Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan

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ISSN / EISSN : 2541-5166 / 2541-5174
Total articles ≅ 173
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Anella Retna Kumala Sari, Dian Rahmawati, Samrin Samrin
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 4, pp 145-151; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v4n3.2020.p145-151

Abstract:
Obtaining an optimum high yield of rice is confronted by pests that disrupt the productivity. Pest control by applying chemical pesticide is dangerous for the natural enemies therefore, it is necessary to introduce an integrated pest management, based on the natural enemies conservation in the field. Research was conducted in Wawotobi, Konawe Regency, Southeast Sulawesi from Februari to Juni 2019, aimed to understand the diversity of pests and natural enemies in rice crop, particularly arthropods group. The information is useful as a resource base in the implementation of an integrated pest management on rice agroecosystem. Pest observation was done by catching the insects using sweep net and were directly counted at the location. Diversity index of pest was analyzed using Shannor-Weinner equation and insect dominance using Simpson Index of Dominance equation. The utilization of improved rice varieties greatly affected the population of pests and natural enemies. Total of 7 species of pest arthropods and 6 species of natural enemy arthropods were identified at the experimental location. Therefore, the population of pests and natural enemy arthropods were considered at balance. The most dominance pest arthropods was brown planthopper, particularly on Tarabas variety and spider was the most dominant natural enemy.
Muhlis Ardiansyah, Widyo Pura Purba, Anang Kurnia
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 4, pp 135-144; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v4n3.2020.p135-144

Abstract:
Data produktivitas padi dibutuhkan untuk mendapatkan informasi tentang capaian target pembangunan berkelanjutan (Sustainable Development Goals - SDGs). Data produktivitas padi diperoleh dari hasil survei ubinan rutin Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS). Permasalahan pada pelaksanaan survei adalah pengukuran bobot gabah pada petak lahan terpilih tidak selalu berhasil, terutama di wilayah dengan aksesibilitas yang sulit. Hal ini menyebabkan beberapa data hilang. Salah satu solusi untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut adalah menduga bobot gabah per plot ubinan berdasarkan peubah yang mudah diperoleh. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Kalimantan Tengah pada tahun 2019, bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi kinerja model Quantile Regression Forest (QRF) dalam menduga berat gabah atau produktivitas padi per 2,5 x 2,5 m2. Metode yang diperbandingkan adalah Model Linier (LM), QRF, Geo-QRF, dan Geo-QRF reparameterisasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan peubah varietas, pupuk, dan titik koordinat dapat digunakan untuk menduga bobot gabah pada survei ubinan di Kalimatan Tengah. Model Geo-QRF dengan reparameterisasi peubah pupuk terbukti mampu menduga bobot gabah lebih baik dibanding model linier karena menurunkan RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) dan meningkatkan nilai korelasi antara data aktual dengan data dugaan. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan apabila data hilang tersebar secara acak (data hilang tipe III) maka angka rata-rata gabah yang dihasilkan mirip dengan rata-rata bobot gabah pada tingkat respon survei 100%. Berbeda dengan jenis data hilang tipe I dan II, rata-rata bobot gabah yang dihasilkan dapat menjadi uderestimate atau overestimate jika tidak ditangani. Prediksi bobot gabah menggunakan model Geo-QRF dengan reparameterisasi dapat memperbaiki masalah data hilang dengan hasil yang lebih mirip dengan rata-rata bobot gabah pada tingkat respon 100%. BPS diharapkan mempertimbangkan dan mengkaji solusi yang diajukan dalam penelitian ini.
Untung Susanto, Samsul Arifin, Wage R. Rohaeni, Rina H. Wening
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 4, pp 119-124; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v4n3.2020.p119-124

Abstract:
Rice productivity in rainfed area is mostly determined by the environmental condition, cultivation technique, specific stress occurrence, and the variety planted. There are around 4 million ha of rainfed lowlands in Indonesia, contributing the second biggest supply for national rice production after the irrigated area. Planting the most suitable rainfed lowland rice variety is expected to increase rice yield in the area. This research was aimed to test 34 rainfed lowland rice lines along with five check varieties in two targeted areas, i.e. Purwakarta during Dry Season 2015 (transplanting technique of 21 days old seedlings) and Pati during Wet Season 2015/2016 (using direct seeded or gogo rancah planting method). The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications, at 3 x 5 m2 plot, and 25 cm x 25 cm plant spacing. Results showed the existence of genetic x environment interactions of all observed traits, except for tiller number. Grain yield, tiller number, and number of filled grains/panicle in Purwakarta was each higher than that in Pati. Seven lines were identified as having high yield in Purwakarta and were medium in Pati, and five lines were high yield in Pati and were medium in Purwakarta. Line IR83383-B-B-129-4 (10.35 t/ha) yielded higher compared to the best check Inpari 13 (8.27 t/ha) in Purwakarta. Most of lines in Pati had comparable yield with the best check Inpari 23 (7.18 t/ha). Grain yield was positively correlated with number and percentage of filled grains/panicle and negatively correlated with number of unfilled grains/panicle. Keywords: R
Nining Nurini Andayani, Muzdalifah Isnaini, Muhammad Aqil, Amran Muis, Marcia Bunga Pabendon, Muhammad Azrai
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 4, pp 161-170; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v4n3.2020.p161-170

