Advances in Biological Chemistry

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ISSN / EISSN : 2162-2183 / 2162-2191
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
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Total articles ≅ 287
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Temitayo Aiyelabola, Johan Jordaan, Daniel Otto, Ezekiel Akinkunmi
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 79-105; doi:10.4236/abc.2021.113007

Abstract:
Non-template [2 + 2] condensation of benzene-1,4-dicarboxaldehyde with two diamines: ethane-1,2-diamine and propane-1,2-diamine was carried out to give Ligands 1 and 2. Additionally, template [1 + 2] condensation of benzene-1,4-dicarboxaldehyde with ethane-1,2-diamine and propane-1,2-diamine were also carried out to give Ligands 3 and 4. These were characterized using 1H and 13C NMR, UV-Vis and infra-red spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Coordination compounds of each ligand were further synthesized using Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions. They were characterized by Uv-vis, infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, magnetic susceptibility and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy EDX. The ligands and complexes were further analyzed for their antimicrobial activities and extraction efficiency. The results obtained suggested that tetraaza macrocyclic and linear compounds were obtained for [2 + 2] and [1 + 2] condensation reactions respectively. Coordination compounds of the macrocyclic ligand yielded octahedral geometry for Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of Ligand 1 and square planar geometry for Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of Ligand 2. On the other hand square planar geometry was proposed for coordination compounds of Ligand 3 and 4 exception for the Ni(II) complex of Ligand 3. All ligands coordinated to the metal ion in a tetradentate fashion. In some cases chelation enhanced the antimicrobial activity of some of the ligands. The results further showed that Ligands 1-4 effectively extracted cadmium(II). zinc(II) and lead(II) ions in solution.
Temitayo O. Aiyelabola
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 106-125; doi:10.4236/abc.2021.113008

Abstract:
Coordination compounds of 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one with iron(III), cobat(III) and chromium(III) were synthesized with M:L (1:2). Mixed ligand coordination compounds of 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one and 1,2-diaminocyclohexane using the same metal ions were also synthesized M:L1:L2 (1:1:1) where L1 is 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one and L2 is 1,2-diaminocyclohexane. The coordination compounds obtained were characterized using electronic and infrared spectral analyses, magnetic susceptibility and percentage metal analysis. They were also evaluated for their cytotoxic and antioxidant activities. The result obtained suggested that octahedral geometry was obtained for all the compounds, as a result of additional two molecules of the solvent coordinated to the metal ions. Both the primary and secondary ligands coordinated in a bidentate fashion. The synthesized compounds exhibited moderate cytotoxicity, although none was as active as the standard. The cobalt(III) mixed ligand complex elicited the highest activity. The synthesized compounds all exhibited good to moderate antioxidant activity.
Nikolay Tupitsyn
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 12-14; doi:10.4236/abc.2021.111002

Abstract:
There are some forgotten items. There is a specific way to eradicate cancer cells at the very early stage of their appearance. Natural humoral immunity with CD5+ B-cell produced pentameric IgM to cancer associated glycans normally to eliminate arising cancer cells. This branch of innate immunity is decreasing with age and that is a basis for selective immunodeficieny which may be corrected. This area of research was well studied and proved by the team of Prof. Vollmers (Germany), but then forgotten for about 15 years.
Arun D. Bhutnar, Seema R. Saple, Vikas V. Vaidya
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 15-29; doi:10.4236/abc.2021.111003

Abstract:
The present work encompasses identification and characterization of major degradation product (DP) of OSM observed in base hydrolytic stress study. The separation of DP was carried out on a non-polar stationary phase by using high-performance liquid chromatography system (HPLC). Using waters X-bridge (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) C18 column with gradient elution program. For the characterization study, stress samples were subjected to HPLC and UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and based on mass fragmentation pattern, plausible structure was deduced. Further, the DP was isolated using semi-prepara- tive liquid chromatography and concentrated the fractions using lyophilization. The isolated DP was subjected to extensive 1D (1H, 13C, and DEPT-135) and 2D (COSY, HSQC and HMBC) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies to authenticate the structure. The impurity was unambiguously named as N-(2-((2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)(methyl)amino)-4-metho-xy-5-((4-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)phenyl)-3-methoxypropanamide. Add- itionally, the In-Silico structure activity relation (QSAR) assessed through statistical based software’s DEREK NexusTM, and MultiCASE, Case UltraTM widely accepted and respected software’s for DP and OSM.
Cyrille Ngoufack Tagousop, Jean-De-Dieu Tamokou, Leonel Donald Tsamo Feugap, Dominique Harakat, Laurence Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, David Ngnokam
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 1-11; doi:10.4236/abc.2021.111001

