Medical Science Monitor Basic Research

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ISSN / EISSN : 2325-4394 / 2325-4416
Published by: Termedia Sp. z.o.o. (10.12659)
Total articles ≅ 267
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Shqiptar Demaçi, Saudin Maliqi, Frederik Çuperjani, Avni Behluli, Fitim Selimi, Fadil Gradica, Burbuqe Bruçi, Tomislav Jukic, David Stubljar, Xhevdet Aliu
Medical Science Monitor Basic Research, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.12659/msmbr.932463

Agron Bytyqi, Xhevdet Aliu, Merita Barani, David Stubljar, Tomislav Jukic, Andrej Starc,
Medical Science Monitor Basic Research, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.12659/msmbr.932492

Abstract:
Periapical lesions are primarily caused by infections in the root canals. The objective of this study was to assess the antibacterial effectiveness of diode laser during root canal treatment in artificial models of infected periapical lesions. One hundred twenty-two extracted premolar single-rooted teeth were inserted into methyl methacrylate artificial models of periapical lesions, and bacterial solutions of Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Streptococcus mitis (ATCC 49456) were then applied to the models. The respective diameters of lesions in the artificial models represented 3 different subgroups based on lesion size. The laser protocol used for endodontic disinfection had a power output of 1.5 W and a wavelength of 810 nm. The impact on cell viability was evaluated by flow cytometry. Disinfection with laser did not differ between microorganisms (P=0.137), and laser irradiation with a longer duration had better disinfecting action for both microorganisms (P<0.001). Compared with larger lesions, smaller lesions had a higher percentage of dead cells for both microorganisms (P<0.001). The percentage of dead cells in the treatment groups was significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.001). Laser treatment had a poor, almost negligible effect on elimination of bacterial cells in large periapical lesions. Application of a laser might serve as an adjuvant method to standard irrigation with sodium hypochlorite.
Syed Shahid Habib, Mamoona Sultan, Adeena Khan, Thamir Al-Khlaiwi, Shahid Bashir
Medical Science Monitor Basic Research, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.12659/msmbr.930322

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to assess the correlation of physical fitness scores (PFS) with serum adiponectin, resistin, and adiponectin/resistin ratio (AR ratio) in relation to body adiposity indices in healthy adult males. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Clinical Physiology Unit, Physiology Department, King Saud University Medical City, King Saud University, Riyadh, from March 2017 to April 2018. We included 125 healthy adult males. Serum samples were obtained after overnight fasting. Analysis was performed for fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), basal insulin, lipid profile, resistin, and adiponectin. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) was used to assess body composition. Based on ideal body composition, PFS were computed as previously published for all subjects and compared with serum markers. There was a positive correlation of adiponectin with PFS (r=.218, p=0.015) and an inverse correlation with obesity degree (OD), OD (r=−.239, p=0.001), body mass index (BMI) (r=−.244, p=0.001), and waist/hip ratio (WHR) WHR (r=−.296, p=0.001). Moreover, it was correlated negatively with basal insulin (r=−.211, p=0.009) and homeostatic insulin resistance model (HOMA-IR) HOMA-IR (r=−.221, p=0.013). Resistin was correlated negatively with PFS (r=−.203, p=0.023), while its correlation with OD, BMI, WHR, and HOMA-IR was not significant. AR ratio was positively correlated with PFS (r=.286, p=0.001) and negatively with OD (r=−.210, p=0.019), BMI (r=−.222, p=0.013), WHR (r=−.308, p=0.001) and basal insulin (r=−.237, p=0.008). In linear regression analysis, the relationship of PFS was significant with adiponectin (r=.218, p=0.015), resistin (r=−.203, p=0.023) and AR ratio (r=.286, p=0.001). ROC curve analysis showed that individually the values of adiponectin and resistin were not significantly correlated with PFS, but they were significant with the combined AR ratio with AUC 64.6% (p=0.029). Serum adiponectin was positively correlated and resistin was negatively correlated with physical fitness scores based on healthy body composition with low proportion of body adiposity and a higher proportion of fat-free mass. However, the combined effect of adiponectin/resistin ratio is an even better predictor of physical fitness. Moreover, the adiponectin/resistin ratio is even more highly associated with physical fitness than adiponectin or resistin alone.
Syed Shahid Habib, Mamoona Sultan, Adeena Khan, Thamir Al-Khlaiwi, Shahid Bashir
Medical Science Monitor Basic Research, Volume 27

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Vesara A. Gatera, , Ida Musfiroh, Raden Tina D. Judistiani, Budi Setiabudiawan, Rizky Abdulah
Medical Science Monitor Basic Research, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.12659/msmbr.931481

Abstract:
Studies have shown that lung inflammation affects lung function, with life-threatening results. Vitamin D may play an important role in inhibiting inflammatory cytokines. Vitamin D deficiency is related to several lung problems, including respiratory distress syndrome, alveolar inflammation, epithelial damage, and hypoxia. Few studies have evaluated the benefits of vitamin D in preventing inflammation in alveolar cells. We developed a cell inflammation model induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. The effects of vitamin D on LPS-induced inflammation in A549 cells were examined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the anti-inflammatory mechanism of vitamin D was evaluated using western blot analysis. Our results indicated that vitamin D promoted A549 cell survival following LPS-induced inflammation by downregulating nuclear factor nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-12. Our results indicated that vitamin D has the potential to manage lung inflammation, although further studies are needed.
Vesara A Gatera, Ronny Lesmana, Ida Musfiroh, Raden Tina D Judistiani, Budi Setiabudiawan, Rizky Abdulah
Medical Science Monitor Basic Research, Volume 27

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Rudi Hendra, Rohimatul Khodijah, Rianti Putri, Riezki Amalia, Yuli Haryani, Hilwan Yuda Teruna, Rizky Abdulah
Medical Science Monitor Basic Research, Volume 27

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Rohimatul Khodijah, Rianti Putri, Riezki Amalia, Yuli Haryani, Hilwan Yuda Teruna, Rizky Abdulah
Medical Science Monitor Basic Research, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.12659/msmbr.931118

Abstract:
Dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is one of the most common fruits in tropical countries, including Indonesia. The unique deep purple-colored pulp of the fruit is eaten whole and consumed as juice. However, the inedible thick peel is wasted, causing environmental issues. In this study, the toxic, cytotoxic, and antiplasmodium activity from various extract of H. polyrhizus peels were examined. We evaluated the cytotoxicity and antiplasmodial properties of the various peel extracts by using different organic solvents.The extraction of the peels was conducted using maceration to obtain pigment, n-hexane, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate extracts. The toxicity of the extract was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality test, followed by WST assay to test in vitro cytotoxic properties and in vitro antiplasmodial properties in 2 Plasmodium falciparum strains (3D7 and W2). The n-hexane, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate extracts depicted various levels of activity, whereas the pigment extract did not show any activities. However, dichloromethane demonstrated a high toxicity level with LC50 of 10.32±0.13 μg/mL and a weak cytotoxic level against SK-OV-3 cell lines (IC50 of 560.86±0.63 μg/mL). Moreover, the dichloromethane and n-hexane extracts showed high and promising antiplasmodial activity with IC50 2.13±0.42 and 6.51±0.49 μg/mL, respectively. The dichloromethane extract demonstrated high antiplasmodial activity. Our observations have elucidated the cytotoxic and antiplasmodial activity of the peel of dragon fruits and can be used as a foundation for further research into the isolation and bioactivity of secondary metabolites.
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