Open Journal of Pathology
ISSN / EISSN : 2164-6775 / 2164-6783
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 178
Latest articles in this journal
Open Journal of Pathology, Volume 11, pp 7-21; doi:10.4236/ojpathology.2021.111002
Objectives: The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Mycoplasma hominis infection on the morphology of sperms and its association with the infertility of men. The patients were referred to the Urology Departments of Mosul General Hospital and Soran Hospital in Mosul and Erbil respectively. Methods: The present study was carried out from April 2019 to March 2020 and the number of the patients group was 108. The patients aged 20 to 60 years. Semen was collected from infertile men of a couple that female failed to become pregnant after one year of regular and unprotected intercourse of marriage and submitted for seminal fluid analysis as well as for bacteriological investigations Results: M. hominis was detected in 14 semen specimens (12.9%) from the infertile men. The teratozoospermia, normozoospermia, asthenoteratozoospermia, oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, oligozoospermia, oligoasthenozoospermia and leukospermia were seen among patients examined. Statistically, there were no significant differences between these forms of infected infertile men and non-infected infertile men (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The results of present study demonstrated that the genital Mycoplasma hominis seems to be widespread among male partners of infertile couples in Iraq. The present data did not show any significant differences between forms of the sperm concentration and sperm morphology related to the infection by M. hominis.
Open Journal of Pathology, Volume 11, pp 1-6; doi:10.4236/ojpathology.2021.111001
Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease, and remains a major public health problem. It holds second place among parasitic endemics in the world. Schistosoma can infect various organs through the blood vessels. The genital form affects at least 16 million women in endemic areas, and the uterine cervix is the most common site. Two cases of cervical cancer associated with schistosomiasis of the cervix are presented. The aim of this study is to discuss the epidemiological, clinical and histopathological features. Both of the patients lived in Mahanjaga, aged respectively 57 and 43 years old. They complained of uterine bleeding disorder and presented cauliflower lesions with ulceration of the uterine cervix that extended to the vagina in one case. They were undergone cervical biopsies. The diagnosis was, in both cases, invasive, well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with cervical schistosomiasis.
Open Journal of Pathology, Volume 11, pp 22-31; doi:10.4236/ojpathology.2021.111003
Ovarian carcinosarcoma composed of high-grade carcinoma and sarcoma is an extremely rare neoplasm and typically occurs in postmenopausal women aged over 60 years. A 73-year-old female, gravida three para three, presented to our hospital with right lower abdominal pain. Right pelvic solid tumor with ascites was detected on pelvic ultrasound examination. She underwent hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and partial omentectomy, but the tumor had invaded to the right ureter, and some fragile tumor could not be taken (sub-optimal surgery). On the imprint and ascitic cytology specimens during operation, atypical cells suggestive of adenocarcinoma and spindle atypical cells with immunocytochemically vimentin positive were found. The resected tumor was histopathologically carcinosarcoma consisted of serous adenocarcinoma, chondrosarcoma and fibrosarcoma. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that adenocarcinoma cells were positive for AE1/AE3 and fibrosarcoma cells stained with vimentin. The final diagnosis was the right ovarian carcinosarcoma (stage pT3CNxMx). Microsatellite instability was stable and BRCA1/2 mutations could not be found in the carcinosarcoma cells. The patient was given four cycles of chemotherapy with paclitaxel, carboplatin and bevacizumab regimen, and thereafter she was treated with the ifosfamide and cisplatin because of slight elevation of serum CA125.