Abstract:
A new hemisynthetic oleanane saponin: 4',2",3",4",6"-penta-O-acetyl-6'-O- methyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl oleanolic acid (2) was obtained after acetylation and methylation reaction on 3-O-β-D- glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl oleanolic acid (1). Its structure was established by extensive analysis of 1D-(1H, 13C), 2D-(COSY, HSQC and HMBC) NMR data in conjunction with mass spectrometry (HR- TOFESIMS). The evaluation of antimicrobial activities using microdilution method showed that, reaction product (2) presented the lowest values of MIC against E. coli (MIC = 16 μg/mL), S. aureus (MIC = 8 μg/mL), C. tropicalis (MIC = 16 μg/mL) C. albicans (MIC = 8 μg/mL) compare to the substrate (1) against the same microbial strains: E. coli (MIC = 32 μg/mL), S. aureus (MIC = 16 μg/mL), C. tropicalis (MIC = 32 μg/mL), C. albicans (MIC = 16 μg/mL). These results indicate that, acetylation and methylation reactions of compound 1 increase its antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms.
Simeon Pierre Chegaing Fodouop, Alex Doris Kengni Mboussaah, Didiane Yemele Mefokou, Alain Bertrand Fowa, Mahwish Siddiqui, Gabriel T. Kamsu, Donatien Gatsing, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 65-77; doi:10.4236/abc.2021.112006

Abstract:
Several androgenic steroids have been biotransformed by fungi into metabolites with numerous biological properties. Incubation of norandrostenedione (1) with Fusarium lini NRRL 2204 was carried out for the first time, yielding two new metabolites, 3,7β-dihydroxy-19-norandrost-1,3,5-trien-17-one (3) and 6α,10β,17β-trihydroxy-19-nor-4-androsten-3-one (4), along with three known compounds, 3-hydroxy-19-norandrost-1,3,5-trien-17-one (2), 10β, 17β-dihydroxy-19-nor-4-androsten-3-one (5) and 10β-hydroxy-19-nor-4- androsten-3,17-dione (6). Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D-, 2D-NMR, and HR-MS experiments. Substrate 1 and its derivatives 2-6 were evaluated in vitro for their urease and chymotrypsin inhibitory properties. Compounds 2 and 3 were found to have strong urease activity with IC50 = 23.7 ± 0.17 and 10.2 ± 0.28 μm, respectively, as compared to the standard drug thiourea (IC50 = 21.6 ± 0.12 μm). Compounds 4, 5 and 6 showed good chymotrypsin activity with IC50 values of 6.4 ± 0.19, 15.6 ± 0.46 and 18.4 ± 0.65 μm, respectively, as compared to standard chymostatin with IC50 = 5.7 ± 0.14 μm. These transformed metabolites may form the basis for the future development of new drugs against ulcer, inflammation, bacterial and viral diseases.
Modibo Coulibaly, Bakary Maiga, Dramane Samaké, Moussa Diawara, Mahamadou Traoré, Valentin Sagara, Bréhima Traoré, Oumar Guindo, Amagana Dolo
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 52-63; doi:10.4236/abc.2021.111005

Abstract:
Background: The rapid diagnostic tests play a pivotal role in the screening of viral markers in blood qualification for transfusion in limited resource setting. Therefore, it is important to assess their analytical performances to ensure their proper functioning. Material and Methods: We performed a cross- sectional study by successive recruitment to assess the diagnostic value of rapid diagnostic tests algorithms using ELISA as a reference test. A total of 661 blood from donors were enrolled for this study. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) and ELISA tests were performed for each sample by a couple of double-blinded biotechnologists. Data were collected on case report form and captured in Microsoft Excel then the file was imported and analyzed using R software version 4.0.3. Results: The diagnostic accuracy for the algorithms are summarized in Table 1. For HIV-algorithm, the internal validity parameters were as follow: sensitivity (sens) 99.0% (95% CI = 97.8, 99.5); specificity (spec) 98.3% (95% CI = 90.9, 99.7); positive likelihood ratio (PLR) 57.4 (95% CI = 8.2, 401.0); negative likelihood ratio (NLR) 0.01 (95% CI = 0.0005, 0.02); diagnostic odd ratio (DOR) 4710. HBV-Ag/Ab RDTs achieve the following diagnostic accuracy: sens 99.7% (95% CI = 98.3, 99.9); spec 98.8% (95% CI = 96.9, 95.5); PLR 81.8 (95% CI = 30.9, 217.0); NLR 0.003 (95% CI = 0.0004, 0.02); DOR 14,110. The analytical performances of HCV-Ab RDTs were as follow: sens 98.7% (95% CI = 97.5, 99.4); spec 93.1% (95% CI = 78.0, 98.1); PLR 14.3 (95% CI = 3.8, 54.5); NLR 1.5 (95% CI = 0.8, 2.8); DOR 962.6. The parameters evaluating the external validity of RDTs screening for the three viral markers when the theorical prevalence was 5% are summarized in Figure 3. At the prevalence , 99.99% and 99.94%. At the same prevalence, we found the following Positive Predictive Values (PPV) 70.82%, 77.59% and 37.35% for HIV-Ag/Ab RDTs, HBV-Ag RDTs and HCV-Ab RDTs algorithms, respectively. The overall areas under the received operating characteristic (ROC) curves were 98.6%, 99.2% and 99.2%; 95.9% for HIV-Ag/Ab RDTs, HBV-Ag RDTs and HCV-Ab RDTs algorithms, respectively. Conclusion: RDTs algorithms can play a pivotal role in the screening of HIV-Ab/Ag, HBs-Ag in the setting of resources limited-countries where financial and technical expertise shortages are a standard fare. However, their use for diagnostic purposes must be done with great caution and the result must necessarily be confirmed with an ELISA or molecular technique particularly for HCV-RDTs algorithm which achieved an NLR value > 0.1.
Temitayo O. Aiyelabola, Daniel P. Otto, Johan H. L. Jordaan, Ezekiel O. Akinkunmi, Idowu Olawuni
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 30-51; doi:10.4236/abc.2021.111004

