Journal of Economic Entomology
ISSN / EISSN : 0022-0493 / 1938-291X
Published by: Oxford University Press (OUP) (10.1093)
Total articles ≅ 35,190
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Economic Entomology; https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toab169
The monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L., has evolved to be insensitive to milkweed cardenolides via genetic modifications of Na+/K+-ATPase. There is concern for insecticide exposures near agriculture, with little information on monarch caterpillar toxicology. It is unclear how cardenolide insensitivity may affect the sensitivity of monarch caterpillars to pyrethroid insecticides. Additionally, potassium fertilizers may affect monarch caterpillar physiology and cardenolide sequestration. Here, we investigated the growth, survival, and development of caterpillars exposed to the cardenolide ouabain, bifenthrin, and potassium chloride (KCl) alone and in combination. Caterpillars were either exposed to 1) ouabain from third- to fifth-instar stage, 2) KCl at fifth-instar stage, 3) KCl and bifenthrin at fifth-instar stage, or 4) combinations of ouabain at third-instar stage + KCl + bifenthrin at fifth-instar stage. Caterpillar weight, diet consumption, frass, and survival were recorded for the duration of the experiments. It was observed that 1–3 mg ouabain/g diet increased body weight and diet consumption, whereas 50 mg KCl/g diet decreased body weight and diet consumption. Caterpillars feeding on KCl and treated with 0.2 µg/µl bifenthrin consumed significantly less diet compared to individuals provided untreated diet. However, there was no effect on survival or body weight. Combinations of KCl + ouabain did not significantly affect caterpillar survival or body weight following treatment with 0.1 µg/µl bifenthrin. At the concentrations tested, there were no effects observed for bifenthrin sensitivity with increasing cardenolide or KCl concentrations. Further studies are warranted to understand how milkweed-specific cardenolides, at increasing concentrations, and agrochemical inputs can affect monarch caterpillar physiology near agricultural landscapes.
Journal of Economic Entomology; https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toab161
The recent invasion of Africa by fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, a lepidopteran pest of maize and other crops, has heightened concerns about food security for millions of smallholder farmers. Maize genetically engineered to produce insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a potentially useful tool for controlling fall armyworm and other lepidopteran pests of maize in Africa. In the Americas, however, fall armyworm rapidly evolved practical resistance to maize producing one Bt toxin (Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa). Also, aside from South Africa, Bt maize has not been approved for cultivation in Africa, where stakeholders in each nation will make decisions about its deployment. In the context of Africa, we address maize production and use; fall armyworm distribution, host range, and impact; fall armyworm control tactics other than Bt maize; and strategies to make Bt maize more sustainable and accessible to smallholders. We recommend mandated refuges of non-Bt maize or other non-Bt host plants of at least 50% of total maize hectares for single-toxin Bt maize and 20% for Bt maize producing two or more distinct toxins that are each highly effective against fall armyworm. The smallholder practices of planting more than one maize cultivar and intercropping maize with other fall armyworm host plants could facilitate compliance. We also propose creating and providing smallholder farmers access to Bt maize that produces four distinct Bt toxins encoded by linked genes in a single transgene cassette. Using this novel Bt maize as one component of integrated pest management could sustainably improve control of lepidopteran pests including fall armyworm.
Journal of Economic Entomology; https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toab141
The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae), is an introduced vector of the xylem-dwelling bacterium Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. (Xanthomonadales: Xanthomonadaceae) in California. Once acquired, X. fastidiosa colonizes the functional foregut of the vector. Bacteria can be inoculated directly into grapevine xylem during the xylem cell acceptance process in sharpshooter stylet probing, represented by the X wave using electropenetrography (EPG). Since 2001, an effort has been underway to develop PD-resistant grapevines, Vitis vinifera L., through classical breeding of various species of resistant wild grapevines with more susceptible V. vinifera. The present study used EPG to compare H. vitripennis stylet probing behaviors in a factorial experiment between V. champinii (a V. candicans/V. rupestris natural hybrid with moderate trichomes) and V. vinifera cv. ‘Chardonnay’ (which lacks trichomes) that had been gently scraped to remove trichomes or was not scraped. Results showed that sharpshooters performed significantly more X waves/X. fastidiosa inoculation behaviors of overall longer duration on Chardonnay than on V. champinii, regardless of shaving or not-shaving to remove trichomes. In addition, trichomes caused more frequent standing/walking/test-probing behaviors on V. champinii, whose xylem was rapidly accepted for sharpshooter ingestion once probing began. Thus, EPG can detect a novel type of grapevine resistance to X. fastidiosa—to the vector’s probing process and inoculation of bacteria—in addition to the bacterial infection and symptom development processes that are the basis for most resistance breeding today. Future research could use EPG to screen grapevines for this novel type of resistance.
