Madras Agricultural Journal
ISSN / EISSN : 0024-9602 / 2582-5321
Published by: Madras Agricultural Students Union (10.29321)
Total articles ≅ 463
Latest articles in this journal
Madras Agricultural Journal, Volume 108, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.29321/maj.10.000487
The present study aimed at increasing the cocoon yield by fortifying the mulberry leaves with minerals such as zinc sulphate, magnesium sulphate and potassium chloride at different concentrations (10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 ppm) and feeding them to the silkworm Bombyx mori L. The oral application of minerals through mulberry leaves to silkworm larva during lateage instars significantly improved its larval and cocoon economic parameters. Among the five concentrations tested, it was observed that the zinc sulphate @ 100 ppm, magnesium sulphate @ 200 ppm and potassium chloride @ 100 ppm registered significantly higher mature larval weight, effective rate of rearing (ERR), cocoon weight, pupal weight, shell weight and shell ratio than the control. Per os administration of minerals also significantly reduced the fifth instar larval duration of silkworm.
Madras Agricultural Journal, Volume 108, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.29321/maj.10.000484
Coconut water is considered as nature’s gift to mankind due to its health benefits. The steady demand for tender coconut is currently met from a local dwarf from Kerala, viz., Chowghat Orange Dwarf (COD). However, there is a need for diversification of genotypes. Based on a 20-year-old germplasm evaluation trial conducted at Coconut Research Station (CRS), Aliyarnagar, a selection from Kenthali Dwarf (KTD) has been identified as a promising genotype exclusively for tender nut purpose. It has been released as TNAU coconut ALR 3. The selection is an early flowering genotype that comes to flowering from the third year onwards. The average yield potential is 86 nuts per palm per annum from the stabilized bearing period onwards, with a maximum yield potential of 121 nuts per palm per annum. This accounts for 34.1% and 37.9 % increase in yield over COD and MYD. Tender nut water analysis revealed that the genotype possessed 5.2% soluble sugars with a high potassium level (190.21) compared to COD and MYD. The variety is recommended for irrigated belts of Tamil Nadu.
Madras Agricultural Journal, Volume 108, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.29321/maj.10.000476
Several macrobasidiomycete fungi have potential biological properties naturally to combat fungal diseases. F.oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici is a soilborne ascomycetous fungus, which causes disease in several vegetable crops. The present study aimed to explore the antifungal activity of VOCs produced by several macrobasidiomycete fungi against F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. The VOCs emitted by macrobasidiomycete fungi were demonstrated by the inverted sealed plate assay against the target pathogen. Among the mushroom isolate tested in vitro, the VOCs exhibited from Coprinus cinereus inhibited 70 % mycelial growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, followed by Ganoderma lucidum (60.28 %) and Lentinus edodes (35.28 %). In addition to inhibition of the pathogen, the headspace volatiles emitted by the effective isolate were trapped by Tenax column and subjected to GC-MS analysis. A total of 15 and 25 VOCs were identified from C. cinereus and G. lucidum, respectively. Among them, Alfa copaene showed a peak area percentage of 7.82 (14.99 RT) in Coprinus cinereus. followed by 2 undecanone. Similarly, trichloromethane and 1- pentanol produced from G. lucidum, showed high relative abundance of 71.5 per cent at 9.84 RT and 70.3 per cent at 2.69 RT, respectively. The VOCs produced by macrobasidiomycete fungi could possess antimicrobial activities against the fungal pathogen. These volatile compounds may be explored as a novel biocontrol agent against soil borne pathogens of vegetable crop.
