Advances in Biological Chemistry

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2162-2183 / 2162-2191
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 275
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Moraes Fabricio Tarso, Galvão Anderson Dourado, Fortaleza Dário Batista, Amorin Kelly Aparecida Da Encarnação, Sousa Claudia Cristina, Honorio-França Adenilda Cristina, França Eduardo Luzia, Costa Daniel Tizo, Santos Wagner Batista
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 10, pp 86-98; doi:10.4236/abc.2020.103007

Abstract:
To synthesize, characterize and evaluate the antitumor potential derived from ruthenium compounds was generated in this study, from the precursor K[RuCl4(bipy)] a route in a simple and reproducible synthesis for a novel compound of coordinating Ru+3 with bipy and L-trip. The spectroscopic characterization in the middle infrared region (FTIR) shows the interactions between Ru-(L-trip), evidenced by the displacement of the carboxylate ion band for higher energies, and also by the displacements of aliphatic amine bands, suggesting that bidentate coordination of the L-trip ligand occurred. Analysis of the results obtained with thermoanalytical techniques showed that the minimum formula of the compound, [RuCl2(bipy)(L-trip)]1/2H2O. Evaluation of the antitumor potential of precursor K[RuCl4(bipy)] showed the toxic effects on MCF-7 cell line, but did not show selectivity and not reached PBMC cells to the same extent. The evaluation of the antitumor potential of the newly synthesized compound, [RuCl2(bipy)(L-trip)], demonstrated that the insertion of an L-tryptophan molecule into the precursor coordination sphere made it selective when compared to PBMC cells, for MCF-7 type tumor cells.
B. O. Muyiwa, N. S. Emmanuel, F. M. Yahuza, M. Aliyu, C. U. Inegbenosun, I. Musah
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 10, pp 43-54; doi:10.4236/abc.2020.102004

Abstract:
The experiment was conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of Adenium obesum stem bark in juveniles of Clarias gariepinus by assessing the hematological responses of the exposed groups compared to the control in a static non-renewal bioassay for 96 hours. The fishes (N = 180, mean weight and length 21.48 ± 3.32 g and 11.37 ± 1.23 cm) respectively were randomly distributed 10 (ten) fishes per group in triplicates constituting six experimental groups as follows; G1 (Control), G2 (6.5 mg/l), G3 (7.8 mg/l), G4 (8.5 mg/l), G5 (9.5 mg/l) and G6 (11.5 mg/l). Red blood cell (RBC) count, packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin concentration were decreased significantly (P Adenium obesum stem bark is toxic to erythrocytes while a converse adaptive response in the white blood cells.
Siye Chen, Chen Siye
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 10, pp 55-65; doi:10.4236/abc.2020.102005

Abstract:
Ganoderma lucidum is a wildly used medicinal mushroom and has been used in East Asia because of its health-benefit effects. G. lucidum contains various compounds with different biological activities, which include anti-tumour, anti-viral, and anti-malaria effect. Ganoderic acid (GA) is a triterpenoid from G. lucidum. The biosynthesis of GA in G. lucidum is induced by stressors including various elicitors or signaling molecules, and artificially placing elicitors would enhance GA production. In this paper, bioactivities and potential applications of GAs would be focused, and the elicitation strategies for GA production are also highlighted based on the fundamental role of ROS, JA, Ca2+ and NO, which would shed light to developing a novel approach to manipulating the biosynthesis of GA in the future.
Sujjat Al Azad, Viearl Jivel Jinau
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 10, pp 113-126; doi:10.4236/abc.2020.104009

