Advances in Biological Chemistry

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2162-2183 / 2162-2191
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 304
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Bjørn Kristiansen, Ronald J. Amen
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 12, pp 16-28; https://doi.org/10.4236/abc.2022.121002

Abstract:
After proving safety in animal and human models, a series of clinical trials were conducted to examine the administration of 1 mg/mL bid of an undenatured beta-glucan on the immune system; and on self-perceived effects on subjects’ quality of life (QoL) using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). In one study, a subject population that was self-perceived to be fatigued was administered an undetaured beta-glucan, to determine if this supplementation affected their quality-of-life as a result of an increased immune system response. 44 subjects were administered 1 mg/mL bid of the undenatured beta-glucan (Lentinex®) for four weeks. Prior to the beginning of the administration, and following the four-week administration period, the subjects were asked to fill out a quality-of-life VAS questionnaire. The changes in the two questionnaires revealed differences that occurred as a result of the beta-glucan administration. More than 75% of the subjects scored “better” (more than 1 cm on the VAS) with regard to feeling in a good mood, and feeling rested. More than 60% increased their energy and reduced their tiredness and exhaustion, and 70% felt less stressed. In a second study, subjects aged 40 years and older, believed to be in good general health, seeking therapy for tiredness/exhaustion/fatigue or similar conditions (neurasthenia) which were administered 1 mg/mL bid Lentinex®. The overall results indicated that the subjects felt significantly better (mean VAS = 5.91) after the last week of the study compared to how they felt initially (VAS = 4.73) (p ® administration improved the perceived quality-of-life of subjects whose immune system was probably not functioning at optimal levels.
Sri Vidawati, Udo Bakowsky
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 12, pp 29-37; https://doi.org/10.4236/abc.2022.121003

Abstract:
This paper reports the recent findings related to the stability properties of tetraether lipid layers. Organizations moleculars of chemical structure modified of Langmuir-Blodgett layers of archael tetraether lipids from the archebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius on the wafer silicon substrates are investigated stable and organized. The behavior of Langmuir-Blodgett layers of chemical structure modified of archaeal tetraether lipids on the wafer silicon substrates is characterization using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The thermodynamics behavior and stability of Langmuir-Blodgett layers of archael tetraether lipids on the wafer silicon substrates are shown. Stability of the lipid membranes is of great importance to a number of biomedical applications, including intravenous drug delivery, biomaterials, and biosensors.
Kouassi Francesco Adingra, Souleymane Coulibaly, Kacou Alain, Mahama Ouattara, Drissa Sissouma
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 12, pp 81-91; https://doi.org/10.4236/abc.2022.124008

Abstract:
In this work, we show the synthesis of ten (10) new derivatives of 3-imidazo [1,2-a]pyridinyl-1-arylpropenone (10a - d). These new compounds were obtained by condensation of Claisen-Schmidt between derivatives of 2-substi- tuted-1H-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-carbaldehyde (3a - b and 7) and acetophenone derivatives (9a - e) in the presence of a base. The synthesized compounds were characterized by spectroscopic analyses 1H and 13C NMR. The antifungal activity of the ten (10) derivatives was determined on a resistant strain of Candida albicans by the microdilution method. The results showed that four (4) of them (10a, 10b, 10c and 10i) were active with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) below 300 μmol/L. Of these four compounds, 10i was more potent than the others with a MIC of 41.98 μmol/L.
Elena N. Kalinichenko, Irina V. Ponteleeva, Marina B. Golubeva
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 12, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.4236/abc.2022.121001

