Asian Journal of Sports Medicine
ISSN / EISSN : 2008-000X / 2008-7209
Published by: Kowsar Medical Institute (10.5812)
Total articles ≅ 514
Latest articles in this journal
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine; https://doi.org/10.5812/asjsm.109400
Objectives: The study aimed was to investigate the relationship between physical activity (PA) levels and muscle markers in healthy children and adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2020 among school students from Isfahan, Iran. Using cluster sampling, 159 students aged 7 to 18 years were selected. In addition to the physical examination, the PA level was assessed using a valid questionnaire. The serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured. Statistical analysis was performed using the Pearson correlation test. Results: The samples included 79 girls and 80 boys with a mean age (standard deviation) of 12.72 (3.06) years and a mean body mass index of 18.30 (3.70) kg/m2. The mean AST and CPK were significantly higher in boys than in girls (P < 0.05). Participants with higher PA levels had significantly lower LDH and ALT than other participants (-0.20, P = 0.003, and 0.044 P = 0.295, respectively). There was no significant relationship between PA level and muscle enzyme levels. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicated that higher PA level was associated with lower serum muscle markers other than LDH. This suggests that the best types of PA for children and adolescents are those activities with rest sets to prevent muscle damage.
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine; https://doi.org/10.5812/asjsm.112637
Background: Hand grip plays a fundamental role in most daily and athletic activities of the upper extremities. Objectives: The study compared the effect of various methods of forearm Kinesio-taping (KT) on the hand grip strength and endurance of Iranian elite squash players during their sporting activities at different times. Methods: Thirty-three female squash players were assigned to a quasi-experimental study, and KT was applied on their dominant forearm (on the flexor area, on the extensor area, and placebo taping). Grip strength was evaluated before, immediately, 30, and 60 minutes after KT, and grip endurance was also assessed before and 60 minutes after KT using MIE digital grip analyzer. Friedman and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to analyze the results of grip strength, and ANOVA and the sample t-test were applied to analyze the grip endurance data. Results: The findings revealed no significant differences within the grip strength at different phases (P > 0.05). However, p values for the outcomes of KT on the flexor area, KT on the extensor area, and placebo mode were respectively 0.145, 0.178, 0.065 in each phase of the evaluation. A significant difference among KT groups and the LSD test revealed a significant increase in grip endurance in the mode of KT on the extensor area, whereas there have been no significant differences in grip endurance in KT on flexor (P = 0.785) and extensor (P = 0.457) areas. Conclusions: There was no obvious superiority of the various methods of forearm KT on grip strength at different times; nevertheless, KT was an efficient method for retaining grip endurance in squash players with no significant differences between the flexor and extensor locations.
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine; https://doi.org/10.5812/asjsm.114400
: COVID-19 has stricken the world since the beginning of 2020. The pandemic is not controlled yet, and also the new variants of the virus are rapidly spreading. To reduce the virus's person-to-person transmission rate, health authorities and the government applied limitations to all activities (including sports activities). As a result, all football matches and team training worldwide were suspended for a limited period until a reduced infection risk was recognized. Even though training and competitions were gradually resuming worldwide, no spectators were allowed to attend any matches. After the successful experience of resuming football matches and tournaments following tight restrictions in keeping the players, staff, and organizers safe, it is time to let the spectators back in the stadiums and establish the needed guidelines. This commentary will highlight the most important aspects and issues that need to be addressed if the football federation and associations decide to let the spectators back into the stadiums, as football will lose its enthusiasm and financial turnover.
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine; https://doi.org/10.5812/asjsm.113566
Background: Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a noninvasive approach to examine endothelial function. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on FMD and circulating levels of adropin and nitric oxide (NO) in females with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Thirty females with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned into two equal groups of HIIT and control. The exercise program consisted of three sessions a week for 12 weeks. Each training session included 4 × 4-minute running intervals at 85 - 95% of maximal heart rate (HRmax) with 3-minute active recoveries at 50 - 60% of HRmax. Circulating levels of adropin, NO, glucose, HbA1c, insulin, HOMA-IR, as well as lipid profile, and body composition parameters were measured before and after the intervention. Results: A significant increase of FMD% was observed after the intervention in the HIIT group (P = 0.001). In addition, the circulation levels of adropin and NO enhanced as a result of HIIT (P = 0.012 and P < 0.001, respectively). There were also significant positive effects on the levels of lipid profile (except for HDL), FBS, and HbA1c; as well as on the insulin resistance and the body composition variables. There were no significant changes in the control group except an increase in the total cholesterol levels (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The results showed that 12 weeks of the HIIT program could improve the endothelial function, glucose-related indices, lipid profile, and body composition variables in females with type 2 diabetes.