Open Journal of Pathology, Volume 10, pp 1-15; doi:10.4236/ojpathology.2020.101001
Objective: To determine the kappa (κ) concordance coefficient between fine needle aspiration and serum prostatic antigen (PSA) coupled with digital rectal examination and prostatic ultrasound. Material and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study covering the period from January 1st to June 30th, 2018 in the city of Pointe-Noire. It is a study of 31 cases of prostate tumors in Congolese subjects at the General Hospital of Loandjili in Pointe-Noire of Congo Brazzaville. The clinical, biological, ultrasound and cytological aspects were the variables of the study. Results: The mean age was 71.06 years with extremes of 57 and 93 years. One patient had a family history of prostate cancer that was found at his brother’s house at the age of 52. Dysuria was the most represented sign in all of our patients. Suspicion of prostate cancer was the most commonly talked in digital rectal examination. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) was greater than or equal to 10 ng/ml in more 74% of our patients. 61.3% of our patients had a heterogeneous prostatic ultrasound. 48.3% of malignant tumors and 32.3% of benign tumors were found cytologically. The association between digital rectal examination and prostatic ultrasound was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) and good agreement was found between cytological diagnosis coupled with digital rectal examination and prostatic echostructure (0.6 ≤ κ ≤ 0.8). A low concordance between prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and cytological concordance was noted (0.2 ≤ κ ≤ 0.4). Conclusion: Prostatic tumors in Congo in their diagnostic particularities are dominated by malignant tumors with a large number of patients to watch. The fine needle aspiration is suitable for orientation examinations of prostatic tumors and can be performed by any doctor and provides us a fast, effective diagnostic orientation with a strong clinico-morphological correlation in our low incomes countries.
Open Journal of Pathology, Volume 10, pp 51-55; doi:10.4236/ojpathology.2020.101005
We present morphological findings observed from the study of a myxopapillary ependymoma located in the III ventricle. This tumor, which is a rare occurrence at this level, was observed in a 73-year-old woman with no relevant medical history who presented with obstructive hydrocephalus due to compression and blockage of the foramen of Monro. The good delineation of the lesion allowed its surgical excision, and histological examination of the material obtained after excisional biopsy revealed a glial neoplasm with a low degree of cytological malignancy that was strongly positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) as well as a myxopapillary architecture analogous to that observed in ependymomas of the filum terminale. Subsequent radiological examination allowed us to rule out a metastatic nature of the tumor, confirming its primary origin. We briefly discuss the case and review the main characteristics of this neoplasia, which is quite rare at the site identified in our patient.
Open Journal of Pathology, Volume 10, pp 35-50; doi:10.4236/ojpathology.2020.101004
Background: Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is well-established, highly accurate clinical diagnostic test for detection and staging of gastrointestinal tract lesions and related organs. The addition of endoscopic guided fine needle aspiration cytology (EUS-FNAC) has improved the performance characteristics of EUS. Aim: Evaluate the validity of EUS-FNAC in diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract lesions and related organs and assess predictive factors for an accurate EUS-FNAC diagnosis. Methods: Our study included cytological sampling from one hundred sixty-six lesions obtained from gastrointestinal tract and related organs. Factors affecting EUS-FNA accuracy were analyzed. The histopathological results or clinical follow-up were used as the gold standard method. Results: Samples were obtained from: pancreatic masses (n = 80), gastric masses (n = 34), lymph nodes (n = 22), hepatobiliary masses (n = 18) and rectal masses (n = 2). Statistical analysis of sensitivity, specificity, Positive Predictive Value, Negative Predictive Value, and diagnostic accuracy of EUS alone was 80.4%, 51.6%, 75.8%, 76.2% and 75.9% respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of EUS-FNAC are 78.8%, 96.8%, 97.6% and 73.2% respectively. Addition of FNAC to EUS improved diagnostic accuracy to 85.5%. Positive statistical association was present between cytological adequacy and adequate cell block preparations, larger lesion size, presence of rapid on site evaluation (ROSE) and obtaining at least two passes from target lesion. Conclusions: EUS is valuable diagnostic and cost effective tool for gastrointestinal tract lesions and related organs when combined with FNAC.
