Wireless Sensor Network
ISSN / EISSN : 1945-3078 / 1945-3086
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 381
Latest articles in this journal
Wireless Sensor Network, Volume 13, pp 1-16; doi:10.4236/wsn.2021.131001
Growing client population, ever-increasing service demand, and complexity of services are the driving factors for the mobile operators for a paradigm shift in their core technology and radio access networks. 5G mobile network is the result of this paradigm shift and currently under deployment in many developed countries such as United States, United Kingdom, South Korea, Japan, and China—to name a few. However, most of the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) have very recently been implemented 4G mobile networks for which the overall role out phase is still not complete. In this paper, we investigate how feasible it is for LDCs to emphasize on a possible deployment of 5G networks at the moment. At first, we take a holistic approach to show the major technical challenges LDCs are likely to face while deploying the 5G mobile networks. Then we argue that various security aspects of 5G networks are an ongoing issue and LDCs are not technologically competent to handle many security glitches of 5G networks. At the same time, we show that most of the use cases of 5G networks are not applicable in the context of many LDCs (at least at the present time). Finally, this paper concludes that the start of the 5G network deployment in LDCs would take much longer time than expected.
Wireless Sensor Network, Volume 12, pp 1-11; doi:10.4236/wsn.2020.121001
A low-cost airborne sensor mote has been designed for deployment en masse to characterize atmospheric conditions. The designed environmental sensing mote, or eMote, was inspired by the natural shape of auto-rotating maple seeds to fall slowly and gather data along its descent. The eMotes measure and transmit temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, and wind speed estimates alongside GPS coordinates and timestamps. Up to 2080 eMotes can be deployed simultaneously with a 1 Hz sampling rate, but the system capacity increases by 2600 eMotes for every second added between samples. All measured and reported data falls within accuracy requirements for reporting with both the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This paper presents the design and validation of the eMote system alongside discussions on the implementation of a large-scale, low-cost sensor network. The eMote represents unprecedented in-situ atmospheric measurement capabilities with the ability to deploy more than 260 times the number of sensing units as the most comparable commercially available dropsonde.
Wireless Sensor Network, Volume 12, pp 13-36; doi:10.4236/wsn.2020.122002
Wireless sensor network has been used as a landslide monitoring tool for more than one decade. The robustness of the network is important as the systems need to survive in harsh conditions. In this paper, we consider the living time of the sensor network under the influences of the small-scale landslide. We investigate the performance of famous energy-efficient routing protocol PEGASIS in both landslide case and non-landslide case. Genetic Algorithm is also applied to enhance the effectiveness of PEGASIS. The simulation results in this paper showed that the Genetic Algorithm helps to delay the first node death if it is used at the beginning of data transmission while being used every round helps to prolong last node death slightly. The impact of the Genetic Algorithm on energy usage and route length is also examined. Under the effect of landslide, with only 70% of energy are spent, the simulated protocols reduced around 30% equivalent route length while managed to keep the living time up the network up to 90.76%, comparing to cases with no landslide.
Wireless Sensor Network, Volume 12, pp 37-47; doi:10.4236/wsn.2020.123003
A wireless sensor network consists of hundreds or thousands of small nodes which could either have a static or dynamic position. These nodes are deployed through normal or random distribution to report events of a particular area to the base station through sink nodes. Having limited onboard energy of sensor nodes, conservation of energy in wireless sensor network is necessary. For this purpose, a new algorithm is proposed titled Energy-Efficient-Direction-Based-Topology-Control-Algorithm (EEDBTC). In proposed algorithm, direction is the main concern whenever an event occurs the node will send data in the direction of base station so that less energy is consumed. The results of the same were compared with customary dense wireless sensor network, color based WSNs and it was observed that this algorithm is much better than previous topology control algorithms used.
