Hong Kong Journal of Emergency Medicine

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1024-9079 / 2309-5407
Published by: SAGE Publications (10.1177)
Total articles ≅ 1,381
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Ka Wing Tam, Chi Keung Chan, Shan Liu
Hong Kong Journal of Emergency Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1177/10249079211049939

Introduction: Development of coagulopathy after anticoagulant rodenticide ingestion varies among patients. This study aimed to identify factors that were associated with coagulopathy after anticoagulant rodenticide ingestion. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study, conducted in the Hong Kong Poison Information Centre. All patients who reported rodenticide exposure and presented to the Accident and Emergency Department from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2019 were recruited. Coagulopathy was defined as International Normalized Ratio of 1.3 or above. Results: One hundred sixty-nine patients were included in the final analysis. The median age was 44 years old. Forty-nine patients developed coagulopathy (International Normalized Ratio ⩾1.3). Univariate analysis (at p < 0.05) showed that age (p = 0.003), ingestion of first-generation anticoagulant rodenticide (p = 0.017), ingestion of more than one pack (p < 0.001), intentional ingestion (p = 0.002), hypoalbuminemia (p < 0.001), elevated alanine aminotransferase level (p = 0.041) and abnormal estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.005) on presentation, and co-ingestion with paracetamol (p = 0.018) were associated with coagulopathy after anticoagulant rodenticide ingestion. Among these, ingestion of more than one pack (p < 0.001; odds ratio = 19.8; 95% confidence interval = 6.78–65.7), ingestion of first-generation anticoagulant rodenticide (p = 0.006; odds ratio = 5.2; 95% confidence interval = 1.96–15.2), hypoalbuminemia (p < 0.001; odds ratio = 22.4; 95% confidence interval = 6.17–99.0) and elevated alanine aminotransferase level on presentation (p = 0.039; odds ratio = 7.11; 95% confidence interval = 1.58–33.1) were statistically significant in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Ingestion of more than one pack and ingestion of first-generation anticoagulant rodenticides were significantly associated with the development of coagulopathy after anticoagulant rodenticide ingestion. Patients who developed hypoalbuminemia or elevated alanine aminotransferase level as a result of anticoagulant rodenticide ingestion were also significantly associated with the development of coagulopathy.
Shuk Hang Chow, Chi Keung Chan
Hong Kong Journal of Emergency Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1177/10249079211049945

Background: Extracorporeal toxin removal is used for enhanced elimination in severe lithium poisoning. The Extracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning workgroup provides recommendations on the use of extracorporeal toxin removal in poisoning. Objectives: Our aim was to identify the pattern for using extracorporeal toxin removal in managing lithium poisoning in Hong Kong and compare the outcomes in extracorporeal toxin removal-treated patients and non-extracorporeal toxin removal-treated patients if indicated for treatment as defined by The Extracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning criteria. Methods: Lithium poisoning presented between year 2009 and 2019 in Hong Kong Poison Information Centre (HKPIC) database was categorized into extracorporeal toxin removal-treated group and non-extracorporeal toxin removal-treated group. Comparative analyses were performed. Results: Among 112 lithium-poisoned patients, 21% were treated with extracorporeal toxin removal. Larger proportion of patients had fulfilled at least one Extracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning criteria for extracorporeal toxin removal in the extracorporeal toxin removal-treated group (87% vs 18%, p < 0.005). The extracorporeal toxin removal-treat group patients were more commonly presented with impaired consciousness, seizure and dysrhythmia ( p < 0.05). They also got higher admission (3.62 mmol/L vs 2.18 mmol/L, p < 0.05) and peak (4.15 mmol/L vs 2.28 mmol/L, p < 0.05) serum lithium concentrations, as well as a significantly higher serum creatinine concentration upon presentation (263.74 µmol/L vs 98.66 µmol/L, p < 0.05). Extracorporeal toxin removal-treat group patients more frequently had a severe poisoning outcome (91.3% vs 9%, p < 0.05) and developed complications (69.6% vs 13.5%, p < 0.05). Logistic regression identified seizure, peak serum lithium concentration, and serum creatinine concentration upon presentation as risk factors for severe poisoning outcome. In subgroup analysis on patients with at least one indication for extracorporeal toxin removal as defined by Extracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning criteria, the proportion of severe poisoning remained higher in the extracorporeal toxin removal-treated group (90% vs 43.7%, p < 0.05). Complication rate was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: Clinically severe lithium poisoning patients were treated with extracorporeal toxin removal in Hong Kong. Extracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning criteria can serve as a reference in considering extracorporeal toxin removal treatment for lithium poisoning patients. Nevertheless, Extracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning criteria recommend more extracorporeal toxin removal treatment than it was actually done. Lithium poisoning patients with positive Extracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning criteria have been managed without extracorporeal toxin removal. No statistically significant adverse outcome was observed in these cases.
Sze Nok Ng, Lok Kan Tang, Chi Kei Leung, Chung Yi Cheng, Mei Shan Cheung, Yuet Yee Lam, Leong Ching Yeung, Yung Ting Tse, Wing Han Tai, Patsy Pui Hing Chau
Hong Kong Journal of Emergency Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1177/10249079211050148

