Aksaray University Journal of Science and Engineering

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EISSN : 2587-1277
Published by: Aksaray University (10.29002)
Total articles ≅ 65
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Yunus Atalan, Esra Kiliç
Aksaray University Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 6, pp 57-70; https://doi.org/10.29002/asujse.1096163

Abstract:
The concept of stability is studied on many different types of mathematical structures. This concept can be thought of as the small changes that will be applied in the structure studied should not disrupt the functioning of this structure. In this context, we performed the convergence and stability analysis of the new four-step iteration algorithm that we defined in this study, under appropriate conditions. In addition, we execute a speed comparison with existing algorithms to prove that the new algorithm is effective and useful, and we gave a numerical example to support our result.
Elif Çetli, Vahdet Özkoçak, Demet Tatar
Aksaray University Journal of Science and Engineering; https://doi.org/10.29002/asujse.1035557

Abstract:
Fingerprints are the most important evidence that allows the criminal to be profiled in a crime scene investigation. A fingerprint is considered evidence due to its unique characteristics. Fingerprints are not visible to the eye and therefore need to be visualized after being recovered from the scene. Many methods are used for visualization purposes. The most commonly used methods are dusting, Ninhydrin, DFO, Super Glue, etc. the methods are not. In addition to these methods, other chemical, physical and optical methods have recently been uncovered. Due to technological developments affecting the field of Forensic Sciences, new dimensions have also been introduced to fingerprint studies. The use of nanoparticles has gained momentum, especially in fingerprint visualization studies. In the use of nanoparticles, silica nanoparticles are used in studies. Objective: in this study, it was aimed to determine the level of use of silica nanoparticles in fingerprint visualization studies. Based on the data obtained for this purpose, which silica nanoparticle is most used, which method is most used in silica nanoparticle synthesis, what are the dimensions of the resulting molecules, which technique is most preferred for visualization, etc. it is aimed to provide researchers with up-to-date information by determining the parameters. Method: In this study, systematic literature review was preferred for the purpose of collecting research data. The level of use of silica nanoparticles has been investigated in fingerprint visualization studies between 2016 and 2020. Data collection was obtained through scientific studies. Parameters such as silica nanoparticle molecules, synthesis methods, absorbent values, surface types used, imaging types were compared in the obtained publications.
Gülçin Bektur
Aksaray University Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 6, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.29002/asujse.950133

Abstract:
In this study, the problem of project selection and scheduling with resource management is considered project setup times, dynamic project arrivals, priorities and relationship between projects. A fuzzy multi-objective mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model is proposed for the solution of the problem. The classic two-phase fuzzy goal programming (FGP) approach is modified to solve the proposed multi-objective MILP model. The addressed problem is defined over the project selection and scheduling problem of a construction company. The effect of resource management on the project selection and scheduling problem is demonstrated over the generated test problems. Modified two-phase FGP and classic two-phase FGP approaches are compared over test problems. With the use of the modified two-phase FGP approach, additional alternative solutions are found for the problem.
Ahmet Kaya
Aksaray University Journal of Science and Engineering; https://doi.org/10.29002/asujse.999472

Abstract:
Financial companies’ main aim of risk-hedging is to gain high profits. Thus, they must avoid negative displays of their financial situation because this is unfavorable circumstances for them. An important model, called risk theory, operates in the actuarial world to determine the companies’ situation against ruin. The theory gives a useful information about how much premium must be charged continuously to customers by insurance companies to protect their financial situation from bankruptcy and keep themselves in a safe place. Risk theory is a method to model risks for the insurance companies and has always played a significant role in mathematical finance and actuarial sciences. Quantum mechanics is a novel approach in the risk theory of non-life insurance and it gives more precise experimental results. To compute finite-time non-ruin probability, we introduce Quantum mechanics formalism notations in discrete space and continuous space. Then, these notations are applied to the appropriately chosen Hamiltonian. By using the Quantum mechanics approach and via stochastic method, the non-ruin operator is defined. Furthermore, tensor products of operator concepts are presented and several cases are modeled. Quantum mechanics approach to non-life insurance is analyzed, non-ruin probability is modelled and several advanced examples are treated for chosen Hamiltonian in discrete and continuous space with traditional basis and eigenvalues of Hermitian operator in two- and three dimensions by using tensor product of operators. Here, standard Dirac matrix formalism with bra-ket notations is used and diagonal form by change of basis is obtained with the help of a specific matrix.
Nevim Genç, Elif Durna, Fatma Ece Sayin
Aksaray University Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 5, pp 138-157; https://doi.org/10.29002/asujse.1002134

