Genes & Development
ISSN / EISSN : 0890-9369 / 1549-5477
Published by: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (10.1101)
Total articles ≅ 8,119
Latest articles in this journal
Genes & Development; https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.348581.121
The alternative PCNA loader containing CTF18-DCC1-CTF8 facilitates sister chromatid cohesion (SCC) by poorly defined mechanisms. Here we found that in DT40 cells, CTF18 acts complementarily with the Warsaw breakage syndrome DDX11 helicase in mediating SCC and proliferation. We uncover that the lethality and cohesion defects of ctf18 ddx11 mutants are associated with reduced levels of chromatin-bound cohesin and rescued by depletion of WAPL, a cohesin-removal factor. On the contrary, high levels of ESCO1/2 acetyltransferases that acetylate cohesin to establish SCC do not rescue ctf18 ddx11 phenotypes. Notably, the tight proximity of sister centromeres and increased anaphase bridges characteristic of WAPL-depleted cells are abrogated by loss of both CTF18 and DDX11. The results reveal that vertebrate CTF18 and DDX11 collaborate to provide sufficient amounts of chromatin-loaded cohesin available for SCC generation in the presence of WAPL-mediated cohesin-unloading activity. This process modulates chromosome structure and is essential for cellular proliferation in vertebrates.
Genes & Development; https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.348667.121
Double-strand break (DSB) repair choice is greatly influenced by the initial processing of DNA ends. 53BP1 limits the formation of recombinogenic single-strand DNA (ssDNA) in BRCA1-deficient cells, leading to defects in homologous recombination (HR). However, the exact mechanisms by which 53BP1 inhibits DSB resection remain unclear. Previous studies have identified two potential pathways: protection against DNA2/EXO1 exonucleases presumably through the Shieldin (SHLD) complex binding to ssDNA, and localized DNA synthesis through the CTC1-STN1-TEN1 (CST) and DNA polymerase α (Polα) to counteract resection. Using a combinatorial approach of END-seq, SAR-seq, and RPA ChIP-seq, we directly assessed the extent of resection, DNA synthesis, and ssDNA, respectively, at restriction enzyme-induced DSBs. We show that, in the presence of 53BP1, Polα-dependent DNA synthesis reduces the fraction of resected DSBs and the resection lengths in G0/G1, supporting a previous model that fill-in synthesis can limit the extent of resection. However, in the absence of 53BP1, Polα activity is sustained on ssDNA yet does not substantially counter resection. In contrast, EXO1 nuclease activity is essential for hyperresection in the absence of 53BP1. Thus, Polα-mediated fill-in partially limits resection in the presence of 53BP1 but cannot counter extensive hyperresection due to the loss of 53BP1 exonuclease blockade. These data provide the first nucleotide mapping of DNA synthesis at resected DSBs and provide insight into the relationship between fill-in polymerases and resection exonucleases.
Genes & Development, Volume 35, pp 1304-1323; https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.348648.121
Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) constitute a class of small RNAs that bind PIWI proteins and are essential to repress transposable elements in the animal germline, thereby promoting genome stability and maintaining fertility. C. elegans piRNAs (21U RNAs) are transcribed individually from minigenes as precursors that require 5′ and 3′ processing. This process depends on the PETISCO complex, consisting of four proteins: IFE-3, TOFU-6, PID-3, and ERH-2. We used biochemical and structural biology approaches to characterize the PETISCO architecture and its interaction with RNA, together with its effector proteins TOST-1 and PID-1. These two proteins define different PETISCO functions: PID-1 governs 21U processing, whereas TOST-1 links PETISCO to an unknown process essential for early embryogenesis. Here, we show that PETISCO forms an octameric assembly with each subunit present in two copies. Determination of structures of the TOFU-6/PID-3 and PID-3/ERH-2 subcomplexes, supported by in vivo studies of subunit interaction mutants, allows us to propose a model for the formation of the TOFU-6/PID-3/ERH-2 core complex and its functionality in germ cells and early embryos. Using NMR spectroscopy, we demonstrate that TOST-1 and PID-1 bind to a common surface on ERH-2, located opposite its PID-3 binding site, explaining how PETISCO can mediate different cellular roles.