Journal of Economic Entomology; https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toab118
North Carolina is the largest producer of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatus L.) in the United States but only a small percentage of total production is organic. Transition to organic sweetpotato production has been limited, in part due to a lack of effective non-chemical strategies to control wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae). To help bridge this knowledge gap, this study focused on documenting the relationship between wireworm damage to sweetpotato roots and the use of cover crops, a common way to maintain soil health in organic production. This study also tested a wireworm-resistant variety (Monaco) against the widely cultivated susceptible variety (Covington). Two different field studies were used to test the interaction between cover crops and insect-resistant sweetpotato varieties. We first examined a reduced-till cover crop system where cover crop residue remained on the soil surface when transplanting sweetpotato. The following year, we tested a fully incorporated cover crop system with spring termination and intensive tillage before sweetpotato transplanting. To complement these field studies, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to compare the efficacy of the wireworm-resistant variety with two susceptible sweetpotato varieties. Results show that varietal resistance had a strong effect on the amount of wireworm damage observed, with susceptible sweetpotato having more direct wireworm damage than the resistant variety. The effect of the cover crop was not found to be significant in any trial. This study provides important context about the role of varietal resistance in organic production and relatively low risk of cover crop use.
Journal of Economic Entomology; https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toab170
Pathogenic assessment of a baculovirus-based biopesticide containing Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV: Baculoviridae: Alphabaculovirus) infecting fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is reported. In the bioassays, neonates were infected with different doses of SfMNPV applied on Cry1Ac Bt soybean and non-Bt soybean. Our findings indicated that S. frugiperda neonates did not survive at 10 d post infection or develop into adults on Bt and non-Bt soybean sprayed with the field recommended dose of SfMNPV. In contrast, a proportion of the infected neonates developed into adults when infected with lower doses of SfMNPV (50%, 25%, and 10% of field dose) in both Bt and non-Bt soybean. However, S. frugiperda neonates surviving infection at the lowest virus doses on both soybean varieties showed longer neonate-to-pupa and neonate-to-adult periods, lower larval and pupal weights, reduced fecundity, and increased population suppression. Nevertheless, more pronounced pathogenicity of SfMNPV infecting neonates of S. frugiperda were verified on larvae that developed on Bt soybean. These findings revealed that, beyond mortality, the biopesticide containing SfMNPV also causes significant sublethal pathogenic effects on neonates of S. frugiperda developing on Bt and non-Bt soybean and suggested an additive effect among SfMNPV and Cry1Ac insecticidal protein expressed in Bt soybean.
Journal of Economic Entomology; https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toab156
Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is one of the most challenging pests of potato, Solanum tuberosum L., largely due to its propensity to develop insecticide resistance. Historically, L. decemlineata has rapidly evolved resistance to all major classes of synthetic insecticides, particularly in the eastern United States. However, in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, there have thus far been no confirmed reports of insecticide resistance despite anecdotal accounts of control failure. Hence, the objective of this study was to develop baseline data on the susceptibility of L. decemlineata in the Columbia Basin to abamectin, imidacloprid, and spinetoram, three insecticides commonly used to manage this insect. In 2018 and 2019, baseline susceptibility of four L. decemlineata populations, three from the Columbia Basin and one from Wisconsin (used as a resistant reference), was examined using topical LD50 bioassays. In general, L. decemlineata populations in the Columbia Basin exhibited relatively high sensitivity to imidacloprid, but variable sensitivity to abamectin and spinetoram among sites and years. Although small sample sizes hindered estimation of statistically significant LD50 values, results suggest that L. decemlineata in the Columbia Basin are beginning to develop levels of insensitivity to spinetoram, and possibly abamectin that are comparable to insecticide-resistant populations in Wisconsin. This preliminary examination of geographic variation in sensitivity to commonly used insecticides reinforces the value of rotating insecticide modes of action and suggests the need for continued monitoring for the development of insecticide resistance throughout the U.S. Pacific Northwest.
