Invasive Plant Science and Management

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ISSN / EISSN : 1939-7291 / 1939-747X
Published by: Cambridge University Press (CUP) (10.1017)
Total articles ≅ 675
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Invasive Plant Science and Management pp 1-25; https://doi.org/10.1017/inp.2021.29

Abstract:
Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower) is an invasive plant, native to the New World, and an exemplary conflict species. It has been planted widely for its ornamental and soil fertility enhancement qualities and has become a notorious environmental weed in introduced habitats. Here we use a bioclimatic niche model (CLIMEX) to estimate the potential global distribution of this invasive plant under historical climatic conditions. We apply a future climate scenario to the model to assess the sensitivity of the modelled potential geographical range to expected climate changes to 2050. Under current climatic conditions, there is potential for substantial range expansion into southern Europe with moderate climate suitability, and in southern China with highly suitable climates. Under the near-term future climate scenario there is potential for poleward range expansion in the order of 200 – 500 km. In the tropics, climatic conditions are likely to become less favourable due to the increasing frequency of supra-optimal temperatures. In areas experiencing Mediterranean or warm temperate climates the suitability for T. diversifolia appears set to increase as temperatures warm. There are vast areas in North America, Europe and Asia (particularly China and India) that can support ephemeral populations of T. diversifolia. One means of enjoying the aesthetic benefits of T. diversifolia while avoiding the unwanted environmental impacts as it invades areas prized for environmental attributes is to try to prevent its spread into areas climatically suitable for establishment, and only allow it to be propagated in areas where it cannot persist naturally.
Alex L. Stoneburner, Paul J. Meiman, Troy W. Ocheltree, Scott J. Nissen, Scott Bradfield
Invasive Plant Science and Management pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.1017/inp.2021.28

Abstract:
Yellow-Flag Iris (Iris pseudacorus L.) is a non-native, invasive wetland plant that disrupts riparian ecosystem processes and is widely distributed across the US and Canada. Due to its physiological and morphological characteristics, I. pseudacorus has the capacity to exclude native vegetation and form extensive monocultures in both lotic and lentic wetland systems. Methods commonly used to manage I. pseudacorus include manual (e.g., hand-pulling, digging) and mechanical (e.g., mowing) treatments for small populations and herbicide applications for larger populations; however, herbicide applications near water may be prohibited due to label restrictions. The objective of this research was to evaluate cattle trampling as a non-chemical method to reduce I. pseudacorus in riparian habitats. A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the effects of inundation and two different timings of simulated trampling on I. pseudacorus density, height, and soluble sugar concentrations in the rhizomes. A complementary field demonstration was established on a ranch in northwestern Nebraska to evaluate cattle trampling effects on I. pseudacorus density and height after two consecutive years. Simulated cattle trampling in the greenhouse had no effect on I. pseudacorus density or height of non-inundated samples. However, combining trampling with inundation reduced I. pseudacorus density from a median of 10 iris per pot to 0 iris per pot and median height from 0.35 m to 0 m by the conclusion of the study. Additionally, the field demonstration resulted in reductions of both density and height of I. pseudacorus after two consecutive years (72% and 67% reduction, respectively). Soluble sugar concentrations were not impacted by any treatment.
Niels Jorgensen, Mark Renz
Invasive Plant Science and Management pp 1-28; https://doi.org/10.1017/inp.2021.27

Abstract:
Land managers require tools that improve understanding of suitable habitat for invasive plants and be incorporated into survey efforts to improve efficiency. Habitat suitability models contain attributes that can meet these requirements, but it is not known how well they perform as they are rarely field tested for accuracy. We developed ensemble habitat suitability models in the state of Wisconsin for 15 species using five algorithms (boosted regression trees, generalized linear models, multivariate regression splines, MaxEnt, and random forests), evaluated performance, determined variables that drive suitability, and tested accuracy. All models had good model performance during the development phase (AUC>0.7 and TSS>0.4). While variable importance and directionality was species specific, the most important predictor variables across all of the species’ models were mean winter minimum temperatures, total summer precipitation and tree canopy cover. Post model development we obtained 5,005 new occurrence records from community science observations for all 15 focal species to test the models’ abilities to accurately predict results. Using a correct classification rate of 80%, just 8 of the 15 species correctly predicted suitable habitat (α≤0.05). Exploratory analyses found the number of reporters of these new data and the total number of new occurrences reported per species contributed to increasing correct classification. Results suggest that while some models perform well on evaluation metrics, relying on these metrics alone is not sufficient and can lead to errors when utilized for surveying. We recommend any model should be tested for accuracy in the field prior to use to avoid this potential issue.
Invasive Plant Science and Management, Volume 14, pp 164-171; https://doi.org/10.1017/inp.2021.25