Madras Agricultural Journal, Volume 108, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.29321/maj.10.000486
The present study aimed to selectpotential strainof Volvariella volvacea suitable for outdoor cultivation in different cropping systems like Banana, Maize, Coconut, Coconut+Banana where such suitable microclimate prevails. Among the different strains of V.volvaceatested, the strain Vv-19-06 obtained from Directorate of Mushroom Research, Solan,performed considerably superior with higher bioefficiency of 17.44 and sturdy sporophores at egg stage and storage life of 1.1 days under refrigerated condition.Moreover, the morphogenesis of button stage to matured mushrooms were extended up to 1.8 days and the opened mushroom were retained on the bed for another 1.6 days, which is an added advantage.Cultivation of paddy straw mushroom as intercrop in Banana, Maize, Banana+coconut and Coconut cropping systems proved successful with spawn running completion ranging from 8 to 10.3 days, pinhead formation ranging from 9.3 to 11.6 days and harvestable button/egg stage appeared ranging from 11 to 12.6 days. The bioefficiency was comparatively better in all the cropping systems, which ranged from 19.4 to 20.6 %, with a total cropping cycle of 20.5 to 22 days.The indoor cropping system, which requires additional cost for infrastructure, also recorded bioefficiecy of 21.3 in a cropping cycle of 17 days. In all the cropping systems tested, the B:C ratio worked out to be 1:2.3 to 1:2.5 as in indoor cropping system proving that paddy straw mushroomcould be promoted for the outdoor systemin Maize, Banana, Banana +coconut , Coconut cropping systems as intercrop as it fetches additional income to rice-growing farmers.
Madras Agricultural Journal, Volume 108, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.29321/maj.10.000485
Leaf blight caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler is a severe disease of Gloriosa, causing severe yield loss in every part of Gloriosa growing areas of Tamil Nadu. The foliar pathogen was isolated from disease-infected leaves and proved its pathogenicity. Further, the molecular analysis of the pathogen using 18S rDNA confirmed the pathogen as Alternaria alternata. Attempts were made to explore the biocontrol agents and fungicides for the management of leaf blight incidence under field conditions. Four field trials conducted from 2014 to 2018 revealed that foliar application of talc-based formulation of Bacillus subtilis significantly reduced the leaf blight incidence and increased the seed yield under field conditions. Besides, prophylactic application of these biocontrol agents has also increased the plant growth parameters like plant height, number of flowers/plant, no. of pods/plant and number of seeds/pod. Similarly, foliar application of chlorothalonil (0.1%) and mancozeb (0.2%) was also credited to managing the leaf blight disease under field conditions.
Madras Agricultural Journal, Volume 108, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.29321/maj.10.000481
The present study aimed to analyze the relationship of profile characteristics with group performance of tribal FIGs. The survey was purposively conducted in Erode district as it contains more number of tribal Farmer Interest Groups (FIGs). A total of five Tribal FIGs were randomly selected from 16 Tribal FIGs belonging to Dhimbam Dhaniya Farmer Producer Company Limited (DDFPCL) and the total sample size was 100. A well-structured interview schedule was prepared and employed to collect the data from the respondents. The findings showed that majority of the respondents were young aged with high school education, female marginal farmers receiving low level of annual income with medium level of farming experience. They had also received medium level of support from institution. The findings of the study also revealed that majority of the members of tribal FIGs had 76.00, 75.00, 73.00, 67.00 and 55.00 percentages of self-confidence, economic motivation, group leadership, group communication and information seeking behaviour respectively.To improve the performance of tribal FIGs, measures should be taken to increase the level of group communication, group leadership and group cohesiveness. This can be increased through organizing regular meetings for members, proper selection of leaders and making the members to understand the importance of group action
Madras Agricultural Journal, Volume 108, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.29321/maj.10.000499
Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker is an ectomycorrhizal fungus that forms an abundant wealth of biomass in the forest ecosystem, with an untapped treasure of bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites having multifaceted use in health and agrochemical industries. The hidden potential of this fungus is tapped in the current study by using MTP1 isolate of P. tinctorius. The secondary metabolites of P. tinctorius were extracted and tested for their inhibitory efficacy against major soil-borne plant pathogens viz., Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Sacc.) Synder and Hansen; Macrophomina phaseolina (Goid); Rhizoctonia solani (Kuhn) and Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc). The cell-free culture (CFC) filtrate of P.tinctorius showed the maximum mycelial inhibition of F. o. f. sp. lycopersici (52.00 %); R. solani (51.92%) and M. phaseolina (48.23%). However, the CFC filtrate mixture did not inhibit the growth of S. rolfsii. The GC-MS analysis of biomolecules composite of ethyl acetate fraction of CFC filtrate indicated the presence of compounds belonging to the nature of fatty acids, aromatic alcohol, and flavonoids. The reduction in the growth of the test pathogens with the increase in the concentration of CFC filtrate and the presence of several unknown compounds in P. tinctorius warrants further study with the purified form of antifungal biomolecules in reducing root rots and wilts incited by the soil-borne phytopathogens.
