International Journal of Psychological Studies

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1918-7211 / 1918-722X
Current Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (10.5539)
Total articles ≅ 575
Current Coverage
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Latest articles in this journal

Barbara Sun
International Journal of Psychological Studies, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ijps.v13n2p91

Reviewer Acknowledgements for International Journal of Psychological Studies, Vol. 13, No. 2
Martin Huang
International Journal of Psychological Studies, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ijps.v13n2p84

This study was conducted to determine whether planning fallacy can be affected through the action of unpacking a to-do list. The study uses two surveys on a specific population of Amazon Turk workers and randomly assigned participants to each of the two surveys. The survey produced discrete responses that can be used to statistically determine the effect of unpacking on the effect of planning fallacy. The data were collected and analyzed through data analysis tools and the statistical concept of T-Test. Although the manipulation of unpacking a to-do list was evidently present in the experimental group, the results failed to prove the initial hypothesis that unpacking a to-do list reduces the effect of planning fallacy. 
Gowri Parameswaran
International Journal of Psychological Studies, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ijps.v13n3p1

Mainstream psychology of parenting styles minimizes the wisdom of mothers in being able to navigate parenting within a complex ever-changing system. This empirical study involves in-depth interviews conducted in two different contexts. This paper explores the major concerns mothers have about their child-rearing experiences, their children’s welfare, and the impact that these concerns have had on their personal wellbeing. The paper will outline some ways in which mothers attempt to address the barriers to a fulfilling mother-child relationship.
Hsin-Yi Yeh
International Journal of Psychological Studies, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ijps.v13n2p73

This article unveils how love, as a signified, can be constituted by the artificially constructed symbolic signs (“signifiers”) represented in our everyday life. Only when we regard love as a symbolic system and try to decipher its meanings can we understand how love is transmitted through sociomental patterns. This article attempts to provide examples from language, symbolic materials, the imprinted body, the code of temporality, and the spatial aspect to interpret the general elements that commonly form the forest of love symbols. Moreover, this article introduces cognitive sociology as a significant analytic approach to examining love. On the one hand, taking the “semantic square” proposed by Zerubavel, I articulate that when we want to understand the meanings of symbols, we usually have to embed them into their symbolic context. On the other hand, based on the distinction between marked and unmarked social categories proposed by Brekhus, I explain that more often than not, we can shed light on the marked love types even when we focus on love issues. Last, this article reminds us that the symbols of love are not fixed and constant but change according to the transformations of context.
Fabiola R. Gómez-Velázquez, Andrés A. González-Garrido, Ricardo A. Salido-Ruiz, Sulema Torres-Ramos, Aurora Espinoza-Valdez, Israel Román-Godínez, Erwin R. Villuendas-González
International Journal of Psychological Studies, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ijps.v13n2p62

Despite the recent literature on sex-related anatomic, maturational and functional brain differences, the study of significant individual developments in math learning and achievement has scarcely approached this perspective. We aimed to compare the influence of sex in functional brain connectivity and behavioral measures in a numerical comparison task. Therefore, a group of school children with ages from 8 to 11 years old was evaluated during a number comparison task. Even though the behavioral performance was similar across the sexes, males distinctly showed a significant correlation between their math WRAT-4 scores and the number of correct responses in the experimental task and working memory scores. Besides, the analysis of the concurrent EEG during task performance showed that males comparatively had a greater brain left intra-hemispheric connectivity, as well as greater interhemispheric connectivity, particularly in Theta and Alpha bands during task performing -as compared to resting-. In contrast, females showed a significantly different decrement of brain connectivity in the Alpha band from resting to task performing. Present results are interpreted as probably reflecting sex-related maturational dissimilarities in neurodevelopment, along with the progressive development of more efficient cognitive strategies, processes running not necessarily parallel in both sexes. 
Huiling Peng
International Journal of Psychological Studies, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ijps.v13n2p49

This study is an action research, a total of 12 community counselors from the community career counseling center for youth, the Taipei Youth Salon in Taiwan, were chosen as the sample, and these research subjects participated two stages of on-the-job training group. The survey results in the "Satisfaction Survey of Community Counselors Participating in GCC on-the job training group" (5-point scale) where the overall satisfaction on the development group of this study is high (M=4.8 and S=0.26); it was not only improving their career intervention skills, but also very helpful for individual stress relief (M=4.9; S=0.36). It is expected that the GCC model will have a seed effect, and the long-term vision is to use the model to train specialty-oriented career counselors/teachers for "specialty-oriented career planning courses" in higher education.
B.O.Y. Marpaung, Felicia Tania
International Journal of Psychological Studies, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ijps.v13n2p33