Abstract:
Eradication of alien invasive species in the soil with steam as an alternative to chemical fumigation may allow contaminated soil to be reused. We have investigated steam disinfestation of soil to combat invasive plant species in three experiments including different temperatures and exposure durations using a prototype stationary soil-steaming device. The experiments included effects on seed germination of bigleaf lupine (Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl.), ornamental jewelweed (Impatiens glandulifera Royle), and wild oat (Avena fatua L.; one population from Poland and one from Norway), as well as effects on sprouting rhizome fragments of Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L.) and Bohemian knotweed (Reynoutria x bohemica Chrtek & Chrtková). In Experiment 1, we tested four different soil temperatures of 64, 75, 79, and 98 C with an exposure duration of 90 s. In Experiments 2 and 3, we tested exposure durations of 30, 90, and 180 s and 90, 180, and 540 s, respectively, at 98 C. Seed pretreatment of 14 d cooling for L. polyphyllus and I. glandulifera, no seed pretreatment and 12-h moistening for A. fatua populations, and 5- and 10-cm cutting size for R. x bohemica were applied. Our results showed germination/sprouting was inhibited at 75 C for I. glandulifera (for 90 s) and 98 C for the other species; however, longer exposure duration was needed for L. polyphyllus. While 30 s at 98 C was enough to kill A. fatua seeds and S. canadensis and R. x bohemica rhizome fragments, 180-s exposure duration was needed to kill L. polyphyllus seeds. The results showed promising control levels of invasive plant propagules in contaminated soil by steaming, supporting the steam treatment method as a potential way of disinfecting soil to prevent dispersal of invasive species.
Natalie Otto,
Invasive Plant Science and Management, Volume 14, pp 183-189; https://doi.org/10.1017/inp.2021.24

Abstract:
Invasive species management in natural landscapes is generally executed at the scale of independent jurisdictions, yet the ecological processes and biodiversity to be protected from invasion occur over large spatial scales and across multiple jurisdictions. Jurisdictional land boundaries can influence the flows and dynamics of ecological systems, as well as the social systems that exist in these complex landscapes. Land management entities in large, protected area–centered ecosystems may use different approaches to address cross-boundary management challenges. To understand these differing strategies and their effects on cooperative invasive plant management, we interviewed employees with federal, county, and state agencies, research organizations, nonprofits, and local stakeholder groups in two national parks and their surrounding lands in California, USA. Although all participants stressed the importance of working together, they did so along a continuum of strategies ranging from simple communication to coordination of independent efforts to active collaboration. Barriers to collaboration can be categorized as originating within or externally to the management unit, including limited resources, differing agency priorities, paperwork requirements, and lack of support by higher-level managers. Strategies to reduce barriers depend on where they originate.
, James K. Leary, Candice M. Prince, , Dwight K. Lauer
Invasive Plant Science and Management, Volume 14, pp 190-195; https://doi.org/10.1017/inp.2021.22

Abstract:
Mangroves are a critical component of many coastal ecosystems in Florida. Woody species, including Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi), have invaded thousands of hectares of mangrove habitat. The difficulty associated with ground-based management of invasive plants in mangrove communities has warranted a need to identify selective herbicides that can be applied aerially. Recent work suggests that Florida mangrove species are extremely sensitive to synthetic auxin herbicides; however, other herbicides have yet to be tested for selectivity. Greenhouse studies in 2018 and 2019 evaluated broadcast foliar applications of the acetolactate synthase inhibitor imazamox and protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor carfentrazone-ethyl, both as individual treatments and in combinations, for control of S. terebinthifolia and injury to four non-target mangrove species. Across all posttreatment sample dates and species tested, there were no significant interactions between imazamox applied at 0.28 or 0.56 kg ai ha−1 in combination with carfentrazone-ethyl applied at 0 or 0.1 kg ha−1. Main effects of imazamox applied at 0.56 kg ai ha−1 and carfentrazone-ethyl applied at 0.1 kg ha−1 resulted in 99% and 97% defoliation, respectively, of Schinus terebinthifolia at 180 DAT. However, S. terebinthifolia percent survival was 56% and 44% for the same treatments. Both herbicides severely injured all four mangroves by 90 DAT and resulted in 58% to 100% defoliation across species. At 180 DAT, significant increases in percent cambium kill were also observed for all four species. Across species, mangrove survival varied, but red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L.) survival was reduced to 6% when imazamox was applied at 0.56 kg ha−1. These results indicate both imazamox and carfentrazone-ethyl exhibit activity on S. terebinthifolia but also injure all four mangroves enough to preclude their use as selective treatments.
, Edda L. Martínez
Invasive Plant Science and Management, Volume 14, pp 196-203; https://doi.org/10.1017/inp.2021.19