Madras Agricultural Journal, Volume 108, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.29321/maj.10.000495
Field investigations were conducted to assess the effect of conservation agricultural practices on soil biological properties and yield of cotton during the kharif season of 2018 and 2019. The experiments were laid out in a split plot design with four main factors viz., conventional tillage with irrigation schedule of 0.8 IW/CPE ratio (M1), conventional tillage with irrigation schedule of 0.6 IW/CPE ratio (M2), minimum tillage with irrigation schedule of 0.8 IW/CPE ratio (M3) and minimum tillage with irrigation schedule of 0.6 IW/CPE ratio (M4). Sub plot had six treatments of weed and nutrient management viz., crop residue mulch with 100% RDF (S1), crop residue mulch with 75% RDF (S2), pre-emergence application of pendimethalin fb one hand weeding with 100% RDF (S3), pre-emergence application of pendimethalin fb one hand weeding with 75% RDF (S4), mechanical weeding twice with 100% RDF (S5) and mechanical weeding twice with 75% RDF (S6). Total microbial populations viz., bacteria, fungal, and actinobacteria were higher in cotton rhizosphere soil with the minimum tillage of irrigation at 0.8 IW/CPE ratio (M3) in the main plot treatments. Cotton rhizosphere soil with crop residue mulch with 100% RDF (S1) recorded a higher microbial population and it was statistically similar with pre-emergence application of pendimethalin fb one hand weeding with 100% RDF (S3) in the sub plot treatments. Among the treatment combination, minimum tillage with irrigation at 0.8 IW/CPE ratio (M3) and crop residue mulch with 100% RDF (S1) recorded a higher microbial population. Similarly, a higher seed yield of cotton was also recorded with minimum tillage and irrigating the crop at 0.8 IW/CPE ratio and pre-emergence application of pendimethalin fb one hand weeding along with application of 100% RDF (M3S3)
Madras Agricultural Journal, Volume 108, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.29321/maj.10.000491
Tamarind kernels are typically under-emphasized by products of the tamarind pulp industry. The kernel is a fair source of protein, fat (essential fatty acids), carbohydrates and minerals, which can replace conventional flour to develop new food products. The study aims to exploit the under-utilized tamarind kernel for value addition to improve tamarind kernel-based food products’ acceptability and consumption. The tamarind kernel incorporated cookies at 50 percent level of incorporation had moisture of 1.62 %, carbohydrate content of 72.52%, protein of 9.26 %, fat of 22.98%, fiber of 3.25% and ash of 1.12%, respectively. The developed cookies had higher protein and fiber content than control cookies, which depicts its potential to be the better alternative for the conventional flour.
Madras Agricultural Journal, Volume 108, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.29321/maj.10.000510
Field experiments were conducted at Coconut Research Station, Aliyarnagar during 2016 – 2019 to assess the performance of rice-based cropping sequences for water-scarce conditions of the Parambikulam Aliyar Project Command area of Tamil Nadu. Five cropping sequences viz., rice–sesame (T1), rice–groundnut (T2), rice– sunflower (T3), rice–castor (T4) and rice–black gram (T5) were experimented adopting Randomized Block Design with each sequence replicated four times. Results revealed that compared to the other non-legume sequences experimented, the contents of KMnO4-N and organic carbon in the post harvest soil, productivity of rice and economic efficiency were higher in rice–black gram followed by rice–groundnut sequence. Rice– castor sequence recorded the highest land utilization efficiency of 76.7 % and was the lowest in rice–black gram sequence (53.4 %). Rice equivalent yield was the highest on sequential cropping with sunflower (5755 kg ha-1) followed by groundnut (5028 kg ha-1). Production efficiency was the highest in rice– groundnut (47.5 kg ha-1 day-1) followed by rice–castor (42.5 kg ha-1 day- 1) systems. Net returns and benefit-cost ratio were higher in rice–sunflower and rice–black gram sequences followed by rice–groundnut and was the lowest in rice–sesame sequence. In terms of soil fertility, system productivity and economic returns, rice–sunflower, rice–black gram and rice–groundnut systems are highly remunerative for water-scarce conditions of Parambikulam Aliyar Command Area of Tamil Nadu.