European Journal of Sustainable Development Research
EISSN : 2468-1962
Published by: Veritas Publications LTD (10.21601)
Total articles ≅ 183
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 6 October 2021
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11258
Modeling the estimation of cumulated methane production generated from batch anaerobic bioreactors is of paramount importance. In this context, there are two main modeling approaches. The first approach is based on developing mathematical expressions representing the processes involved in the bioreactors. The AM1 model is known as the most complete one. However, it is a complicated model as it requires about 80 parameters to be tuned. A model named AM2 which is a simplified version of AM1 has also been developed. It is based on only two microbial growth processes and requires only 13 parameters. Nevertheless, both AM1 and AM2 models do not provide explicit mathematical expressions that enable to estimate the temporal evolution of methane production with respect to the parameters involved in the considered models. These models are much more useful for simulations and graphical visualizations of the dynamical behavior of the state variables including methane production. On the other hand, the second approach suggests semi-empirical or data-driven models which are based on simple explicit mathematical expressions that provide an estimate of the cumulated methane production (Logistic model, Gompertz model, etc.). But, this type of models require the identification of few parameters which are extracted from experimental data. Usually, they are simplistic and use only one growth process and thus cannot exhibit the influence of the many parameters involved in such complex dynamic biotechnological systems. In this paper, to overcome the complexity of the first type of models and to avoid the dependency on experimental data in the second type; an explicit analytical mathematical expression is proposed for estimating the cumulated methane production for batch anaerobic bioreactors. This analytical expression is derived via the adoption of some appropriate approximations performed on the set of differential equations characterizing the AM2 model. Therefore, the proposed analytical expression can be considered as an approximation of the AM2 model itself and this is the first contribution of this paper. Graphical profiles of the cumulated methane production are presented showing that of the proposed logistic expression and that of the AM2 model considered as a reference. To the best of the author’s knowledge, no such approach and result have been encountered in the literature. On the other hand, this expression resembles formally to the semi-empiric logistic model. However, the equivalent parameters of the proposed expression as self-defined by the parameters of the AM2 model and do not require experimental data to be identified as it is for the semi-empiric logistic model. Moreover, by comparing the proposed logistic model to the semi-empiric logistic model, an identification of the parameters of the semi-empiric model is linked to the parameters of the AM2 model, providing more insight into the methane production. This can be considered as a second contribution of this paper.
Published: 2 September 2021
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11202
Currently, (2019-2020) COVID-19 global pandemic is caused by a member of the Coronaviridae group. Some human viruses are spread from human to human by way of droplets or aerosols, but fewer viruses are persistently airborne in transmission, and the healthcare-associated epidemic of airborne viral infection are restricted to very few surrogates. In addition, it is one of the most efficient tools (i.e., the second one) for preventing inside air pollution through ventilation. To our aim was to perform a rapid literature review to answer the following question: does ventilation in healthcare facilities prevention of infection COVID-19? This study is a systematic review by searching among published articles in Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, PubMed Central (PMC), Google Scholar databases as well as medRxiv by using the following keywords: ‘COVID-19’, ‘healthcare settings’, ‘prevention’, ‘ventilation’, ‘Hospital, ‘Infection’, and ‘Air changes per hour. After investigating the information and quality of articles, 52 articles were included in this study. The literature denotes that temperature, relative humidity, and ventilation and air conditioning systems have beneficial effects to prevent COVID-19 infection. The results of this study demonstrated that many parameters basic strategy of control COVID-19 include: hand hygiene, social distancing, screening and case finding, isolation and separating, decontamination and disinfection, and effective ventilation. Thus, based on recommendations of CDC, WHO, and other studies effective ventilation is the most important transmission of respiratory disease control strategy, specially COVID-19.
Published: 31 August 2021
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11194
Human and educational development is a prerequisite for the socio-economic development of a country. Pakistan is struggling hard to enhance quality and access of primary education to children of all the regions. USAID’s partnership with local organizations and government has made gigantic efforts to raise level of equitable access to education particularly in less developed regions of the country through engagement in certain bilateral operations by providing assistance. Pakistan has multiple constraints in its educational sector; low budget, weak governance, corruption and insecurity. Since, it cannot overcome these obstacles without foreign assistance. This paper highlights the role and interventions of USAID in Pakistan for the improvement of primary education through secondary research methodology. Findings of the results shows that USAID has played a positive role in promoting the primary educational sector through improved curriculum, schools construction, teachers training and reduction in community specific barriers. Thus, it is concluded that USAID through its initiatives has driven towards fulfilling the gap in an efficient manner.
