Shock and Vibration
ISSN / EISSN : 1070-9622 / 1875-9203
Published by: Hindawi Limited (10.1155)
Total articles ≅ 4,656
Latest articles in this journal
Shock and Vibration, Volume 2021, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/7709050
Metro Jet System (MJS) joint microdisturbance reinforcement is often adopted to strengthen and remediate existing tunnels that are severely deformed by under-construction peripheral works, but analysis related to the reinforcement system of tunnel under consideration of seismic effects is insufficient at present. In this work, a field test of MJS joint microdisturbance reinforcement system of existing tunnels was conducted on the basis of a subway tunnel deformation reinforcement project. Then, a numerical simulation study of the seismic dynamic response of reinforcement system was performed in combination with seismic wave direction and intensity. Results show that the MJS joint microdisturbance reinforcement measures can effectively reduce the settlement and horizontal radial convergence deformation of the tunnel. The seismic longitudinal wave significantly affects the vertical displacement of the tunnel, and the seismic-induced vertical displacement of the tunnel increases with the rise in seismic intensity. The seismic transverse wave significantly affects the horizontal radial convergence deformation of the tunnel, and the seismic-induced horizontal radial convergence deformation of the tunnel increases with the rise in seismic intensity. The antiseismic property of MJS joint microdisturbance reinforcement measures on the existing tunnel is not obvious.
Shock and Vibration, Volume 2021, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/4846977
The impact ground pressure in coal mining is closely related to the fault structure, and the fault activation pattern is different when the working face advances along the upper and lower plates of the fault, respectively. In this paper, the F16 positive fault in the southern part of Yima coalfield is used as a prototype to carry out the physical similar model test simulating the process of the working face advancing from the upper and lower plates of the fault, and PPP-BOTDA optical fiber sensing technique is used to study the overburden deformation law and fault activation law when the working face is located in the upper and lower plates of the fault, respectively. The study shows that the key stratum breakage is closely related to the fault movement, and the shear stress concentration range occurs within the key stratum. The additional shear stress concentration at the fault surface caused by the working face advancing in the lower plate is much larger than that at the upper plate, which is the reason for the serious fault destabilization phenomenon at the lower plate. The upper rock layer on the fault face is affected by the mining action of the working face before the lower one, and the working face is affected by the fault in a larger range when advances in the lower plate than that in the upper plate, and the risk of fault activation instability occurs earlier when the working face advances in the lower plate than that in the upper plate. The distributed optical fiber sensing technology is used to verify the basic conclusions that the impact of the working face advancing from the lower plate is much greater than that from the upper plate, which is more likely to cause fault activation. The preferential placement of the working face in the upper plate in the fault area will be beneficial to mine pressure control. The results of the study provide an experimental basis for the application of distributed optical fiber sensing technology to the study of fault activation law.
Shock and Vibration, Volume 2021, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/9968586
Two WJ-3 anemometers placed at the same height on the top of an architectural engineering building in Wenzhou University are used to determine the wind speed of Typhoon Morakot during its landing in real time. This study aims to explore Typhoon Morakot’s wind field characteristics, including mean wind speed, probability density distribution of fluctuating wind speed, power spectral density, correlation analysis, and coherence, on the basis of data measured by the two anemometers. Results show that the probability density distribution of the fluctuating wind speed of the typhoon follows the Gaussian distribution, and the measured cross-power spectrum of fluctuating wind speed is in good agreement with the modified Karman spectrum. The autocorrelation decreases with the increase in time interval (τ). The longitudinal autocorrelation coefficient decays rapidly with the increase in τ, and the lateral autocorrelation coefficient decays at an unchanged rate. The exponential attenuation coefficients of the longitudinal and transverse fluctuating wind speeds increase with the increase in the mean wind speed, and their mean values are 10.86 and 15.33, respectively. The change trends of the coherence coefficients of the two wind speed components with the mean wind speed are the same. The measured coherence coefficients of the two wind speed components are in good agreement with the exponential function.