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5812/asjsm.108487
Background: Evaluating concomitant injury in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is important for predicting long-term results. Meniscofemoral ligament (MFL) rupture has been observed in patients with anterior cruciate ligament rupture in arthroscopic evaluation for ruptured ACL. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the concomitant meniscofemoral ligaments injury in patients with anterior cruciate ligament ruptures via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: A total of 200 patients (with ruptured ACL, n = 100; with intact ACL, n = 100) were retrospectively evaluated via MRI. In the group with ruptured ACL; the patients who were diagnosed as having noncontact ACL injuries and had undergone primary ACL reconstructions were included. The control group included 100 patients with suspected ACL rupture (from a similar injury mechanism) and whose MRI revealed an intact ACL. In the group with ruptured ACL, the time from injury to MRI was evaluated. A comparison of the presence of anterior MFL (aMFL) and posterior MFL (pMFL) between the two groups was evaluated. Results: In the ACL ruptured group, a significantly lower presence of aMFL or pMFL was observed compared to the control group (P = 0.001). The time from injury to MRI was significantly higher in the patients with absent MFL defined in MRI relative to the other groups (P = 0.001). Conclusions: We observed absence of MFLs (aMFL and pMFL) in a significant majority of patients with ruptured ACLs. Furthermore, we found a significant relationship between the time from injury to MRI and absence of MFL in the ruptured ACL group.
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine; https://doi.org/10.5812/asjsm.116730
Keywords Body Composition Morbid Obesity Bariatric Surgery
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine; https://doi.org/10.5812/asjsm.107380
Background: Various training protocols have been used in combat sports, including Taekwondo (TKD), to rapidly improve performance and to avoid injury by balancing the exercise intensity and the athletes’ metabolic tolerance and hormonal response. However, little is known about such metabolic responses in previously-trained individuals. Objectives: To investigate the effects of a concurrent TKD plus resistance (RT) training program on post-exercise blood biomarkers of physiological stress in previously-trained individuals. Methods: Twenty-eight (16 males: 12 females) previously-trained individuals aged 20 - 26 years were matched by gender and randomly divided into either moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercising group (MODG) or a high-intensity exercising group (HIG). The MODG performed TKD training at a target training intensity of 55 - 70% (weeks 1 - 2) and 70 - 85% (weeks 3 - 4) maximum heart rate (HRmax) and RT training for four sets of 10 - 15 repetitions for each of the 13 whole-body RT exercises. The HIG performed TKD training at a target training intensity of 85 - 100% (weeks 1 - 2) and 95 - 100% (weeks 3 - 4) HRmax and RT training for five sets of 10 - 15 repetitions for each of the 13 whole-body RT exercises. A structured taekwondo tasks (sTT) test was conducted before and after the training period. Results: Significant post-exercise improvements were found for total testosterone (P = 0.02), free testosterone (P = 0.01), C/T ratio (P = 0.03) and lactate (P = 0.03) in the mixed gender HIG. With regards to the specific gender effects, post-exercise improvements were found in S-CPK in the male MODG and HIG, with improvements in uric acid only in the male HIG. In turn, post-exercise improvements were found for total testosterone, testosterone binding globulin, free testosterone in the female MODG and HIG, with post-exercise improvements in S-CPK and uric acid in the female HIG only. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that even a short period of concurrent taekwondo and resistance training improves adaptation and post-exercise responses to physiological stress, and such adaptation may even be more marked in previously-trained female athletes. Thus, this mode of training may provide a novel exercise training modality to rapidly improve an individuals’ capacity to exercise, especially in situations of plateau, while avoiding overtraining and an increased concomitant chance of illness and musculoskeletal injury.