Tourist destination image is formed through tourists' perception, which is significantly influenced by interrelated factors related to tourists and the tourist destination itself, i.e., travel motivation, service quality, and tourist satisfaction. The object of this research is the Parapat city in Simalungun Regency North Sumatra Province of Indonesia. Parapat in Simalungun Regency, as a high potential tourist destination in North Sumatera Province of Indonesia, must be able to create a positive image to increase the number of tourist visits. The purpose of this study is to analyze the direct and indirect influence of tourists’ motivation to travel, service quality, and tourist satisfaction towards the image of Parapat. This study suggests a tourist development strategy through the formation of Parapat positive destination image from tourist’s perspective, hence will provide benefits for Parapat tourism stakeholders in developing and managing tourist destinations by improving the quality of existing functional aspects.
Saeed Abdullah Al-Dossary
International Journal of Psychological Studies, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ijps.v13n2p20

The flourishing Scale (FS) is a measure of overall life well-being. The aim of the study was to assess the psychometric properties and measurement invariance of the Arabic version of the FS in the Saudi Arabian context. Data was collected from two samples: 969 students at two universities and 299 full-time employees working in multiple sectors. Internal consistency of the FS was examined by calculating Cronbach’s alpha coefficient to test relaibility. To evaluate convergent and discriminant validity, the FS was compared with other measures of well-being, happiness, and depression. In order to examine the factor structure and the measurement invariance of the FS across study samples, confirmatory factor analysis and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis were performed. The FS showed good internal reliability as well as convergent and discriminant validity. Results also provided support for a one-factor and an invariant structure of the FS. Taken together, these results suggest that the FS Arabic version is a reliable and valid measure for the Arabic cultural context.
Frederick T. Travis, Jonathan B. Lipman, Niyazi Parim, Peter L. Hodak, Jacqueline J. Leete
International Journal of Psychological Studies, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ijps.v13n2p28

1) Background and Objectives: Position in space and passage of time are encoded in the firing of thalamic, hippocampal and entorhinal cortices in rodents. Head direction cells have been reported in freely moving monkeys, and differential brain patterns have been observed in humans while playing a navigation video game and in response to changes in electromagnetic fields. The sensitivity of organisms to environmental and electromagnetic cues could explain recommendations from a traditional system of architecture, Vastu architecture, which recommends aligning homes to the cardinal directions. 2) Hypothesis: Vastu architecture predicts that facing east and north are more advantageous than facing west and south. If facing east and north are more advantageous, then subjects should show distinct EEG patterns and improved performance when facing east and north compared to west or south. 3) Materials and Methods: EEG coherence patterns from 32-channel EEG and time-to-complete jigsaw puzzles were compared while subjects faced the four cardinal directions. 4) Results: When facing east and north, subjects’ frontal beta2 and gamma EEG coherence were significantly higher, and they assembled jigsaw puzzles significantly faster than when facing west or south. 5) Discussion: The brain findings fit the performance data. Better focus, which would reasonably be related with faster performance, is associated with higher levels of beta2 and gamma coherence. 6) Conclusion: These data support the possibility that the human brain may be sensitive to cardinal directions. This highlights how intimately we are connected to the environment and suggests a factor that may be important in orienting work spaces and designing class rooms.
Zornitsa Kalibatseva, Molly S. Arnold, Kathleen E. Connelly, Marissa L. Marottoli, Julia Tominberg, Christine Ferri, Nathan Morell
International Journal of Psychological Studies, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ijps.v13n2p14

Eating disorders are among the most stigmatized psychological disorders. Individuals with eating disorders are often blamed for their disorder. Stigma acts as a significant barrier to treatment. Health promotion outreach programs can successfully change knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors associated with disordered eating. The current study examined eating disorder stigma scores among attendees of Disordered Eating Awareness and Prevention week events at a public US university and compared their stigma scores to college students who did not attend the events. The study recruited 332 participants (n = 159 attendees, n = 173 non-attendees). Attendees completed a paper-and-pencil survey after each event and non-attendees participated in an online survey. The study found that participants who attended disordered eating outreach events reported lower stigma scores than those who did not attend. Furthermore, female gender and having a family member with an eating disorder was associated with lower stigma scores; however, having an eating disorder was not. The findings emphasize the importance of integrating stigma assessment in outreach programs and reducing stigma associated with eating disorders. 
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