonel Atanga, Yannick Mossus, Claudine Nkidiaka, Luc Meka, Abakar Taimou, et al.
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, Volume 11, pp 136-142; https://doi.org/10.4236/ijohns.2022.113015

Abstract:
Introduction: Facial emphysema is the presence of air in the subcutaneous tissues of the facial region. They can be clinically recognized by the crackling sensation felt when the affected area is palpated. Observation: The authors describe left orbito-facial emphysema that occurred after a violent sneezing episode in a 36-year-old patient. He had significant edema of the left facial and ipsilateral periorbital region associated with major emphysema and complete closure of the left eye. Nasal cavities endoscopy revealed inflammation of the distal orifice of the nasolacrimal duct. The clinical ophthalmologic examination performed in emergency showed left chemosis, slight ocular hypertonia of mechanical origin, and a slight decrease in visual acuity. Pupillary reflexes and retinography were normal. A craniofacial computed tomography (CT) revealed a significant left orbital emphysema, a fracture of the left medial orbital wall (ethmoidal lamina papyracea) with intraconal fat incarceration without entrapment of the medial rectus and significant air infiltration of all the left hemifacial soft tissues. A broad-spectrum antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatment were instituted, as well as practical advice to prevent a recurrence. We observed progressive resorption of the edema with a return to the normal of the soft tissues and the palpebral cleft in 15 days. Conclusion: These atypical cases can be serious. It is essential to exclude signs of visual deficit and ocular compression. Multidisciplinary management is important.
Giridhar Guntreddi, Jayasree Vasudevan Nair, Zahrah Taufique, Swayam P. Nirujogi
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, Volume 11, pp 75-81; https://doi.org/10.4236/ijohns.2022.112008

Abstract:
Hairy polyp is an unusual, rare benign developmental malformation of neonates and infants. Embryologically, they are benign lesions containing of both ectodermal and mesodermal origin. Based on size, location of the lesion, they can produce symptoms such as feeding difficulties, airway obstructions, apneic episodes. We present a case of hairy polyp at Oro/Nasopharynx causing feeding difficulties immediately after birth. We explained the mode of presentation, imaging studies, treatment, and review of literature of congenital hairy polyp/choristoma.
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