Genes & Development, Volume 35, pp 1209-1228; https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.348678.121
The generation of myotubes from fibroblasts upon forced MyoD expression is a classic example of transcription factor-induced reprogramming. We recently discovered that additional modulation of signaling pathways with small molecules facilitates reprogramming to more primitive induced myogenic progenitor cells (iMPCs). Here, we dissected the transcriptional and epigenetic dynamics of mouse fibroblasts undergoing reprogramming to either myotubes or iMPCs using a MyoD-inducible transgenic model. Induction of MyoD in fibroblasts combined with small molecules generated Pax7+ iMPCs with high similarity to primary muscle stem cells. Analysis of intermediate stages of iMPC induction revealed that extinction of the fibroblast program preceded induction of the stem cell program. Moreover, key stem cell genes gained chromatin accessibility prior to their transcriptional activation, and these regions exhibited a marked loss of DNA methylation dependent on the Tet enzymes. In contrast, myotube generation was associated with few methylation changes, incomplete and unstable reprogramming, and an insensitivity to Tet depletion. Finally, we showed that MyoD's ability to bind to unique bHLH targets was crucial for generating iMPCs but dispensable for generating myotubes. Collectively, our analyses elucidate the role of MyoD in myogenic reprogramming and derive general principles by which transcription factors and signaling pathways cooperate to rewire cell identity.
Genes & Development, Volume 35, pp 1243-1255; https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.348261.121
Multiple G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are expressed in pancreatic islet cells, but the majority have unknown functions. We observed specific GPCRs localized to primary cilia, a prominent signaling organelle, in pancreatic α and β cells. Loss of cilia disrupts β-cell endocrine function, but the molecular drivers are unknown. Using functional expression, we identified multiple GPCRs localized to cilia in mouse and human islet α and β cells, including FFAR4, PTGER4, ADRB2, KISS1R, and P2RY14. Free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFAR4) and prostaglandin E receptor 4 (PTGER4) agonists stimulate ciliary cAMP signaling and promote glucagon and insulin secretion by α- and β-cell lines and by mouse and human islets. Transport of GPCRs to primary cilia requires TULP3, whose knockdown in primary human and mouse islets relocalized ciliary FFAR4 and PTGER4 and impaired regulated glucagon or insulin secretion, without affecting ciliary structure. Our findings provide index evidence that regulated hormone secretion by islet α and β cells is controlled by ciliary GPCRs providing new targets for diabetes.
Genes & Development, Volume 35, pp 1290-1303; https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.348634.121
Biogenesis of most eukaryotic mRNAs involves the addition of an untemplated polyadenosine (pA) tail by the cleavage and polyadenylation machinery. The pA tail, and its exact length, impacts mRNA stability, nuclear export, and translation. To define how polyadenylation is controlled in S. cerevisiae, we have used an in vivo assay capable of assessing nuclear pA tail synthesis, analyzed tail length distributions by direct RNA sequencing, and reconstituted polyadenylation reactions with purified components. This revealed three control mechanisms for pA tail length. First, we found that the pA binding protein (PABP) Nab2p is the primary regulator of pA tail length. Second, when Nab2p is limiting, the nuclear pool of Pab1p, the second major PABP in yeast, controls the process. Third, when both PABPs are absent, the cleavage and polyadenylation factor (CPF) limits pA tail synthesis. Thus, Pab1p and CPF provide fail-safe mechanisms to a primary Nab2p-dependent pathway, thereby preventing uncontrolled polyadenylation and allowing mRNA export and translation.