Abstract:
The formation of mucilage observed in the sea surface and bottom sediment in the Marmara Sea in the first half of 2021 adversely affected the aquatic ecosystem aesthetically and ecologically. The mucilage layer formed on the surface, which prevents oxygen entering the water, was first removed with sea sweepers and vacuum trucks. Due to the hydrophilic nature of the mucilage removed by vacuum trucks, the high water content limits the application of disposal/recovery processes. Therefore, the water must be removed first. In this study, coagulation and centrifugation processes were applied to remove the water of mucilage biomass collected from the sea surface with vacuum trucks. The coagulation process is optimized to provide a good suspended solids settling rate and low turbidity in the supernatant with low operating cost, while the centrifugation process is optimized to provide low turbidity and low operating cost. Optimization was implemented with the Taguchi Experimental Design approach. In the coagulation process, 85 ml of precipitated solid, 8.28 NTU supernatant turbidity and 0.594 Euro/L operating cost were determined in optimum conditions (FeCl3 dose of 0.5 g/L, pH of 11.5, slow mixing of 30 rpm 5 minute and fast mixing of 100 rpm 5 minutes) has been obtained. In the centrifugation process, 180 NTU supernatant turbidity was obtained at an operating cost of 0.042 euro/L at optimum conditions of centrifugation speed of 3500 rpm for 30 minutes. With the Pareto analysis performed for the coagulation process, it was determined that the most effective parameters in coagulation were fast and slow mixing times and pH. Marmara Denizi’nde 2021 yılı ilk yarısında deniz yüzeyi ve dip sedimentinde gözlenen müsilaj oluşumu, sucul ekosistemi estetik ve ekolojik açıdan olumsuz yönde etkilemiştir. Suya oksijen girişini engelleyen yüzeyde oluşan müsilaj tabakası ilk aşamada deniz süpürgeleri ve vidanjörler ile uzaklaştırılmıştır. Vidanjörler ile uzaklaştırılan müsilajın hidrofilik yapısından dolayı su içeriğinin oldukça yüksek olması bertaraf/geri kazanım proseslerinin uygulamasını kısıtlamaktadır. Bu nedenle öncelikle suyunun uzaklaştırılması gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmada deniz yüzeyinden vidanjörler ile toplanan müsilaj biyokütlesinin suyunun uzaklaştırılması için koagülasyon ve santrifügasyon prosesleri uygulanmıştır. Koagülasyon prosesi düşük işletme maliyeti ile iyi bir süspanse katı çökelme oranı ve üst sıvıda düşük bulanıklık, santrifügasyon prosesi ise düşük bulanıklık ve düşük işletme maliyeti sağlayacak şekilde optimize edilmiştir. Optimizasyonda Taguchi Deneysel Tasarım yaklaşımı uygulanmıştır. Koagülasyon prosesinde belirlenen 0.5 g/L FeCl3 dozu, pH 11.5, 30 rpm 5 dk yavaş karıştırma ve 100 rpm 5 dk hızlı karıştırma optimum şartlarında 0.594 Euro/L işletme maliyetinde 85 ml çökelen katı ve 8.28 NTU üst sıvı bulanıklığı elde edilmiştir. Santrifügasyon prosesinde 30 dakika 3500 rpm optimum şartlarında 0.042 Euro/L işletme maliyetinde 180 NTU üst sıvı bulanıklığı elde edilmiştir. Koagülasyon prosesi için gerçekleştirilen Pareto analizi ile koagülasyonda en etkili parametrelerin hızlı ve yavaş karıştırma süreleri ve pH olduğu belirlenmiştir.
Nusret Karaaslan, Merve Nur Fazlioğlu
Aksaray University Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 5, pp 125-137; https://doi.org/10.29002/asujse.1020770