Abstract:
Functional maize tends to be more susceptible to major maize diseases, particularly Downy mildew. Among the functional maize are Quality Protein Maize (QPM) and Provit A maize. The presence of higher amino acid and beta carotene in functional maize might have caused these types of maize more susceptible to Downy mildew disease. The objective of the research was to identify the heterotic pairs among maize inbreds i.e. QPM, Provit A, and local maize varieties resistant to Downy mildew disease using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) marker. The research was conducted from April to July 2017 at the Molecular Biology Laboratory of Indonesian Cereals Research Institute. A total of five QPM inbreds, 15 Provit A inbreds, and 11 Downy mildew resistant local varieties of maize were used in the experiment using 34 SSR markers. Results indicated that among 34 SSR locus analysed, variation of allele lengths ranged from 74 bp to 500 bp. A total of 125 alleles ranging from two to nine alleles per locus with an average of 3.68 alleles were generated. The data indicated wide genetic variations among characters. DNA band profile showed that nc130 marker produced the highest PIC (over 0.83) and allele value (8.00). Genetic distance analysis found a total of 21 heterotic genotypes with genetic distance exceeds 0.65.
Yugi R. Ahadiyat, Rostaman Rostaman, Ahmad Fauzi
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 4, pp 153-160; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v4n3.2020.p153-160

Abstract:
Pest and disease control for the upland rice cultivation needs to be done ecologically with the proper dose of fertilizer. Coconut shell as natural waste can be converted into wood vinegar which is useful for a biopesticide. The application of coconut shell wood vinegar as biopesticide combined with different NPK fertilizer doses needs to be examined in controlling pests and diseases in the upland rice crop. The objective of this study was to know the effect of NPK fertilizer rate and coconut shell wood vinegar application on pests (locusts and leaf folder), and on pathogen infection (Cercospora) on upland rice. The experiment was conducted in Klampok Sub-district, Banjarnegara Regency from April to July 2017. A split plot design was used replicated three times. The main plot was NPK fertilizers viz. 50% and 100% recommendation dosage, and the sub plots were concentration of coconut shell wood vinegar viz. 0% 1%; 1.25%; 1.67%; 2.5% and 5%. The intensity of pest attack, namely locusts and leaf folder, and pathogen infection of Cercospora brown spot disease were observed. Results showed that application of coconut shell wood vinegar suppressed the intensity of locust and leaf folder pests, and lower the intensity of Cercospora pathogen infection. To reduce the intensity of pests and pathogenic infections in upland rice, the application of coconut shell wood vinegar is suggested along with the use of low dose of NPK, for more effective and efficient pest control in environmentally friendly manner.
Saptowo J. Pardal, V. R. Rahayu, K. Nugroho, Suharsono Suharsono
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 4, pp 171-177; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v4n3.2020.p171-177

Abstract:
High genetic diversities are important factors in the development of new crop varieties. In vitro technique and Genetic Engineering are applicable for development of crop variability that is not found in the gene pool. Genetic variation may be derived from genetic variations in cells or in chromosomes. Variations in the cells may be obtained from cell mutations or polysomic mutations of a certain cells during the in vitro culture (plant regeneration in vitro). Genetic variations in chromosome may be caused by gene insertion, changes of chromosom structures (crossings), as well as changes of genes and cytoplasms. Changes of genetic characters may be improved by inserting novel gene into the cells target. To improve the plant tolerances to abiotic factors, tolerance gene constructs can be inserted to the target cells. For example, by inserting the Aluminum tolerance gene construct such as MaMt2 gene its can induce genetic diversity in transgenic soybean lines resulted from transformation. Research results showed that genetic diversity in transgenic soybean lines was found based on microsatellite marker (SSR= Simple Sequence Repeat). The genetic diversity produced by using genetic manipulation can provide chances to develop new plant genotipes that contain Al tolerance character.
Sujinah Sujinah, Nurwulan Agustiani, Indra Gunawan, Swisci Margaret
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 4, pp 125-133; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v4n3.2020.p125-133

Abstract:
An intensive swampland rice technology package, dubbed as RAISA, consisted of water and land management, swampland specific variety, population density bio-fertilizer, soil ameliorant, inorganic fertilization, integrated pest management, and use of mechanization. Validation of RAISA’s technology was aimed to determine technology components which significantly affected yield increase. The experiment was conducted at Karang Agung Experimental Station and farmer’s field in Banyuasin, South Sumatera, using a Randomized Complete Block Design with seven treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of RAISA minus specific variety (P1), RAISA minus optimum plant population (P2), RAISA minus bio-fertilizer (P3), RAISA minus soil ameliorant (P4), RAISA minus inorganic fertilizer (P5), RAISA full package (P6), and farmer’s crop cultivation technique as control (P7). Result showed that the variety affected significantly on plant height, and plant population affected the number of tillers. The RAISA technological package increased rice yield by 41% compared to that of farmer practice. The RAISA technological components that significantly increased rice yield are variety, plant population, and soil ameliorant. RAISA is considered feasible to be applied with an R/C ratio of 1.57-1.97.
Sujinah Sujinah, Aris Hairmansis, Priatna Sasmita, Yudhistira Nugraha
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 4, pp 63-71; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v4n2.2020.p63-71