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5812/asjsm.109724
Background: This study is one of the first to specifically analyze cardiorespiratory fitness and its association with age, weight, height, body fat percentage (BFP), body mass index (BMI), team performance, and player position for a large number of soccer players in an Asian top league. Methods: 213 players (age = 25 ± 5 years, height = 181.2 ± 6.8 cm, weight = 76.1 ± 8.1 kg, BFP = 11.3 ± 3.1) affiliated with 16 soccer clubs from Iran’s Premier League (i.e., the highest level of club football in Iran), were tested for maximal aerobic power (VO2 max), first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2), and ventilatory efficiency at rest (VO2 rest). The nonparametric Spearman's correlation test was performed to check for correlations, and the resulting rank correlation coefficients (rs) and probability value (P) are presented. Results: In terms of mean ± standard deviation, the 213 male players participating in this study have VO2max = 55.3 ± 5.4 mL.kg-1.min-1, VT1 = 57.3 ± 4.2 (% max), VT2 = 92.6 ± 3.4 (% max) and VO2rest = 7.1 ± 1.4 mL.kg-1.min-1. No correlation between VO2max and team performance or BFP was observed. The correlations between VO2max and age (rs= -0.23, P = 10-3), height (rs = -0.34, P ≅ 0), weight (rs = -0.42, P ≅ 0) and BMI (rs = -0.30, P = 10-5) were considered statistically significant. The difference between VO2max of players in different positions was also statistically significant. Goalkeepers possessed the lowest VO2max, with a mean value of 49.8 mL.kg-1.min-1. Defenders had the lowest mean VO2max value players (equal to 54.7 mL.kg-1.min-1) amongst outfield players, and midfielders had the highest mean VO2max (= 56.9 mL.kg-1.min-1). The other indices of cardiorespiratory fitness (VT1, VT2 and VO2rest) had no statistically significant correlation with the physical characteristics of the soccer players, team performance and player position. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that VT1, VT2, and VO2rest are not distinguishing factors amongst different categories of age, weight, height, team performance, and player position, but VO2max varies with age, weight, height, and BMI. The study also shows that there is a high correlation between the physical demands of player positions during a game and the aerobic capacity of players in those positions, and this must be taken into account in soccer training.
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5812/asjsm.108537
Background: The integrity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is essential for keeping physiological processes stable, even under stress. Since there is growing interest in heart rate variability (HRV) analysis for the noninvasive assessment of the ANS in sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients, we studied the behavior of the ANS in the presence of a stressor that simulates daily-life multitasking, the Glittre ADL test (GA-T). Objectives: To evaluate the involvement of the ANS using HRV in adults with SCA during the GA-T and to quantify the strength of the correlation of HRV with lung and muscle functions. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 16 adults with SCA and 12 healthy controls without sickle cell disease underwent HRV assessment during the GA-T, pulmonary function tests (spirometry, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and respiratory muscle testing). Peripheral muscle function [handgrip strength (HGS) and quadriceps strength (QS)] were also measured. Results: Compared to the healthy controls, adults with SCA showed lower HRV, with worse parasympathetic modulation due to reductions in the following indices: the root-mean-square difference of successive normal iRRs (iRR) (RMSSD); the percentage of pairs of consecutive iRRs whose difference is > 50 m (pNN50); the high-frequency component of heart rate variability (HF); and the standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat variability (SD1) (P < 0.001 for all). Compared to healthy controls, individuals with SCA showed greater sympathovagal imbalance (higher ratio between low-frequency and HF components) and lower complexity of the ANS (lower approximate entropy). The GA-T time was correlated with parasympathetic activity indices: RMSSD (rs = -0.650, P < 0.01); pNN50 (rs = -0.932, P < 0.0001), HF (rs = -0.579, P < 0.01), and SD1 (rs = -0.814, P < 0.0001). Correlations between parasympathetic activity indices and DLCO, HGS, and QS measures were also significant. Conclusions: Adults with SCA have low HRV, with low parasympathetic activity, sympathovagal imbalance, and abnormal ANS complexity. In addition, lower HRV is associated with longer GA-T time, greater impairment of pulmonary diffusion, and greater muscle strength dysfunction.
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5812/asjsm.113016
Keywords COVID-19 Hematopoiesis Hemostasis Exercise