Genes & Development, Volume 35, pp 1271-1289; https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.348479.121
PARP inhibitor (PARPi) is widely used to treat BRCA1/2-deficient tumors, but why PARPi is more effective than other DNA-damaging drugs is unclear. Here, we show that PARPi generates DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) predominantly in a trans cell cycle manner. During the first S phase after PARPi exposure, PARPi induces single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) gaps behind DNA replication forks. By trapping PARP on DNA, PARPi prevents the completion of gap repair until the next S phase, leading to collisions of replication forks with ssDNA gaps and a surge of DSBs. In the second S phase, BRCA1/2-deficient cells are unable to suppress origin firing through ATR, resulting in continuous DNA synthesis and more DSBs. Furthermore, BRCA1/2-deficient cells cannot recruit RAD51 to repair collapsed forks. Thus, PARPi induces DSBs progressively through trans cell cycle ssDNA gaps, and BRCA1/2-deficient cells fail to slow down and repair DSBs over multiple cell cycles, explaining the unique efficacy of PARPi in BRCA1/2-deficient cells.
Genes & Development, Volume 35, pp 1256-1270; https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.348662.121
Chemotherapy with cisplatin becomes limiting due to toxicity and secondary malignancies. In principle, therapeutics could be improved by targeting translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerases (Pols) that promote replication through intrastrand cross-links, the major cisplatin-induced DNA adduct. However, to specifically target malignancies with minimal adverse effects on normal cells, a good understanding of TLS mechanisms in normal versus cancer cells is paramount. We show that in normal cells, TLS through cisplatin intrastrand cross-links is promoted by Polη- or Polι-dependent pathways, both of which require Rev1 as a scaffolding component. In contrast, cancer cells require Rev1-Polζ. Our findings that a recently identified Rev1 inhibitor, JH-RE-06, purported to specifically disrupt Rev1 interaction with Polζ to block TLS through cisplatin adducts in cancer cells, abrogates Rev1's ability to function with Y family Pols as well, implying that by inactivating Rev1-dependent TLS in normal cells, this inhibitor will exacerbate the toxicity and tumorigenicity of chemotherapeutics with cisplatin.
Genes & Development, Volume 35, pp 1229-1242; https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.348501.121
Multiple transcription factors have been shown to promote pancreatic β-cell differentiation, yet much less is known about negative regulators. Earlier epigenomic studies suggested that the transcriptional repressor REST could be a suppressor of endocrinogenesis in the embryonic pancreas. However, pancreatic Rest knockout mice failed to show abnormal numbers of endocrine cells, suggesting that REST is not a major regulator of endocrine differentiation. Using a different conditional allele that enables profound REST inactivation, we observed a marked increase in pancreatic endocrine cell formation. REST inhibition also promoted endocrinogenesis in zebrafish and mouse early postnatal ducts and induced β-cell-specific genes in human adult duct-derived organoids. We also defined genomic sites that are bound and repressed by REST in the embryonic pancreas. Our findings show that REST-dependent inhibition ensures a balanced production of endocrine cells from embryonic pancreatic progenitors.
Genes & Development, Volume 35, pp 1073-1075; https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.348773.121
Chromosome instability (CIN) and aneuploidy are hallmarks of cancer cells, typically associated with aggressiveness and poor outcomes. Historically, the causative link between aneuploidy and cancer has been difficult to study due to its intrinsic complexity and the poor fitness of aneuploid cells. In this issue of Genes & Development, two companion papers (Trakala and colleagues [pp. 1079–1092] and Shoshani and colleagues [pp. 1093–1108]) exploited sophisticated mouse models to study the progression of aneuploidy from early phases to established tumors. Both groups observed that, while in the early nontumoral cells aneuploidy is characterized by random chromosomal gains, established tumors display a stereotypic karyotype with recurrent gains of only a few chromosomes. Thus, aneuploidy in tumors is not random but shows reproducible patterns of chromosomal changes induced by mechanisms that these two studies are beginning to unveil.