Abstract:
Bu çalışmada, Gauss Narayana-Lucas sayı dizisi tanıtıldı ve incelendi. İlk olarak Narayana-Lucas sayı dizisi genişletilerek Gauss Narayana-Lucas sayı dizisi tanımlanmıştır. Daha sonra bu sayı dizisine ait üreteç fonksiyonu ve Binet formülü elde edilmiştir. Ayrıca Gauss Narayana-Lucas sayı dizisi ile ilgili bazı toplam formülleri ve bu dizinin terimlerini içeren bazı matrisler araştırılmıştır. Son olarak Gauss Narayana ile Gauss Narayana-Lucas sayı dizileri arasında bazı ilişkiler elde edilmiştir. In this study, the Gauss Narayana-Lucas number sequence is introduced and examined. Firstly, the Gaussian Narayana-Lucas number sequence is defined by extending the Narayana-Lucas number sequence. Then, the generating function and the Binet formula of this number sequence were obtained. In addition, some sum formulas related to the Gaussian Narayana-Lucas number sequence and some matrices containing the terms of this sequence are examined. Finally, some relations were obtained between Gaussian Narayana and Gaussian Narayana-Lucas number sequences.
Bektaş AYIK, Yavuz Selim Cakmak, Murat Kaya
Aksaray University Journal of Science and Engineering; https://doi.org/10.29002/asujse.1024256

Abstract:
Gübrelerin polimerler ile kaplanarak daha yavaş ve uzun süre salınımı hem ekonomik hem de çevre kirliliğinin önüne geçilmesi açısından son derece önemlidir. Atık kerevit kabuklarından üretilen kitosanın biyolojik orijinli ve çevre dostu olması nedeniyle mevcut çalışmada tercih edilmiş ve 15-15-15 gübresinin kaplanması amaçlı kullanılmıştır. Kitosan ile 15-15-15 gübresinin kaplanması için çapraz bağlayıcı olarak glutaraldehit kullanılmıştır. Çalışmada farklı konsantrasyonlarda gübrelerin kaplanması denenmiş ve bu sayede kitosanın 15-15-15 gübresini taşıma kapasitesi belirlenmiştir. Kaplama sonrası üretilen toz örnekler fourier dönüşümlü kızıl ötesi spektrometresi (FT-IR), termogravimetrik analiz (TGA) ve taramalı elektron mikroskobu (SEM) teknikleri kullanılarak karakterize edilmiştir. Ardından kaplama yapılan gübrelerin toprakta günlere bağlı olarak bozunma yüzdeleri belirlenmiştir. Elde edilen tüm sonuçlar değerlendirildiğinde, glutaraldehit ile çapraz bağlananmış kitosan – 15-15-15 gübre formülasyonunun tarım ve bahçecilik uygulamalarında pratik olarak kullanılabileceği ortaya konmuştur. The slower and longer release of fertilizers by coating them with polymers is extremely important in terms of both economic and prevention of environmental pollution. Chitosan produced from waste crayfish shells was preferred in the current study because of its biological origin and environmental friendliness, and was used for the coating of 15-15-15 fertilizer. Glutaraldehyde was used as a crosslinker for the coating of 15-15-15 fertilizer with chitosan. In the study, the coating of fertilizers at different concentrations was tried and the carrying capacity of chitosan for 15-15-15 fertilizer was determined. Powder samples produced after coating were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Then, the degradation rates of the coated fertilizers in the soil were determined depending on the days. Considering all the obtained results, it has been revealed that chitosan – 15-15-15 fertilizer formulation crosslinked with glutaraldehyde can be used practically in agricultural and horticultural applications.
Onder Bettemir, Derya Çakmak
Aksaray University Journal of Science and Engineering; https://doi.org/10.29002/asujse.878294