Abstract:
Waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solm] is an aquatic invasive plant that is widespread in Puerto Rico, where it negatively effects estuaries, freshwater wetlands, potable water reservoirs, and wildlife refuges. Specifically, the tropical estuary San Juan Bay Estuary (SJBE) has been impacted with the presence of E. crassipes. Infestations have led to a reduction of water circulation in the system and have facilitated the establishment of invasive fauna. Therefore, a field study was conducted in a cove between Laguna San Jose and Peninsula Cantera to assess the use of glyphosate and hand removal as a management tool for E. crassipes control. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality were also monitored as a measure of environmental impact due to management activities. Results indicated that at 2 wk after glyphosate application, E. crassipes biomass (dry weight) was significantly reduced to 0.27 kg DW m−2 at the treated plot compared with the nontreated plot, which yielded 0.62 kg DW m−2. Fresh weight of E. crassipes decreased more than 90% when hand removal was used compared with glyphosate treatment. Dissolved oxygen and water pH were not significantly different between sites; however, water salinity increased to 8 to 9 ppt at both plots as a result of tidal activity. The order Hemiptera followed by Sarcoptiformes were common in the aquatic macroinvertebrate community. Macroinvertebrate species found associated with E. crassipes and considered natural enemies were: Orthogalumna terebrantis Wallwork, Niphograpta albigutalis (Warren), and Neochetina eichhorniae Warner. The use of glyphosate to manage E. crassipes at the Laguna San Jose was useful as a short-term control method, and its efficacy may be enhanced over time with follow-up applications in combination with hand removal.
Marshall Hart, Brian A. Mealor
Invasive Plant Science and Management, Volume 14, pp 156-163; https://doi.org/10.1017/inp.2021.20

Abstract:
Ventenata [Ventenata dubia (Leers) Coss.] is one of several annual grass invaders of the western United States. Ventenata dubia is documented reducing the forage availability for livestock and wildlife as well as lowering biodiversity in the Great Basin. This species has recently spread to the Great Plains, where it could bring these impacts with it. We attempt to answer questions on whether or not conservation practices, in this case removal of V. dubia with herbicide, result in recovery of forage resources and biodiversity. We answer these questions by measuring biomass, cover, and nutrient content 1-yr posttreatment at 9 sites in Sheridan County, WY, conducted in two years. Perennial grasses have higher crude protein and total digestible nutrients than V. dubia, and removal of V. dubia resulted in a positive perennial grass response both years. Further, the differences in pattern of growth between perennial and annual species, with annual grasses quickly senescing early in the year, make perennial grasses a more dependable forage base with higher available nutrients. Interestingly, total biomass and nutrient mass did not change after V. dubia removal due to equal replacement with perennial grasses. Species richness and diversity were unaffected by removal of V. dubia. Our results suggest that managing invasive annual grasses, particularly V. dubia, in the Northern Great Plains can improve forage resources for livestock and wildlife while maintaining species diversity. Therefore, proactive monitoring and management efforts to prevent spread should be prioritized in this region.
, Curtis C. Daehler
Invasive Plant Science and Management, Volume 14, pp 135-146; https://doi.org/10.1017/inp.2021.18

Abstract:
The composition of nonnative floras is influenced by a region’s socioeconomic history, yet rarely are these factors studied alongside plant naturalization rates over time. Such information is especially critical for archipelagos, which often host large numbers of nonnative plants and would benefit from prevention of inter-island spread. We compiled the first record of occurrence and first record of naturalization for all naturalized plants in Hawai‘i alongside data on their origin, native climate types, taxonomy, and likely introduction pathway and compared rates of naturalization with socioeconomic trends. We found that the rate of total plant naturalizations has increased at a roughly constant rate during the past century without any sign of plateauing. However, this relatively steady increase is underlain by notable fluctuations in naturalization rates for different introduction pathways, with ornamentals increasing recently, while agriculture-related plants have decreased. Furthermore, this trend mirrors a shift from an agriculture-dominated economy to a tourism-based one associated with increases in both resident and tourist populations as well as general economic well-being. We further found that the average naturalized species spreads at a rate of 1.86 islands per decade, eventually occupying most major islands in the archipelago, and the rate of spread appears to be increasing since Hawai‘i’s economic shift. Our findings also emphasize the diversity of Hawai‘i’s nonnative flora, which originates from a variety of climates, continents, and taxonomic groups. We demonstrated that many nonnative species have native ranges that include temperate climates, which is important, because these climates typically co-occur with higher-elevation, remnant patches of native-dominated ecosystems in Hawai‘i. This study reveals trends that may help predict a species’ ability to naturalize and spread within and between islands, and we discuss management implications that may be extended to other regions.
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