Wireless Sensor Network, Volume 11, pp 81-94; doi:10.4236/wsn.2019.116006
Wireless Sensor Network, Volume 11, pp 35-45; doi:10.4236/wsn.2019.113003
Considering Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in today’s scenario, sending and receiving uninterrupted sensory data remains a challenge to achieve with minimal latency and energy consumption as low as possible. Energy consumption is exponentially growing in computing devices such as computers, embedded systems, portable devices, and wireless sensor networks. Extensive research has been in practice recently to minimize energy consumption without compromising the Quality of Service (QoS) that is to provide data to the requester node with minimum Delay and high Reliability. In this paper, a cooperative caching algorithm is used with the proposed Distributed Energy Aware Routing (DEAR) protocol that attempts to minimize energy consumption by reducing the packet overhead in the network and also providing the data to the requester with minimum delay by retrieving requested datum from the nearby caching node available in the vicinity of the requester or sink node. The simulation results clearly show that the energy consumption is less when the grid-based analytical model is used against the star/cluster based model while keeping the same necessary attributes.
Wireless Sensor Network, Volume 11, pp 1-11; doi:10.4236/wsn.2019.111001
Wireless Sensor Network, Volume 11, pp 47-66; doi:10.4236/wsn.2019.114004
Research works of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) applications and its constraints solutions occupy wide area around the world and attract many researchers. In this paper, an important one of environmental WSN applications is presented that is the water monitoring applications. An efficient approach for monitoring and controlling water parameters in real-time is implemented utilizing merging between WSN and designed simple workstation. For implementation simplicity, two water parameters (pH and temperature) are monitored and controlled in the proposed approach. Most of past work of water monitoring presented different proposed monitoring scenarios for different water parameters only. This research work utilizes the concept of interactive WSN nodes. The interactive nodes interact with the monitored water parameters to control its value. In the base station, the collected data is analyzed and the real-time value of the monitored parameters appears on the designed Graphic User Interface (GUI). The GUI is designed using the Matlab program. Through the GUI, the operator can switch the control between automatic and manual. ZigBee module is used for implementing the wireless communications between the nodes and the workstation. Due to the cost and simplicity, two sensors only are used in the proposed approach. Different real-time experiments are performed to test and measure the effectiveness and performance of the presented approach. These experiments reveal that the presented approach is effective for water treatment and efficient more than the past proposed water monitoring scenarios.
Wireless Sensor Network, Volume 11, pp 13-33; doi:10.4236/wsn.2019.112002
The computational capabilities of off-the-shelf wireless sensors networks presents a limitation when more complex forms of localization algorithms are employed for location estimation purposes, particularly in an indoor environment. Range-free algorithms rely on Received Signal Strength (RSS) from sensors that are location aware (anchor nodes) as the major means of distance estimation. This paper presents a non-site specific algorithm for better estimating RSS relationship with distance. By employing a unique form of rationalization of raw RSS with respect to distance using the proposed algorithm, it is possible to enhance the reliability of RSS when employed in indoor Localization Algorithms. Consequently, this paper presents an innovative RSS-Distance rationalization algorithm for localization of objects in an indoor environment. The paper compared the proposed algorithm with Simple Moving Average (SMA) algorithm due to the wide applicability and ease of manipulation of SMA. The analysis of the proposed algorithm and SMA shows that the proposed algorithm better modifies RSS for more accurate position estimation in an indoor environment.
Wireless Sensor Network, Volume 11, pp 67-80; doi:10.4236/wsn.2019.115005
The main objective of this work is to develop a technological solution to support active aging of frail older individuals. In this perspective, we designed a connected insole in order to encourage frail elderly persons to become more active in their daily life. The project presented in this paper, funded by the French National Research Agency, aims to design and evaluate an original solution to follow and encourage walking activity. The evaluation is performed in two stages: adjusting tests in a living-lab with nine healthy elderly, then clinical evaluation of three frail patients followed over one month. We designed a noninvasive wireless insole, which automatically measures gait parameters and transmits information to a remote terminal via a secure Internet connection. The first laboratory tests of this technological solution showed good reliability measurements as well as good user acceptability. The average distance error obtained on volunteers is 3.2% and the accuracy of the average walking speed is 96.8% thanks to design of a calibration system based on a personalized stride length measurement. Finally, the introduction of an induction charging instead of a button cell makes the system perfectly autonomous. In this paper, we present the specifications of the solution, the design of the connected insole, the methods used to measure desired parameters, the results of the living-lab tests, and the work in progress.