Published: 8 August 2021
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11132
Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing is a relatively new concept and promising technology for industrial production. It is important to investigate the environmental impact of the AM process in light of the environmental critical situation of the Earth. The elimination of some costly prefabrication processes such as molding or post-fabrication stages such as machining and welding required in traditional manufacturing methods favor the AM process and provide beneficial economic advantages. Furthermore, the reduction of manufacturing steps contributes to environmental protection through fewer operations, less material, and energy consumption, and reduced transportation. This study is a review for the assessment of environmental impact and life cycle of some well-known AM technologies for manufacturing metallic parts and components. The fabrication of a pump impeller is simulated through a well-known metal production AM technology and casting process for direct comparison. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is applied to measure the environmental impact in five different stages of pump impeller lifetime with the two different fabrication processes. AM compared to casting has an environmental impact reduction potential of 15%, 20%, 65%, 20%, and 10% respectively in Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidifications Potential (AP), Water Aquatic Eco-toxicity Potential (FAETP), Human Toxicity Potential (HTP), and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion (ODP). Using hydroelectricity and renewable electricity mitigate the environmental impact of the AM process in pre-manufacturing and manufacturing stages temporarily until the advancement of AM technology for consuming less energy. Recommendations for future research to enhance the environmental sustainability of the AM process is proposed as outcomes of this study.
Published: 18 July 2021
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11092
Environmental ethics is a discipline, which specifies and analyzes how human being ought to behave. The significance of ethics is to provide guidelines for Subject-Object relationship (Ich-Es). Some may argue that “Ich-Es” is justified by environmental utilitarianism. The moral implications of environmental materialism/eco-individualism include modification of the ecosystem, scarcity of resources/energy, drought, flooding and extinction of species. The question is how eco-individualism would or environmental self be resolved if not eliminated? Applying the method of philosophical analysis, this research explores the ethical implications of eco-individualism. The objective of the research is to demonstrate how sustainable environmental education (SEE) could help to ameliorate the impacts of eco-individualism. Although sustainable environmental education is challenged by lack professional teaches and funds for its implementation but it reawakens environmental consciousness for the common good of humanity.
Published: 18 July 2021
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11091
Numerical summaries of univariate climatic records, such as temperature and precipitation, are useful for making quantitative decisions for mitigation and adaptation measures. Climate simulations and projections often contain values that lie far away from substance of the data. These values can bias the summary statistics away from values representative for majority of the sample. This problem can be avoided by selecting ensembles approach as well as by using statistics that are resistant to the presence of such outliers. Hence, in addition to typical statistics, resistant statistics are used to investigate spatiotemporal changes in temperature and precipitation extremes over a versatile agro–climatic featured country of Pakistan, by engaging the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX‐GDDP) dataset under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 that provides statistically downscaled Coupled Model Inter‐comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate baseline (1971–2000) and projections (2021–2050) based on Expert Team on Sector–specific Climate Indices (ET–SCI) method. The results show the following: (a) Shifts in the univariate count statistics under the RCP8.5 are highly prominent with 0.81 degrees deviation in 5th percentile and with a substantial 1.86 degrees deviation in the 95th percentile of the maximum of daily maximum temperature over the projected time series. (b) Standard deviation of historical summer days is placed at 3.7 days with a consistent change under the RCP4.5 emission scenario. Nevertheless, the standard deviation of the summer days hikes by 5.9 days under the RCP8.5 emission scenario. (c) A distressing condition is comprehended under the RCP8.5 emission scenario where changes of 16.5 percent in the 5th and of 19.7 percent in the 95th percentiles are revealed in the warm nights future projections. (d) The maximum rate of simple daily intensity of precipitation in the historical period exists at 0.2 mm/day, however, the RCP4.5 emission scenario thrusts that up to 0.6 mm/day in the projection period. (e) Under the RCP8.5 emission scenario, the standard deviation inflates by 36.4 days while range digresses by an enormous 95 days in the projection period of the consecutive dry days. The outcomes are of applied practice in improving local approaches for hydro–reservoirs and eco‐environment controlling, especially in the diverse climatic region of Pakistan.
