Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction
ISSN / EISSN : 2305-0500 / 2305-0519
Published by: Medknow (10.4103)
Total articles ≅ 547
Latest articles in this journal
Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.4103/2305-0500.306432
Objective: To investigate the testicular oxidative stress and apoptosis status, as well as the sperm functional parameters in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats following treatment with rooibos (Aspalathus linearis), honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia) and sutherlandia (Lessertia frutescens) infusions.Methods: Diabetes was induced by injecting fourteen-week-old adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g) with a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (45 mg/kg body weight). Fifty rats were randomly divided into five groups: the vehicle group received 0.1 M citrate buffer, the diabetic control group received 45 mg/kg STZ, the diabetic+rooibos group received 45 mg/kg STZ + 2.0% rooibos, the diabetic+honeybush group received 45 mg/kg STZ + 4.0% honeybush, and the diabetic+sutherlandia group received 45 mg/kg STZ + 0.2% sutherlandia. Rats were sacrificed 7 weeks after induction of diabetes mellitus. The testes and epididymides were harvested and weighed after induction. Spermatozoa were retrieved from the cauda epididymis for motility, concentration, and morphology analysis, and the testis was used for all biochemical assays. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring malondialdehyde levels, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities, while apoptotic biomarkers were evaluated by Western blotting assays.Results: After induction of diabetes, rats in the diabetic control group, diabetic+rooibos group, diabetic+honeybush group, and diabetic+sutherlandia group presented with significantly elevated blood glucose levels as compared with the vehicle group (P<0.001). Rats in the diabetic control group had a reduction in sperm progressive motility, while rats in the diabetic+rooibos group and the diabetic+sutherlandia group displayed an increase in progressive motility as compared with the diabetic control group. The diabetic control animals showed a 40.0% decrease in sperm concentration when compared to the vehicle group, and there were no significant differences in sperm kinematic and speed parameters between the groups. In addition, the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa was increased by 13.0%, 16.0%, and 15.0% after treatment with rooibos, honeybush, and sutherlandia, respectively and the rats in the diabetic+infusion groups also displayed an increase in superoxide dismutase activity when compared to the diabetic control group.Conclusions: Rooibos, honeybush and sutherlandia infusions may partly alleviate diabetes-induced sperm function impairment by reducing oxidative stress.
Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.4103/2305-0500.311618
Objective: To evaluate the effect of human chorionic gonadotropins (hCG) and equine chorionic gonadotropins (eCG) on in vitro gilt oocyte maturation and embryonic development, using frozen semen for fertilization.Methods: Two independent experiments (6 replicates each) were carried out to evaluate gilt oocyte maturation, and fertilization and embryonic development by using ovaries from a local abattoir. Totally, 712 oocytes were randomly distributed in four-well dishes to receive Novormon (eCG 5.0 IU), PG600 (eCG 5.0 IU and hCG 2.5 IU), Chorulon (hCG 5.0 IU), or no hormones. Oocytes were incubated with 5% CO2, 95% air and saturation humidity at 39 °C for 44 h. Maturation of the oocytes to metaphase II was assessed by using the aceto-orcein technique. In addition, 741 oocytes were used and randomly distributed in four-well dishes, and then oocyte maturation was carried out as mentioned, but matured oocytes were washed and placed in fertilization medium with frozen-thawed sperm. Gametes were co-incubated for 7 h, and then washed and placed in development medium, and incubated for further 7 days, at which time embryonic development was evaluated. Fertilization and embryo development media were not supplemented with the studied hormones.Results: Novormon (eCG) and PG600 (eCG+hCG) treatments significantly improved the percentages of metaphase II oocytes compared to the control group (P<0.05). Furthermore, a significant increase was also observed in the young blastocyst stage between the control group and the PG600 treatment group (P<0.05).Conclusions: Hormonal products Novormon (eCG) and PG600 (eCG+hCG) can obtain the highest percentages of in vitro maturation in gilt oocytes; however, this effect is not transferred to fertilization rates.
Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.4103/2305-0500.316622
To prevent iodine deficiency disorders, the universal salt iodization programme has been introduced all over the globe, including environmentally iodine sufficient regions irrespective of their iodine status. As a result, iodine-induced thyroid dysfunctions namely hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, autoimmune thyroid diseases, endemic goiter and even thyroid cancer including infertility, still births, abortions and embryo toxicity have emerged as a major public health problem. In other words, the consequence of iodine deficiency and excess is almost ‘U’-shaped. Hypothyroidism caused by iodine deficiency affects reproductive functions of organisms; however, such undesirable effects of iodine overload on male gonadal physiology together with hormonal profiles are yet to be adequately explored. The discovery of iodide transporter in the testis justifies an independent role of iodine in male reproductive function, which is not entirely known. Recent studies on human subjects and animal models are now revealing further perceptions into the effect of excess iodine on male infertility with euthyroid status. Excess iodine exposure has been linked with deterioration of structural and functional changes of testis leading to compromised spermatogenesis by affecting various cellular and molecular signaling pathways culminating into disrupted the blood-testis barrier and cytoskeleton. This review provides an update and summarizes various novel insights of excess iodine exposure on reproduction by establishing the independent role of iodine on male reproductive endocrinology, which might help in formulating future strategies to prevent iodine-induced male infertility, an emerging global concern, especially in the post-salt iodization era.
Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.4103/2305-0500.316626
Objective: To observe the effects of vitamin E on post-vitrification preimplantation development, gross morphology as well as mitochondrial distribution and ultrastructure. Methods: Twenty-four female C57BL/6NTac mice, aged 12-16 weeks, were randomly divided into four groups. Group A did not receive any treatment and served as the control group. Group B was treated with corn oil stripped of tocopherols and served as the vehicle group. Group C was treated with 60 mg/kg body weight of tocotrienol-rich-fraction with corn oil stripped of tocopherols. Group D was treated with 60 mg/kg body weight of alpha-tocopherol with corn oil stripped of tocopherols. All treatments were administered orally for 7 consecutive days. After superovulation and mating with fertile males, 2-cell stage embryos were harvested for vitrification. Post vitrification development in vitro, gross morphology and ultrastructure were compared between groups. Results: The number of 2 and 8-cell embryo, and blastocysts in the treatment and control groups were not significantly different (P>0.05). Following vitrification, all 2-cell embryos had equal-sized blastomeres and intact zona pellucida. Mitochondrial aggregation toward the perinuclear region was seen in all of the treatment groups. Both groups C and D had vacuolated mitochondria, which was reflected in the trend of preimplantation development reduction. Conclusions: Vitamin E supplementation of 60 mg/kg body weight does not improve the viability of healthy embryos according to this study. As a result, the most effective dose of vitamin E supplementation may be determined by the initial quality of the embryos.
Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.4103/2305-0500.321122
Reproductive tract infections pose an immense public health concern worldwide as over 600 million new cases are recorded annually along with several complications, including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, preterm delivery, and neonatal death. Despite improved understanding of the mechanisms of pathogenic invasion, the etiopathogenesis of reproductive tract infections is yet to be completely understood. Recent data has suggested a critical role of bitter taste receptors of the reproductive tract in etiopathogenesis of reproductive tract infections. Here, we review the literature on current etiopathogenesis of reproductive tract infections and the role of bitter taste receptors of the reproductive tract in etiopathogenesis of reproductive tract infections. Emerging evidence suggests a critical role of microbiota disorder of the reproductive tract in reproductive tract infections. Several bacterial, protozoan parasitic, helminthic parasitic and viral pathogens have been identified as causative agents of reproductive tract infections. These pathogens subvert host defenses and activate specific architectural units of the uroepithelium such as Toll-like receptors, which recognize conserved motifs on the pathogens. The activated Toll-like receptors mediate downstream signaling, stimulating nuclear factor-κB, which in turn activates the production of proinflammatory cytokines. This pathway is also associated with recruitment of immunocytes to the site of aggression and release of proteinases, which drive tissue damage in the reproductive tract. Defects in detection of pathogenic components by the bitter taste receptors of the reproductive tract may play a critical role in the etiopathogenesis of reproductive tract infections. This review provides important information for identification of novel frontiers for the treatment of reproductive tract infections.
Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.4103/2305-0500.306431
Objective: To analyze the relationship between body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy and gestational weight gain throughout pregnancy with the incidence of preeclampsia.Methods: This was a systematic review-meta analysis of literature collected from three e-databases: Scopus, PubMed, and Science Direct. Quality assessment was measured with the Effective Public Health Practice Project methods. Meta-analysis was done by calculating the fixed and random-effects of odds ratio (OR) for each BMI category and gestational weight gain as compared with the incidence of preeclampsia.Results: Overweight was associated with a significantly increased risk of preeclampsia (OR=2.152, 95% CI 1.363-3.400; P=0.001). Obesity was also associated with a noticeably increased risk of preeclampsia (OR=2.856, 95% CI 1.755-4.649; P<0.001). Meanwhile, underweight was associated with a significantly reduced risk of preeclampsia (OR=0.639, 95% CI 0.500-0.817; P<0.001) when compared with normal BMI. Pregnant women who gained weight below the standard throughout pregnancy was a protective factor from preeclampsia (OR=0.813, 95% CI 0.610-1.083; P=0.157) whereas pregnant women who gained weight above the standard had almost doubled risk of preeclampsia (OR=1.850, 95% CI 1.377-2.485; P<0.001).Conclusions: The result of this study affirms the role of overweight-obesity pre-pregnancy, and gestational weight gain above the standard during pregnancy as significant risk factors for developing preeclampsia.
Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.4103/2305-0500.311616
Objective: To characterize the semen of three genetic types of boars (local, improved and Large White) reared in Benin.Methods: Semen of local, improved and Large White boars reared in Benin were collected using the gloved hand method and analyzed to determine volume, pH, concentration, mobility, motility, and morphology. The effect of the genetic type of boar on semen characteristics was aslo studied.Results: Duration of ejaculation and semen volume of Large White boar were significantly higher than those of local and improved boars (P<0.05). The semen of improved boars had a higher motility score than that of Large White and local boars (P<0.001). The semen of local boars was more concentrated in the spermatozoa than that of improved and Large White boars (P<0.05). The proportion of spermatozoa of improved boars with normal morphology (93.6%) was significantly higher than that of local (82.2%) and Large White boars (81.6%) (P<0.001). The proportion of spermatozoa with folded tails in the semen of Large White boars (9.2%) was significantly higher than that observed in improved (1.8%) and local (5.0%) boars (P<0.001). The proportion of spermatozoa with proximal cytoplasmic droplets in semen of improved boars (2.7%) was significantly lower than that in Large White (6.8%) and local (9.7%) boars (P<0.001). The local (1.5%) and Large White boars (1.1%) showed more spermatozoa with distal cytoplasmic droplets in their semen compared to the improved boars (0.4%). Conclusions: The semen characteristics of pigs reared in Benin vary from one genetic type to another. Each genetic type has a strong point. The Large White boar produces larger semen, the local boar produces more concentrated semen and the improved boar produces spermatozoa that are morphologically better. The semen of these three genetic types can be used in artificial insemination but the improved boar’s semen is more recommended.
Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.4103/2305-0500.311615
Objective: To study the aphrodisiac potential of Polyalthia (P.) bullata in fowl.Methods: In this study, testosterone, as an indicator of the aphrodisiac potential of P. bullata, was investigated for its release from TM3 Leydig cells grown in vitro and in 4 fowls given capsules containing P. bullata at a dose of 10 mg in each capsule twice a day, for 50 days. In the latter in vivo evaluation, mating behaviours were additionally determined after the treated fowls were released to the individual hens, and their testes and liver were dissected for histological examinations. Blood drawn from the fowls was assessed for any changes in diagnostic parameters.Results: In the in vitro test (TM3 Leydig cells), P. bullata was able to increase testosterone to 0.48 nmol/L within 72 h of incubation, compared to the untreated control with only 0.18 nmol/L, i.e., an increase of 170%. In the in vivo test, outcomes in the fowls dosed with P. bullata showed similar positive elevations of testosterone to (9.72±1.10) nmol/L in comparison to the controls that showed a level of only (4.05±0.84) nmol/L. Total frequencies of mating behaviours were observed (wing flapping, body shakes, crowing and beak pecking) to be 23 counts for the test compared to only 15 for the control fowls. Histological examination of the male reproductive organs provided evidence of testosterone boosting based on an observable increase in the activity at the seminiferous tubules of testis tissues without any damaging effects, compared to the controls. In the nine diagnostic blood parameters assessed, including alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma glutamyltransferase, none was remarkably elevated compared to the controls. The histological changes in the liver were not severe and mainly consisted of only localized moderate but recoverable obstructions and swellings of the vessels and tubules.Conclusions: P. bullata is able to boost testosterone both in vitro and in vivo, with no acute toxicities.
Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.4103/2305-0500.311609
Objective: To investigate the impact of ethanol extract of Spondias (S.) mombin leaves on the biochemical parameters of testicular function, hormonal profile, sperm profile and reproductive outcomes of guinea pigs.Methods: Sexually matured male [(1000.40±8.12) g] and female [(810.00±7.09) g] guinea pigs were used. In testicular function study, a total of 24 male guinea pigs were randomised into 4 groups of 6 guinea pigs each. Group A (control) were orally administered 1 mL of physiological saline, once daily for 60 days while groups B, C and D were treated like the control group except that they were orally administered 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight of ethanol extract of S. mombin leaves. For the fertility study, the same animal groupings and treatments in the testicular function study were adopted. The male guinea pigs were paired with the females (1:1) and afterwards examined for pregnancy outcomes. Results: The ethanol extract of S. mombin leaves contained saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, phenolics, phlobatannins, cardiac glycosides, cardenolides and dienolides with saponins (4.80 mg/mL) occurring the most whilst cardenolides and dienolides (0.08 mg/mL) were the least. The ethanol extract of S. mombin leaves significantly and dose dependently reduced the activities of alkaline phosphatase, glutamate dehydrogenase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, malic enzyme, 17-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, catalase and superoxide dismutase as well as levels of testosterone, glycogen, total protein and ascorbic acid in the testes when compared with the control group (P<0.05). All the doses of ethanol extract of S. mombin leaves also reduced the levels of sorbitol dehydrogenase, 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and sialic acid whereas the levels of testicular acid phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase and cholesterol increased dose dependently (P<0.05). The serum luteinising hormone, testosterone and estradiol were reduced after the administration of ethanol extract of S. mombin leaves whereas levels of serum follicle stimulating hormone increased significantly. The 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of ethanol extract of S. mombin leaves increased the testosterone/estradiol ratios whilst the 500 mg/kg body weight of ethanol extract of S. mombin leaves decreased it. The sperm motility, sperm count, normal sperm morphology, sperm density, sperm viability and semen viscosity were significantly reduced in the ethanol extract of S. mombin leaves-treated guinea pigs (P<0.05) whereas the head-, tail- and neck-defects increased significantly when compared with the control group (P0.05). The ethanol extract of S. mombin leaves at both 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the total number, circumference, weight and length of the pups whereas the 500 mg/kg body weight of ethanol extract of S. mombin leaves-treated rats did not produce any pup. The 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight of ethanol extract of S. mombin leaves induced degenerative and necrotic changes in the seminiferous tubules with vacuoles in the germinal epithelium and a few to complete absence of spermatozoa. In all of these, the 500 mg/kg body weight of ethanol extract of S. mombin leaves produced the most pronounced alteration on the parameters.Conclusions: S. mombin leaves have induced infertility in the male guinea pigs via endocrine dysregulation, anti-spermatogenic activity, testicular dysfunction and oxidative stress and made possible by the presence of saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, phenolics, and cardiac glycosides.
Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.4103/2305-0500.316621
Objective: To compare the effects of coronaviruses, such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), on pregnant women in Saudi Arabia, and to understand the disease dynamics of these coronaviruses so as to konw how to provide care and management of infected pregnant women and infants.Methods: We conducted a systematic review of all published papers on MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 infections in pregnant women in Saudi Arabia to identify knowledge gaps. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were based on the PRISMA system. The search included all papers which were published between September 1, 2012 and November 29, 2020 on pregnant women with MERS-CoV and/ or COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. Of 26 papers screened, five were included in the analysis.Results: A total of 11 pregnant women with MERS-CoV and four with COVID-19 were reported in Saudi Arabia in the medical literature during the review period. The mean ages of the women were 33 and 31 years old for MERS-CoV and COVID-19, respectively. Maternal and fetal mortality in cases of MERS-CoV were 35% and 30%, respectively, while no maternal or fetal mortalities were reported in COVID-19 cases. Conclusions: Very limited data has emerged from Saudi Arabia on pregnant women MERS-CoV and COVID-19. With such high mortality observed with MERS-CoV compared to COVID-19, there is a need for greater reporting of cases to truly grasp the extent of these infections in pregnant women in a country where both coronaviruses are circulating.