Journal of Economic Entomology; https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toab162
Several species of drywood termites, subterranean termites, and fungus-growing termites cause extensive economic losses annually worldwide. Because no universal method is available for controlling all termites, correct species identification is crucial for termite management. Despite deep neural network technologies’ promising performance in pest recognition, a method for automatic termite recognition remains lacking. To develop an automated deep learning classifier for termite image recognition suitable for mobile applications, we used smartphones to acquire 18,000 original images each of four termite pest species: Kalotermitidae: Cryptotermes domesticus (Haviland); Rhinotermitidae: Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes flaviceps (Oshima); and Termitidae: Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki). Each original image included multiple individuals, and we applied five image segmentation techniques for capturing individual termites. We used 24,000 individual-termite images (4 species × 2 castes × 3 groups × 1,000 images) for model development and testing. We implemented a termite classification system by using a deep learning–based model, MobileNetV2. Our models achieved high accuracy scores of 0.947, 0.946, and 0.929 for identifying soldiers, workers, and both castes, respectively, which is not significantly different from human expert performance. We further applied image augmentation techniques, including geometrical transformations and intensity transformations, to individual-termite images. The results revealed that the same classification accuracy can be achieved by using 1,000 augmented images derived from only 200 individual-termite images, thus facilitating further model development on the basis of many fewer original images. Our image-based identification system can enable the selection of termite control tools for pest management professionals or homeowners.
Journal of Economic Entomology; https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toab164
The grain aphid Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) is one of the most important cereal pests, damaging crops through sap sucking and virus transmission. Sitobion avenae harbors the secondary endosymbiont Regiella insecticola, which is highly prevalent in populations in south-central Chile and other regions of the world. In order to develop ecological alternatives for biological control, we studied the effect of applying the spores of a strain of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis on the survival and fecundity of the most prevalent genotype of S. avenae in central Chile. The strain selected was one that in previous studies had shown the ability to outcompete other bacteria. Using clones of this aphid genotype infected and uninfected with R. insecticola, we found that applying B. subtilis spores through artificial diets and spraying on leaves decreased both adult survival and nymph production. The detection of spores within the aphid body was negatively correlated with nymph production and was lower in the presence of R. insecticola when applied in diets. B. subtilis spores applied on leaves reduced the number of aphids, an effect that was stronger on aphids harboring R. insecticola. A possible interaction between endosymbiotic bacteria and bacterial antagonists within the aphid body is discussed.
Journal of Economic Entomology; https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toab160
The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), poses a serious threat to maize (Zea mays L.) growers in the U.S. Corn Belt. Transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner is the major management tactic along with crop rotation. Bt crops targeting WCR populations have been widely planted throughout the Corn Belt. Rootworms have developed resistance to nearly all management strategies including Bt corn. Therefore, there is a need for new products that are not cross-resistant with the current Bt proteins. In this study, we evaluated the susceptibility of WCR strains resistant and susceptible to Cry3Bb1 to the biological insecticide Spear-T (GS-omega/kappa-Hexatoxin-Hv1a) alone and combined with Cry3Bb1 protein. The activity of Hv1a alone was similar between Cry3Bb1-resistant and susceptible strains (LC50s = 0.95 mg/cm2 and 1.50 mg/cm2, respectively), suggesting that there is no cross-resistance with Cry3Bb1 protein. Effective concentration (EC50), molt inhibition concentration (MIC50), and inhibition concentration (IC50) values of Hv1a alone were also similar between both strains, based on non-overlapping confidence intervals. Increased mortality (64%) was observed on resistant larvae exposed to Hv1a (0.6 mg/cm2) + Cry3Bb1 protein (170.8 µg/cm2) compared to 0% mortality when exposed to Cry3Bb1 alone and 34% mortality to Hv1a alone (0.3 mg/cm2). The time of larval death was not significantly different between Hv1a alone (3.79 mg/cm2) and Hv1a (0.6 mg/cm2) + Cry3Bb1 (170.8 µg/cm2). New control strategies that are not cross-resistant with current insecticides and Bt proteins are needed to better manage the WCR, and Hv1a together with Cry3Bb1 may fit this role.
Journal of Economic Entomology; https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toab163
Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), an economically important biocontrol agent, was reared on almond pollen for 50 generations. We evaluated the effect of rearing predators on this pollen by comparing biological parameters at different generations (G1–G50). The shortest and longest development time occurred in G5 and G10, respectively. Females at the fifth and 50th generations laid eggs earlier than those of other generations. Females at G50 laid eggs over a longer period and produced more eggs than females of other generations, although females in the earlier generations had a higher gross reproductive rate and net reproductive rate than later generations. The intrinsic rate of increase, as well as the finite rate of increase of N. cucumeris in the fifth and 50th generations was significantly greater than those in other generations, while the first generation had the lowest values of these parameters. The dorsal shield length of both females and males and the width of females were found to be unaffected by their constant feeding on almond pollen. However, the number of rearing generations significantly affected the width of males. Long-term rearing of N. cucumeris for at least 50 generation on almond pollen did not substantially affect the predator's quality and this food source could be used for the mass production of this predator. Almond pollen should be assessed in rearing other phytoseiid mites that are important in biocontrol strategies.