Published: 23 June 2021
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11001
The Wind has the potential as an alternative source of renewable energy. Natural wind from the earth’s atmosphere is captured before converted into mechanical energy and then electrical energy. This paper presents a comparison of the efficiency of the horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT). The efficiency is determined using SOLIDWORKS Flow Simulation considering the wind scenario, a constant wind speed of 5 km/h with constant wind direction. It has been found that the drag coeffiecient of HAWT, VAWT–Savonius and VAWT– Darrieus are 0.5175, 0.2605 and 13.5622 respectively. This paper also proposes building a wind farm in Seamatan where the average wind speed is highest in Sarawak, Malaysia ranging from 4 km/h to 9 km/h.
Published: 23 June 2021
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11002
Biodiesel researchers need to understand the optimal conditions involved in the production of biodiesel from readily available biological sources, as several research works have reported on biodiesel production. Therefore, this paper emphasizes specifically, the process parameters involved in biodiesel production and how they affect biodiesel yields. These parameters include, but not limited to the feedstock selection, catalyst type to use, free fatty acid, temperature, kinetics, hydrodynamics and reactor conditions. In biodiesel synthesis, a high fatty acid methyl ester yield of up to 100%w/w at 60 oC has been reported, which occurred with a methanol to oil molar ratio of 3.75, and 60 min reaction time. Homogeneous catalysts seems promising for the production of biodiesel, although they possess disposal challenges and reusability issues. In addition, carbon-based catalysts from natural sources have been used to resolve the presence of free fatty acids in biodiesel synthesis that results in the formation of soap. These carbon-derived catalysts prove their efficiency when modified with acids. The reactor suitable for biodiesel reaction, assume several configurations, like the batch, fixed bed and semi-batch configurations, with their respective reaction conditions. Furthermore, in the design of a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor operating on the rotor-stator mechanism, research has shown that the ratio of rotor to stator diameter Dr/Ds is maintained at 0.73 for efficient operation. Hence, a proper understanding of the process chemistry and techniques involved in biodiesel synthesis would ensure a high desired yield and sustainable process route.
Published: 28 May 2021
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/10951
The current study presents an estimated environmental impact of CO2 emissions in the cargo transport process in the road modal, as part of the logistics chain for the distribution of horticultural items, highlighting the production of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), peppers (Capsicum annuum) and cucumbers (Cucumis sativus), from production centers in several Brazilian states to a food distribution center in Teresina, Northeast Brazil. In the next step, we added fresh vegetables purchased by an urban hospital at the distribution center to analyze the city’s food distribution system’s environmental impact. The data used were obtained at the distribution center Nova Ceasa and at an urban hospital to complete the last stage of the food distribution, corresponding to 2019. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) impact values correlated with horticulture production were recovered from the literature related to open-field vegetable crops under similar agricultural conditions. We computed the quantity of vegetables produced on-field, the distances traveled, the on-road transportation fuel, and the environmental impact using the GWP calculator. The study found a wide range of GWP values. From the studies and analyzes, the results indicated that the impact of GWP is greater in the production phase in the field, followed by urban transport except for fresh tomatoes. The tomato results showed greater environmental impact in the transport of more distant products and smaller quantities. Results suggest that crop production and the long traveled distances are the main factors in the environmental impact. We also concluded that the greater the amount of product transported in a trip, the lower the environmental impact.
Published: 28 May 2021
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/10952
Life without water is not possible on the earth, while modern humans need water not only for drinking, sanitization, and agriculture but also for industrial activities including electricity and cooling generations. Hence, emphasis on water sustainability through different sectors including thermoelectric and cooling plants is an intelligent strategy while the tight connections of water and energy guide study towards energy-water nexus investigations. Cooling towers are equipment for dissipating the excess heat by water evaporation or they hidden gates for wasting water. The objective of the present study is to elaborate on the role of cooling towers in improving environment sustainability by presenting various methods of energy and water modeling, categorizing various methods for modifying water and energy consumptions through past studies and mapping future studies. regarding cooling towers. Presenting a history of energy-water modeling methods of cooling towers, the Markel, the Poppe, and the effectiveness– Number of Transfer Unit (NTU) models, has followed by assessing the environmental impact of cooling towers in the form of excess water consumption, plume, and energy usage. Summarizing and organizing the past efforts for upgrading water management in cooling towers have been in two directions either providing more water supply, or modifications of the cooling tower to use less water. Then the different methodologies for each direction are introduced for further elaborations. This study’s practical outcome is proposing the methods of improving water sustainability for any cooling towers from past studies to assist engineers in the industry in modifying cooling towers water consumption. Showing the roadmap for the planning future investigations on the cooling towers based on the past efforts is another outcome of the present study to provide an insight for academia with research interest on cooling towers.