Abstract:
Leukovir, an enteric-coated tablet, is the original drug product for internal use. The well-known nucleosides cladribine and ribavirin are the active ingredients of the drug product leukovir. Pharmacokinetic parameters of the drug product for the internal use of leukovir active ingredients have been established. The cladribine half-absorption period was t1/2a = 49.5 h, C0 = 276.4 μg/ml, Cmax = 6.0 μg/ml. Distribution and accumulation parameters (Vd, Vss and AUC) have indicated that the drug distribution between the blood cells and blood plasma takes place in the same way, irrespective of the dosage form. Cladribine half-life period is t1/2e = 0.62 hours. The molecule total clearance and average lifetime in the body in the case of subcutaneous drug administration are approximately the same. Ribavirin is characterized by a half-absorption period of t1/2a = 0.71 h, C0 = 115.6 μg/ml and Cmax = 75.5 μg/ml. Ribavirin total volume of distribution (Vd = 1.3 l/kg) and stationary volume of distribution (Vss = 1.64 l/kg) were practically similar to leukovir when administered subcutaneously. The AUC value = 504.2 μg h/ml, which is 2.5 times less than that in the case of drug form administration. Leukovir was regarded as slightly toxic in an acute toxicity study. The risk of cumulation for this drug product is low.
Abel Mbaiogaou, Severin Mbaihougadobe, Salomon Madjitoloum Betoloum, Adama Hema, Eloi Pale, Samaté Dorosso Abdoul
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 12, pp 73-80; https://doi.org/10.4236/abc.2022.124007

Abstract:
In order to make Mucuna seeds consumable, seeds are treated according to the following procedures: boiling, soaking followed by boiling in the presence of 0.5% KOH and finally soaking for a long time followed by boiling in the presence of 0.5% KOH, so that tannins can be removed. Preliminary studies done on the raw seeds of four Mucuna species revealed the presence of tannins. The results showed that the crushed seeds contained all high tannin with the content of 0.370 g GAE/100g DM, 0.336 g GAE/100g DM; 0.266 g GAE/100g DM and 0.203 g GAE/100g DM for Mucuna deerigiana, Mucuna nagaland, Mucuna cochinchinensis and Mucuna rajada respectively. The different methods of seed treatment significantly reduced the tannin content in Mucuna seeds. The method of soaking the seeds for 12 hours and then scalding in the presence of 0.5% KOH reduced tannins in Mucuna deerigiana, Mucuna nagaland, Mucuna cochinchinensis, and Mucuna rajada seeds by 47.29%; 48.21%; 66.16%; and 15.76% respectively. This method gave the highest tannin reduction rate.
Patience Chwe Igeh, Elkanah Ishaku, Jacob Gungsat Nangbes, Solomon Choji, Francis Obiora Okonkwo
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 12, pp 48-60; https://doi.org/10.4236/abc.2022.122005

Abstract:
Erythrina senegalensis is utilized in the treatment of liver diseases in folklore medicine in most of northern Nigeria, but sufficient pharmacological-based and peer-reviewed scientific literature is not available to authenticate its use in the treatment of liver ailments. This research is aimed at assessing the hepatoprotective effects of Erythrina senegalensis against paracetamol-induced (PCM-induced) hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. This was evaluated by estimating the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as compared with the control group. The extract was concentrated and then desired concentrations of extracts were made by dissolving in normal saline. Four different doses of aqueous extracts Erythrina senegalensis (200, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg) were administered orally for 6 consecutive days after the 72 hrs administration of paracetamol (1500 mg/kg) per body weight. Paracetamol significantly induced oxidative stress in the liver, ultimately leading to increased serum levels of liver enzyme markers like alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. Administration of the extracts showed significant (p 0.05) and dose-dependent hepatoprotective activity resulting in decrease in the activity of ALT, AST and ALP. These data revealed that Erythrina senegalensis aqueous extracts possess significant hepatoprotective activity against PCM-induced toxicity attributable to its constituent phytochemicals. The mechanism of hepatoprotection seems to be through the modulation of antioxidant enzyme systems.
Ablo Evrard, Coulibali Siomenan, Camara Tchambaga Etienne, Toure Daouda, Coulibaly Souleymane, Sissouma Drissa, Adjou Ané
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 165-177; https://doi.org/10.4236/abc.2021.114012