Abstract:
Resource constrained project scheduling problem is a prevalent problem for manufacturing and construction sectors. Resource allocation is redone from the beginning in the construction sector where project management is implemented, therefore project planners may not have adequate time to obtain optimum solution. Moreover, employment of civil engineering who are talented in the optimization task is less probable in small-scale construction firms. As a result of this, resource overrun problems are solved without converging optimum solution. In this study, an exhaustive enumeration based algorithm which can solve resource constrained project scheduling problems without implementing complex optimization methods is developed. The algorithm is programmed on spreadsheet and small-scale problems are solved in order to represent the proposed algorithm can obtain the optimum solution. Search domain expands exponentially and solution time excessively prolongs when the number of activities in the project increases because the resource constrained project scheduling problem is NP-Hard. Therefore in this study small-scale problems are solved. However, as a future study speeding up the method, elimination of infeasible solutions, and parallel computing are intended. Thence solution of larger scale problems would be possible. It is considered that the construction sector may implement the proposed algorithm since the executed six case studies are solved within one minute and the implementation of the proposed method does not require complex optimization algorithms. Kaynak kısıtlı proje çizelgeleme problemi özellikle imalat ve inşaat sektöründe yaygın olarak karşılaşılan bir problemdir. Proje tabanlı faaliyet gösteren inşaat sektöründe kaynak tahsisi her proje için baştan yapıldığı için planlamacılar kaynak kısıtlarının ihlalini düzenlerken en iyi çözümü bulmak için yeterli vakte sahip olmayabilirler. Ayrıca küçük ölçekli inşaat işlerini gerçekleştiren firmalarda optimizasyon alanında uzman inşaat mühendislerinin istihdam edilmesi düşük olasılıktır. Bunun sonucunda kaynak kısıtlarını ihlal etmeyen fakat optimum çözümden uzak bir çözüm elde edebilirler. Bu çalışmada karmaşık optimizasyon yöntemlerini kullanmadan tüm proje çizelgeleme olasılıklarını deneyerek kaynak kısıtlı proje çizelgeleme problemini çözen bir algoritma geliştirilmiştir. Algoritma hesap tablosu üzerinde programlanmış ve küçük ölçekli projelerde denenerek çalıştığı gösterilmiştir. Kaynak kısıtlı proje çizelgeleme problemleri NP-Zor türü problemler olduğu için arama uzayı aktivite sayısının artması ile üstel biçimde arttığı için büyük problemlerde hesaplama süresi çok artmaktadır. Bu nedenle bu çalışmada küçük ölçekli problemler çözülmüştür. Fakat ileri çalışma olarak yöntemin hızlandırılması, uygun olmayan çözümlerin elenmesi ve paralel hesaplama ile daha hızlı çözümün elde edilmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Böylece daha büyük problemlerin çözümü mümkün olacaktır. Gerçekleştirilen 6 vaka analizinin tam sonuçları 1 dakikadan daha kısa sürede elde edilmesi ve yöntemin uygulanabilmesi için karmaşık optimizasyon yöntemlerinin bilinmesine gerek duyulmaması inşaat sektöründe önerilen algoritmanın uygulanabileceği gösterilmiştir.
Ahmet Kaya
Aksaray University Journal of Science and Engineering; https://doi.org/10.29002/asujse.992420