Open Journal of Pathology, Volume 10, pp 76-92; doi:10.4236/ojpathology.2020.102008
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous disease that displays a highly variable clinical outcome. It is a neoplasm of large transformed B cells with a diffuse growth pattern. DLBCL is the most common type of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) (31% of all cases). Approximately half of patients with DLBCL are cured with current chemotherapy regimens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate BCl2 expression in 45 patients diagnosed with DLBCL of head and neck region and correlate the level of its immunohistochemical expression with different clinicopathological variables with emphasis upon patients’ age, gender, nodal or extra-nodal location of lymphoma, patients’ response to chemotherapy, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). A retrospective analysis of 45 patients diagnosed to have DLBCL. A cut off value of ≥ 50% protein expression denoted BCL2 positivity. Out of 45 cases, 36 cases (80%) revealed BCL2 positive expression and 9 cases (20%) were BCL2 negative. We found statistically significant differences in BCL2 expression regarding different patients’ responses to chemotherapy, patients’ OS and PFS (p ≤ 0.05). No statistically significant differences in BCL2 expression regarding the patients’ Ann Arbor clinical stage, age group and tumor site (nodal or extra-nodal, p > 0.05) using the Chi-square test. BCL2 expression was analyzed in relation to 5 years OS and PFS using Kaplan Meier curves and Log Rank test for survival analysis. Cases that demonstrated BCL2 positivity revealed shortened OS and PFS with highly statistically significant differences among the studied variables (p = 0.000). We also found that patients who respond well to the chemotherapeutic regimen had negative BCL2 expression, the differences were statistically significant (p = 0.015). In conclusion, BCL2 expression could be considered a predictor for patients’ chemotherapeutic response, OS and PFS.
Open Journal of Pathology, Volume 10, pp 124-128; doi:10.4236/ojpathology.2020.104012
Granulosa cell tumors belong to the group of stromal and sex cord tumors of the ovary. The adult type is the most common type and usually occurs during the perimenopausal period while the juvenile type mostly affects young women. This is a report of a 26 years old woman who presented an adult type of granulosa cells tumor, with review of the literature. She complained abdominal pain and distension associated with abundant ascites and underwent a right adnexectomy. The pathology examination diagnosed an adult granulosa cell tumor. The two entities of granulosa cell tumors (juvenile and adult types) are distinguished by their characteristic morphological aspects on histological examination allowing diagnostic orientation.
Open Journal of Pathology, Volume 10, pp 93-107; doi:10.4236/ojpathology.2020.103009
Background: The etiology and pathogenesis of odontogenic lesions remain to be determined. Previous studies have identified epigenetic and genetic alterations that may be relevant to lesions progression and development. Hypermethylation of the Ras association domain family protein 1A (RASSF1A) has been observed in a variety of human cancers. However, the methylation status of RASSF1A in odontogenic lesions remains unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of RASSFA promoter hypermethylation and v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B V600E mutant (BRAF V600E) expression as well as the correlations between these alterations and clinicopathological features of patients with odontogenic lesions. Methods: We subjected 66 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded odontogenic lesions [ameloblastoma (AM), 21; ameloblastic carcinoma (AC), 6; odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), 19; and dentigerous cyst (DC), 20] to methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction to determine RASSF1A hypermethylation and immunohistochemistry to detect BRAF V600E protein expression. Results: We observed RASSF1A hypermethylation in 20% (4/20; methylation could not be detected in one lesion), 100% (6/6), 26.3% (5/19), and 5% (1/20) of AM, AC, OKC, and DC samples, respectively. RASSF1A methylation was significantly more frequently observed in AC relative to AM, OKC, and DC (p
Open Journal of Pathology, Volume 10, pp 108-112; doi:10.4236/ojpathology.2020.103010
Osseous metaplasia of the breast is considered to be one of the rare breast conditions. It is characterized by the presence of normal bone tissue within the breast. We report a case of benign osseous metaplasia in a 58-year-old woman presenting with mastalgia and mass in the right breast. A lumpectomy was performed. On the pathological examination, the mass was composed completely of benign bone trabeculae with no epithelial component which was confirmed by negativity of immunohistochemistry.