Abstract:
Kota Kinabalu Wetland is importantly habited of mangrove, diverse aquatic flora and fauna as well as feeding stop for migratory birds. This wetland is inundated with the tidal flow, as connected with a small river and nearby coastal areas, thus. A study was carried out to determine the spatial distribution of dissolved inorganic nutrients and phytoplankton diversity at Kota Kinabalu (KK) Wetlands. Five stations, in which river mouth of Likas Bay, river channel (two stations) and inundated area (two stations) in KK Wetland were selected for this study. In-situ parameters of water, water for nutrients and phytoplankton samples were collected from May 2019 until October 2019. The highest concentration of nitrate (0.115 mg/L) was recorded at inundated area of wetland (S5) while the lowest nitrate concentration (0.0047 mg/L) was found at river (S3) flowing towards wetland. The concentrations of ammonia (0.2004 to 2.311 mg/L) were recorded relatively higher at every station compared to other dissolved inorganic nutrients (DIN). The concentration of phosphate was determined in the ranges of 0.0089 - 0.0513 mg/L. Nitrate, ammonia and phosphate showed no significant difference (P = 0.737) in terms of DIN concentration at all five sampling stations during the study period. Twenty-four genera of phytoplankton were identified, dominated by diatoms (55.29%), followed by dinoflagellates (24.95%), Chrysophyta (11.15%), Spirotrichea (5.28%) and Cyanophyta (3.33%). Dominating species throughout the study period include Chaetoceros sp., Pseduo-nitzschia sp., and Cylindrotheca closterium, Peridinium quinquecorne and Alexandrium sp. Phytoplankton species compositions were observed the highest in river mouth area in July with the highest density of 12.115 × 104 cells/mL. The study showed that nutrient concentration was insignificant (P = 0.614) in altering the phytoplankton density, as influences with the tidal water.
Eisaku Shimizu, Nozomu Shimoda, Tetsuaki Kawamura, Naomi Ueda, Ken-Ichi Kimura
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 10, pp 99-112; doi:10.4236/abc.2020.103008

Abstract:
Background/Aim: Kuji amber is an interesting natural source for drug discovery because a new anti-allergic compound, named kujigamberol and several new compounds have been isolatated from it. It was important to evaluate the yield, biological activities and constituents of each methanol extract of Kuji, Iwaki, Choshi, Mizunami and Ube ambers in Japan in order to establish if additional new compounds could be identified in these ambers. Materials and Method: Biological activities of each extract were evaluated using growth-restoring activity of the mutant yeast strain involving Ca2+-signal transduction and inhibition activity of degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Constituents of each extract were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: All ambers except Ube amber have growth-restoring activity against the mutant yeast. Both Kuji and Iwaki ambers inhibited the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells induced by the calcium ionophore A23187 in a dose dependent manner. The main biologically active compound in Kuji amber, kujigamberol, was also isolated from Iwaki amber and analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Conclusion: Kuji and Iwaki ambers appeared to have the same origin. Choshi, Mizunami, and Ube ambers are valuable sources for biologically active compounds which are different from those of Kuji amber.
Temitayo O. Aiyelabola, Ezekiel O. Akinkunmi, Raphael Akinade
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 10, pp 25-42; doi:10.4236/abc.2020.102003

Abstract:
Coordination compounds of (±)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid and their mixed ligand complexes with 1,10-phenantroline were synthesized, characterized using electronic and infrared spectral analyses and magnetic susceptibility. The compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Four different assays were applied for evaluating antioxidant capacity of the compounds. The results obtained indicated a diametric square planar geometry for both cobalt (±)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid complex and its mixed ligand complex. It was suggested that for the binary cobalt(II) complex, the phenolic substituent coordinated with neighbouring central metal ions. However, for the ternary cobalt(II) complex it was suggested it was deprotonated. Octahedral geometry was proposed for both copper complexes. Square planar geometry was indicated for the nickel (±)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid complex and a mixture of square planar and octahedral geometry for the nickel mixed ligand complex. The cobalt mixed ligand complex elicited the highest activity for all the antioxidant assays. In most cases the binary complexes exhibited better antimicrobial activities relative to their ternary counterparts.
Temitayo O. Aiyelabola, Iyanuoluwa E. Okunade, Johan H. L. Jordaan, Daniel P. Otto
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 10, pp 67-85; doi:10.4236/abc.2020.103006

Abstract:
Coordination compounds of 2-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid were synthesized with chromium(III) and oxovanadium(IV) ions. M:L; 1:2. Adducts of these complexes using 1,10-phenantroline and ethylenediamine were further synthesized, M:L, (1:2). These compounds were characterized using electronic, infra-red spectrophotometry, magnetic susceptibility measurement and percentage metal analyses. The zones of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentrations of the compounds against eight microbes were studied. The results obtained indicated an octahedral geometry for the Cr(III) complexes, indicative of additional coordination of two water molecules. On the other hand a square pyramid geometry was obtained for the binary oxovanadium complex and its 1,10-phenantroline adduct. However, for the oxovanadium ethylenediamine adduct a distorted octahedral geometry was proposed. The result for the antibacterial studies indicated that both mixed ligand complexes of 1,10-phenantroline exhibited good antibacterial activity, and in some cases better activity than the standard, streptomycin.
Kumar Soni Anil, Singh Pratibha, Kumar Sahu Vishnu, Anil Kumar Soni, Pratibha Singh, Vishnu Kumar Sahu
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 10, pp 1-15; doi:10.4236/abc.2020.101001