Abstract:
Aminoethanoic acid undergoes condensation with 1,4-benzenedicarboxaldehyde to form an O, N, N, O donor Schiff base, N,N'-di(carboxymethylene) terephthalaldehyde, Ligand L. Coordination compounds of this Schiff base using Ni (II), Cu (II), VO (IV) and Co (II) were then obtained in-situ. The Schiff base and the complexes were evaluated for their antimicrobial and DNA binding abilities. Molecular docking studies of the ligand and synthesized compounds were also carried out. Evidence for the formation of the Schiff base coordination compounds and the coordinating atoms was obtained from 1H NMR, infrared and ultraviolet spectral data, EDX, EDTA complexometric titration and magnetic susceptibility measurement. The results obtained are consistent with octahedral geometry for Ni (II) complex, the metal ion coordinating to one molecule of Ligand L and with additional coordination with two oxygen atoms of two molecules of the solvent. A square-planar geometry was suggested for both Co (II), and Cu (II) complexes and a five-coordinate, square pyramidal geometry for the VO (IV) complex. The results further indicated that the carboxylic acid of Ligand L was not deprotonated both in the free base and also the complexes. In addition, the results showed that Compound 2 elicited the best antimicrobial activity potential. Generally, the compounds exhibited considerable good affinity to CT-DNA.
Putthapong Phumsombat, Chiharu Sano, Hiroki Ikezoe, Junji Hayashi, Takafumi Itoh, Takao Hibi, Mamoru Wakayama
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 10, pp 157-171; doi:10.4236/abc.2020.106012

Abstract:
L-Theanine (γ-glutamylethylamide) is a naturally occurring amino acid derivative known to have several beneficial physiological effects as a diet supplement, and to give an umami taste when used as a food additive. The compound is industrially produced by γ-glutamyltranspeptidase from Pseudomonas nitroreducens (PnGGT). Using recombinant PnGGT, we have shown previously that Trp385, Phe417, and Trp525 are key amino acid residues for recognition of acceptor substrates at the PnGGT active site. Here, we demonstrate that a recombinant W525D mutant of PnGGT produces L-theanine from ethylamine and L-glutamine more efficiently than wild-type PnGGT, attributable to an increased ratio of transfer activity to hydrolysis activity. An efficient production of L-theanine was achieved by immobilizing Escherichia coli cells expressing the W525D PnGGT mutant (E. coli-W525D) using 2% alginate as the supporting material. The highest L-theanine production using immobilized E. coli-W525D, representing a conversion rate of 90%, was achieved in optimal reaction conditions of pH 10, 40°C, and a substrate molar ratio of L-glutamine to ethylamine of 1:10. The immobilized E. coli-W525D retains 85% and 78% relative activity after storage for a month at 4°C and room temperature, respectively. Immobilized E. coli-W525D thus has strong potential for use in the future commercial production of L-theanine on a large scale.
E. Angeles-Camacho, J. Cruz-Castañeda, A. Meléndez, M. Colín-García, K. Cervantes de la Cruz, S. Ramos-Bernal, A. Negrón-Mendoza, G. Garza-Ramos, P. Rodríguez-Zamora, C. Camargo-Raya, et al.
Advances in Biological Chemistry, Volume 10, pp 140-156; doi:10.4236/abc.2020.105011

Abstract:
Glycine crystallizes into three different polymorphs called α, β and γ under standard physicochemical conditions. They have different features depending on their structural variations. The possible interaction of glycine with magnetic minerals in meteorites and comets or in the ancient Earth, paves the way to study the self-assembly and molecular behavior under irradiation and magnetic conditions. The magnetic field might induce the formation of a specific polymorph of glycine. To gain insight on the consequences of gamma irradiation with a gradient of static magnetic fields (0.06 T, 0.3 T, 0.42 T and 0.6 T) on the self-assembly of single macroscopic glycine crystals, we gamma irradiated the powdered amino acid and then assembled single crystals from water solutions. The preliminary results showed a stable formation of fluid inclusions in the single crystals and no straightforward effect on the self-assem- bly process after glycine gamma irradiation and interaction with static magnetic fields. The α glycine polymorph single crystals formed at 55° from the magnetic longitudinal axis and seemed to be enhanced by gamma radiation. The γ-glycine single crystals presented L and D circular dichroism signals, whereas the irradiated samples presented no circular dichroism bands. Com- puter simulations suggest different catalytic properties from α and γ glycine crystals.
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