Abstract:
A series of novel substituted benzimidazole (7a - n) derivatives were synthesized and characterized by 1H, 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra and High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS). The substitution was done in position -1 and -2 by appropriate groups. These compounds are obtained by N-alkylation reaction with thiomethyl-1H-benzimidazole intermediates (5a - g). Design of intermediates (5a - g) was made by condensation reaction between 2-methylbenzimidazole thiourunium salt (3) and functionalized halides (4) in the presence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Among the twenty-one compounds synthesized, ten were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity on three bacterial strains namely: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Only E. coli ATTC 25922 was susceptible to the synthesized derivatives 5g, 7f and 7h with a significant antibacterial activity (CMI is between 250 and 500 μg/mL).
Temitayo Aiyelabola, Johan Jordaan, Daniel Otto, Ezekiel Akinkunmi
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 79-105; https://doi.org/10.4236/abc.2021.113007

Abstract:
Non-template [2 + 2] condensation of benzene-1,4-dicarboxaldehyde with two diamines: ethane-1,2-diamine and propane-1,2-diamine was carried out to give Ligands 1 and 2. Additionally, template [1 + 2] condensation of benzene-1,4-dicarboxaldehyde with ethane-1,2-diamine and propane-1,2-diamine were also carried out to give Ligands 3 and 4. These were characterized using 1H and 13C NMR, UV-Vis and infra-red spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Coordination compounds of each ligand were further synthesized using Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions. They were characterized by Uv-vis, infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, magnetic susceptibility and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy EDX. The ligands and complexes were further analyzed for their antimicrobial activities and extraction efficiency. The results obtained suggested that tetraaza macrocyclic and linear compounds were obtained for [2 + 2] and [1 + 2] condensation reactions respectively. Coordination compounds of the macrocyclic ligand yielded octahedral geometry for Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of Ligand 1 and square planar geometry for Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of Ligand 2. On the other hand square planar geometry was proposed for coordination compounds of Ligand 3 and 4 exception for the Ni(II) complex of Ligand 3. All ligands coordinated to the metal ion in a tetradentate fashion. In some cases chelation enhanced the antimicrobial activity of some of the ligands. The results further showed that Ligands 1-4 effectively extracted cadmium(II). zinc(II) and lead(II) ions in solution.
Temitayo O. Aiyelabola
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 106-125; https://doi.org/10.4236/abc.2021.113008

Abstract:
Coordination compounds of 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one with iron(III), cobat(III) and chromium(III) were synthesized with M:L (1:2). Mixed ligand coordination compounds of 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one and 1,2-diaminocyclohexane using the same metal ions were also synthesized M:L1:L2 (1:1:1) where L1 is 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one and L2 is 1,2-diaminocyclohexane. The coordination compounds obtained were characterized using electronic and infrared spectral analyses, magnetic susceptibility and percentage metal analysis. They were also evaluated for their cytotoxic and antioxidant activities. The result obtained suggested that octahedral geometry was obtained for all the compounds, as a result of additional two molecules of the solvent coordinated to the metal ions. Both the primary and secondary ligands coordinated in a bidentate fashion. The synthesized compounds exhibited moderate cytotoxicity, although none was as active as the standard. The cobalt(III) mixed ligand complex elicited the highest activity. The synthesized compounds all exhibited good to moderate antioxidant activity.
Nikolay Tupitsyn
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 12-14; https://doi.org/10.4236/abc.2021.111002

Abstract:
There are some forgotten items. There is a specific way to eradicate cancer cells at the very early stage of their appearance. Natural humoral immunity with CD5+ B-cell produced pentameric IgM to cancer associated glycans normally to eliminate arising cancer cells. This branch of innate immunity is decreasing with age and that is a basis for selective immunodeficieny which may be corrected. This area of research was well studied and proved by the team of Prof. Vollmers (Germany), but then forgotten for about 15 years.
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