Abstract:
Experimental determination of BCFs is expensive and demanding if performed correctly. Because of this, measuring the BCFs of many thousands of chemical substances that are potential regulatory interest is simply not possible. Hence, prediction of BCFs of the PCBs based on QSAR were made time to time to increase the probability of success and reduce the time and cost in exploring the toxicological and ecological characteristics of molecules. DFT methods are, in general, capable of generating a variety of isolated molecular descriptors as well as local reactivity descriptors quite accurately. In this work, prediction of BCFs of the fifty seven PCBs based on quantum chemical descriptors derived from DFT method using the B88-PW91 GGA energy function with the DZVP basis set have been made. The study concluded that dipole moment and ionization potential are reliable descriptors for correlation of bioconcentration factors of polychlorinated biphenyls with their electronic structures. The resulted QSAR model (r2 = 0.9139, = 0.8986, k = 2, SE = 0.2668) can be useful for predicting the BCFs of compounds prior to their synthesis.
Lamayi Danbature Wilson, Shehu Zaccheus, Yoro Mela, Mustapha Adam Muhammad, Wilson Lamayi Danbature, Zaccheus Shehu, Mela Yoro, Muhammad Mustapha Adam
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 10, pp 16-23; doi:10.4236/abc.2020.101002

Abstract:
Synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles has employed many applications especially as larvicidal agents, these bimetallic nanoparticles therefore need to be produced via a cost-effective and eco-friendly route. Here, green synthesis of Ag-Co hybrid nanoparticles obtained from aqueous root extract of palmyra palm was reported. The hybrid nanoparticles formation was noticed by a colour change from light pink to light brown and further studied using UV-Vis and FT-IR spectrophotometers. The maximum absorption wavelength, λmax as determined by the UV-Visible Spectrophotometer was found to be 420 nm. The FT-IR showed the formation and stabilization of the BMNPs. The nanolarvicidal potency was evaluated by the application of varying concentration ranging from 5 to 50 mg/L against first to fourth instars of larvae and recording the percentage mortality after 24 hours. Probit analysis showed the LC50 and LC90 for 1st instar to be 5.237 mg/L and 49.240 mg/L, 9.310 mg/L and 94.969 mg/L for 2nd instar, 13.626 mg/L and 105.542 mg/L for 3rd/4th instars respectively. This result therefore suggests that the nanoparticles can be used as potential control for larval population growth.
Qing-Min Feng, Yang Shao, Rong Jiao, Hong-Wei Wei, Ming-Qiang Dai, Huixing Xie, Caixia Xu, Ji-Ke Li, Jun Wang, Jiu-Tao Wu, et al.
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 9, pp 54-67; doi:10.4236/abc.2019.92005

Abstract:
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a hypoxia related disease. However, the relationship of the hypoxia-induced oxidative stress, autophagy and apoptosis in cardiomyocyte remains unclear. In this study, we used CoCl2 to mimic hypoxic conditions in H9c2 cardiomyocytes and study the effects of CoCl2-induced hypoxia on oxidative stress, apoptosis and autophagy, as well as the relationships among these processes. Cell viability and levels of ROS, LC3-II, p62, caspase-3 and PARP were assessed. The viability and morphology of cardiomyocytes were affected by hypoxia, and hypoxia enhanced levels of ROS and the levels of the LC3-II, p62, caspase-3 and PARP proteins in H9c2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. ROS levels rise gradually in the presence of hypoxia; however, it shrinks when hypoxia reaches a certain level. Caspase-3 and PARP levels were raised with the increasing of hypoxia level. Enhanced level of LC3 and decreased levels of p62 in hypoxic cells indicate that autophagy levels are in accord with hypoxia. Based on these results, hypoxia induces oxidative stress, apoptosis and autophagy in cardiomyocytes. Autophagy is a double-edged sword. At a low level, autophagy can resist oxidative stress and protect cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress, while high level autophagy can promote apoptosis of cardiomyocytes.
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