Abstract:
Fractional diferential equations (FDEs) have attracted the curiosity of many people and have been utilized to address a wide range of problems in science. Various type of techniques have been established to deal with FDEs and to get approximate or analytical solutions. In this study, residual power series method (RPSM), which determine the coefficients of the power series by using the idea of residual error, is used. Furthermore, the conformable derivative is proposed to characterize and define the fractional derivatives. Then, the definition and initial values of Drinfeld–Sokolov–Satsuma–Hirota (DSSH) equation is introduced, and approximate solution of this equation is acquired by using the RPS method. Mathematica computer programming language is used to get these approximate solutions and beneficial graphs with the different fractional operator. Lastly, the RPSM approximate solutions are compared to the exact solutions with the various tables and graphs. The findings indicate a significant degree of agreement between the approximate solution of RPSM technique and the exact solution of DSSH equation when comparing numerical solution with the exact solution. As a result, according to this study, the method introduced is simple to use and provides a considerable advance in this area compared to prior approaches. Kesirli diferansiyel denklemler (FDEs) bilim ve mühendislikteki çeşitli sorulara çözüm bulmak için son zamanlarda sıkça kullanılmaktadır ve böylece çok sayıda araştırmacının dikkatini üzerine çekmektedir. Kesirli diferansiyel denklemleri çözmek, onların yaklaşık ve analitik çözümleri bulmak için birçok teknik geliştirilmiştir. Bu makalede, rezidual kuvvet seri metodu (RKSM) olarak adlandırılan ve rezidual hata düşüncesinden yola çıkarak kuvvet serisinin katsayılarını belirleyen kolay uygulanabilir, kullanışlı ve etkili bir yöntem kullanılmıştır. Bununla birlikte, kesirli türevleri karakterize eden ve tanımlayan uyumlu(conformable) türev tanımı yapılmış ve denklemlere uygulanmıştır. Daha sonra ise Drinfeld–Sokolov–Satsuma–Hirota (DSSH) denkleminin tanımı yapılmış ve başlangıç değerleri tanıtılmıştır. Bu denklemin yaklaşık çözümü rezidual kuvvet seri metodu yardımıyla elde edilmiştir. Farklı operatör değerleri için, yaklaşık çözümleri ve faydalı grafikleri bulurken bir bilgisayar programlama dili olan Mathematica programı kullanılmıştır. Ayrıca, çalışmanın son bölümünde çok sayıda grafik ve tablo kullanılarak RKSM yöntemi sonucunda bulunan yaklaşık çözümler ile tam çözümler kıyaslanmıştır. Nümerik çözümler ile tam çözümlerin karşılaştırılmasıyla bulunan sonuçlar RKSM yönteminin yaklaşık çözümleri ile Drinfeld–Sokolov–Satsuma–Hirota (DSSH) denkleminin tam çözümü arasında çok önemli bir tutarlılık olduğuna işaret etmektedir. Sonuç olarak, bu çalışmaya dayanarak uygulanan metodun çok başarılı, etkili ve tutarlı olduğuyla, kullanım kolaylığı sağladığı ve daha önceki yapılmış çalışmalara kıyasla önemli bir ilerleme getirdiğini söyleyebiliriz.
Paul Terkumbur Adeke, Ianna Kanyi, Maryam Olawuyi
Aksaray University Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 5, pp 65-77; https://doi.org/10.29002/asujse.866010

Abstract:
Following the continuous deterioration of flexible road pavements on Federal Highways in Northern Nigeria, which in some quarters is attributed to poor structural capacity of the subgrade soil or design and workmanship; this study examined the relationship between the instantaneous surface condition of flexible road pavement and the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) values of the corresponding subgrade soils. An investigation of road surface condition was carried out on 60 km length of the Zaria – Kaduna Federal Highway in Northern Nigeria. Experimental results on the mechanical properties of the corresponding subgrade soils of road segments measured at Chainages were obtained from the Nigeria Federal Ministry of Power, Works and Housing (FMPWH). The primary data used by the study were measured as quantities of surface area distresses along the site which included; cracks, potholes, rutting and edge failure, while secondary data from the FMPWH database included; natural moisture content, maximum dry density, specific gravity, liquid limit, plastic limit, liquidity index, optimum moisture content, California Bearing Ratio (CBR), percent of soil particles passing #200 sieve and AASHTO classification of the subgrade soil. A Pearson correlation analysis between the road pavement surface condition and the CBR value of the subgrade soil at 95% Confidence Level using a 1-tailed statistics for the test hypothesis revealed that, there was no dependency between the pavement surface condition and the corresponding CBR property of the subgrade soil.
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