The study aimed to assess the level of standard first aid knowledge among Hong Kong undergraduates and identify the associated factors, and to examine their attitudes, training preferences and obstacles in first aid training. This cross-sectional study employed a structured online questionnaire covering demographic data, first aid knowledge assessment and attitude evaluation. Participants were recruited by convenience sampling from August to October 2020. Inclusion criteria included full-time undergraduates studying for the first degree in Hong Kong and receiving primary and secondary education in Hong Kong. To contrast undergraduates studying medical and non-medical degrees, a set ratio of 1:1 was employed, and estimated proportions were weighted according to the ratio of medical and non-medical undergraduates in the population. Unweighted data were used in logistic regressions. Among 385 respondents, the weighted proportion of good knowledge of standard first aid was 15.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.6%–18.8%) and that of good attitudes towards standard first aid was 71.3% (95% CI: 66.8%–75.8%). Holding valid or expired standard first aid certificates (valid: odds ratio (OR) = 9.897, p< 0.001; expired: OR = 4.816, p< 0.001) and studying medical-related degrees (OR = 3.693, p< 0.001) were shown by multiple logistic regression to be associated with good knowledge of standard first aid. Only being a current or past member of first aid cadet teams was associated with a greater likelihood of having good attitudes towards first aid (OR = 2.336, p = 0.047). Respondents proposed standard first aid training should take form of credit-bearing or non-credit-bearing courses in university curriculum, and academic workload should be taken into account when designing training schemes. The proportion of undergraduates in Hong Kong with good first aid knowledge was unsatisfactory, but the counterpart with a good attitude was encouraging. Standard first aid training should be proactively provided to all the local undergraduates, regardless of their enrollment in medical- or non-medical-related degrees.
Safiyyah Nok Sze Lui, Chi Keung Chan
Hong Kong Journal of Emergency Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1177/10249079211051193

Objective: To compare local poisoning patterns of preadolescents and adolescents. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Data collected through the Hong Kong Poison Information Centre (HKPIC) Poisoning Information and Clinical Management System (PICMS). Patients aged 10 to 17 years old from January 2016 to December 2018 were included and divided into preadolescent (10–12 years old) and adolescent (13–17 years old) groups. Statistical analysis for categorical variables was performed using chi-square test of independence, p < 0.05. Strength of association examined with Cramer’s V. Rate ratios with 95% confidence interval were used to determine nature of association, using preadolescents as comparison group. Results: A total of 703 cases were analyzed. There were 107 cases in the preadolescent group and 596 cases in the adolescent group. Three variables showed moderate association: intentional exposure (rate ratio: 2.91, 2.13–3.98), exposure in school (rate ratio: 0.30, 0.21–0.44), and the use of pharmaceuticals (rate ratio: 1.95, 1.57–2.44). The most common substance of exposure were analgesics (n = 213, 24.94%) and fumes, gases, and vapors (n = 19, 15.08%) in adolescents and preadolescents, respectively. Conclusion: Epidemiological difference still exists between preadolescents and adolescents. The association of adolescents with intentional poisoning, and the use of pharmaceuticals was highlighted. The study acts as a recent update of pediatric poisoning patterns and hopes to act as a reference for future studies.
, Bun Young, Berachah Sze Chung Lui, Alice Wai Yi Leung, Jerome Lok Tsun So
Hong Kong Journal of Emergency Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1177/10249079211049128

Background: The professional quality of life of healthcare professionals in emergency departments may be compromised during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objectives: This study aims to examine professional quality of life and resilience as well as their relationships among emergency department healthcare professionals in Hong Kong during the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: This study employed a cross-sectional design. Healthcare professionals (doctors and nurses) working in emergency departments in Hong Kong were recruited via snowball sampling. The Professional Quality of Life Scale, version 5, and the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale were used to assess their positive (compassion satisfaction) and negative (secondary traumatic stress and burnout) aspects of professional quality of life and self-reported resilience. Socio-demographics and work-related characteristics were also analysed. Results: A total of 106 participants provided valid responses. The results showed an overall moderate level of compassion satisfaction, secondary traumatic stress and burnout among emergency department healthcare professionals. The mean score of the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale was 23.8. Backward linear regression analyses revealed self-reported resilience was the only significant predictor of compassion satisfaction (regression coefficient B = 0.875; p < 0.001), secondary traumatic stress (B = −0.294, p < 0.001) and burnout (B = −0.670; p < 0.001), explaining 70.6%, 18.5% and 59.8% of total variance, respectively. Conclusion: Emergency department healthcare professionals in Hong Kong experienced an overall moderate level of professional quality of life during the COVID-19 outbreak. Those with a higher level of self-reported resilience had better compassion satisfaction and lower levels of secondary traumatic stress and burnout. The results support the importance of developing interventions that foster resilience among this group of emergency department healthcare professionals to combat COVID-19.
Arif Tyebally,
Hong Kong Journal of Emergency Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1177/10249079211044911

Background: To meet ACGME-I (Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education–International) training and duty hour requirements, we converted our 3-week-long pediatric emergency medicine induction program to an eLearning program. Objectives: The study aimed to identify areas of the eLearning program residents perceived useful and the components that helped them prepare for clinical work. Methods: The qualitative study took place in a tertiary pediatric emergency department. Twenty-seven residents from family medicine, emergency medicine, and pediatric medicine participated in focus group discussions to explore how they perceived the eLearning program helped prepare them for work. The interviews were audio-recorded, and transcripts were analyzed and coded into categories and themes. Results: Four themes emerged from the data analysis: residents’ access to the eLearning program, instructional methods, eLearning design elements, and supplementary learning. Residents valued autonomy to control their pace of learning and use online features that matched their preferred learning styles. Design features such as the use of questions and quizzes helped stimulate learning, but attention had to be paid to the order of questions in the modules and the format of the questions. Written guidelines served as a good reference for learners and face-to-face sessions accompanying the eLearning program helped reinforce knowledge and offered opportunities to interact with faculty members to clarify questions. Conclusion: Systematic planning focusing on access, instructional methods, and design is essential when creating eLearning programs for residency training. eLearning programs can be enhanced by the incorporation of team-based learning and having accompanying written content to reference.
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