Abstract:
Padi merupakan tanaman semusim berumur relatif pendek sehingga efektivitas pemanfaatan radiasi matahari menjadi penentu produksi. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui hubungan antara umur dan produktivitas gabah, dihubungkan dengan hasil biomasa per satuan waktu dan indeks panen, dilakukan di dua lokasi pada musim hujan 2016/2017, yaitu di Sukamandi (Aluvial, 5 m dpl) dan Muara Bogor (Latosol, 250 m dpl). Percobaan pertama yaitu skrining hasil biomasa dan umur tanaman 27 genotipe dengan latar belakang genetik berbeda, menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok dengan tiga ulangan. Percobaan kedua, pemupukan dengan tiga dosis pupuk N terhadap enam genotipe hasil seleksi dari percobaan pertama dilakukan di Sukamandi pada MH 2017/2018. Menggunakan rancangan percobaan split plot. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan terdapat interaksi nyata antara genotipe dengan lokasi penelitian untuk umur tanaman dan hasil biomasa. Korelasi antara hasil gabah dengan umur berbunga untuk kelompok tanaman berumur genjah tidak nyata, sedangkan untuk kelompok tanaman umur dalam korelasinya negatif sangat nyata. Hal tersebut mengindikasikan genotipe kelompok umur panjang cenderung mengakumulasi biomasa yang dicirikan oleh rendahnya indeks panen. Genotipe padi yang hasilnya tinggi adalah yang umur berbunganya genjah (75-85 hari) dan memiliki indeks panen tinggi. Dari percobaan pemupukan menunjukkan varietas memberikan respon yang berbeda terhadap dosis pemupukan untuk karakter bobot biomas kering dan hasil gabah. Genotipe B14671E-MR-39-3-2-2 dan B12411 MR memberikan respon positif nyata terhadap peningkatan pemupukan urea dari dosis 115 kg N/ha ke 207 kgN/ha, sedangkan varietas Inpari-32, Inpari-19, dan Inpari-43 tidak menunjukkan respon nyata. Informasi yang diperoleh berguna bagi peneliti pemulia tanaman dalam merakit varietas padi berdaya hasil tinggi.
Sagung Ayu Nyoman Aryawati, Heni Safitri, Anak Agung Ngurah Bagus Kamandalu, Wayan Sunanjaya, Anela Retna Kumala Sari
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 4, pp 73-79; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v4n2.2020.p73-79

Abstract:
The stages of assembling new superior varieties are the adaptation test lines of hope that will be proposed. Adaptation test was carried out in SubakBengkel, Tabanan Regency and SubakBatanWani, Badung Regency, Bali in 2018. The purpose of this study was to determine the agronomic performance of some rice lines in the two locations in the Province of Bali. The study used a randomized block design (RBD) with four replications. Data were analyzed using SAS and DMRT applications.The results of the analysis showed that the lines of hope that were tried had a significant effect on all plant parameters observed. The highest rice productivity was produced by the BP20797d-SKI-1-2-7-1 line of hope, which was 9.20 tons GKG h-1, more 4.78 and 7.38% compared to Ciherang and Inpari 33 varieties.
Saeka Unoki, Trias Sitaresmi, Hiroshi Ehara, Yudhistira Nugraha
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 4, pp 81-88; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v4n2.2020.p81-88

Abstract:
Iron toxicity affects the growth and yield of rice plant. Overcoming the damage of rice production by iron toxicity requires furthermore researches from laboratory to field levels. Here, we study responses of rice genotypes to iron toxicity between vegetative stage in hydroponic and whole grow stages in the pot. The first experiment was hydroponic experiment using twelve rice genotypes which were growth in the Yoshida Solution with addition of 0.2 % of agar. Three level of iron was given at 0, 500 and 700 ppm. The second experiment was the pot experiment using alluvial soil added with 3.000 ppm of ferrous combine with four levels of potassium and the control on Cilamaya Muncul (tolerant), Inpara 8 (moderate tolerant) and IR 64 (susceptible). In hydroponic experiment, even though the symptom appeared obviously, the leaf bronzing score (LBS) of tolerant and sensitive genotypes were not different. Physiological traits were significantly affected by Fe treatment in all varieties. Then symptom and physiological traits were significantly correlated. Through the pot experiment, it was confirmed the tolerance of each varieties. However, we couldn’t see the correlation between the LBS on hydroponic and soil at this time. And the heading delay was new finding, but it depended on varieties. We also could see the possibility of potassium application to inhibit iron toxicity but still we need to explore how it works. Kata kunci: iron toxicity, rice, hydroponic, soil
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