Shock and Vibration, Volume 2021, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/5089213
In this paper, a passive damper based on energy dissipation through shock and dry friction (shock-friction damper) is investigated regarding its design and effectiveness for damping self-excited torsional vibrations similar to those occurring in deep drilling. The results are compared to the results of conventional friction dampers. The effectiveness of the damper for different operational drilling parameters that change during the drilling process, such as the weight on the bit and the rotary speed of the bit, is analyzed. Two linear reduced order models of a drill string that are based on a complex finite element model are set up. One is reduced using the component mode synthesis and one is reduced to the identified critical mode. A lumped mass represents the inertia of a forcedly connected nonlinear damper. A combined reduced order model of the complex system and the inertia damper is introduced to investigate its dynamic motion and stability. Particular focus is on the energy flow within the dynamic system and on the change of the dissipation energy in the contact. A semi-analytical solution is derived using the harmonic balance method that is used to investigate the damping effect for various designs and operational parameters. Herein, the modal properties as well as parameters of the damper are examined regarding the damping effect and the stability of the system. Finally, the capability of the mechanism to suppress the self-excitation due to the bit–rock interaction in a drilling system is discussed, and recommendations are made with respect to the design parameters and placement of the damper.
Shock and Vibration, Volume 2021, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8930560
The structural damage of the lining structure at the entrance of a tunnel is the most common instability problem. The instability problem may cause dynamic effects such as earthquakes and blasting. Based on the seismic damage data collected from previous major earthquakes at the entrance of shallow-buried tunnel, the shaking table test and numerical simulation are used to analyze dynamic response characteristics and damage evolution characteristics of the tunnel in the shallow-buried hole at 30°. The study revealed the stress characteristics of tunnel lining and the mechanism of structural damage under earthquake excitation. The research results show that the biased tunnel (30°) is susceptible to damage on the unsymmetrical loading side, the biased ground surface leads to acceleration, and high speed also significantly increases the effect. The biased side leg of the tunnel lining cross section is a location with a large internal force distribution. The biased tunnel has a relatively unfavorable internal force value distribution and a larger peak, and the peak at the larger bias side has the largest peak value. The skewback and spandrel portion of the biased tunnel lining load are more likely to be damaged.
Shock and Vibration, Volume 2021, pp 1-21; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/5537286
The widespread faults that occur in railway wheels and can cause a massive dynamic impact are the wheel tread flat. The current work considered changes in vehicle speed or wheel radius deviation and studied the dynamic impact load. The modal technique for the impact evaluation induced by the wheel flat was proposed via the finite element analysis (FEA) software package ANSYS, integrated into a multibody dynamics model of the high-speed train CRH2A (EMU) through SIMPACK. The irregularity track line has developed and depends on the selected simulation data points. Additionally, a statistical approach is designed to analyze the dynamic impact load response and effect and consider different wheel flat lengths and vehicle speeds. The train speed influence on the flat size of the vertical wheel-rail impact response and the statistical approach are discussed based on flexible, rigid wheelsets. The results show that the rigid wheel flat has the highest vertical wheel impact load and is more significant than the flexible wheel flat force. The consequences suggest that the wheelset flexibility can significantly improve vertical acceleration comparably to the rigid wheel flats. In addition, the rendering of the statistical approach shows that the hazard rate, PDF, and CDF influence increase when the flat wheel length increases.
Shock and Vibration, Volume 2021, pp 1-20; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6004283
This paper treats the vibration characteristics of three different types of asymmetric buildings and investigates the feasibility of applying an innovative vibration-based multicriteria approach-based damage index (MCA-DI) technique to detect the damage. This technique combines a modified form of the traditional modal strain energy method (MSEM) developed by decomposing the mode shapes into lateral and vertical components together with a modified form of the modal flexibility method to define a new damage indicator. Lastly, the dynamic behavior of three asymmetric building instances, including a 10-storey L-shaped structure, a 10-storey setback structure, and a 6-storey reinforced concrete structure with an unsymmetrical distribution of columns, was studied under five different damage scenarios. The results showed that despite different vibration characteristics of these three asymmetric buildings, the proposed method was able to accurately and effectively locate all damages and eliminate the confusion when more than one index is simultaneously used by using only the first a few modes.
Shock and Vibration, Volume 2021, pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8340076
It is vital to understand the electromagnetic radiation’s time-frequency characteristics in the process of coal and rock failure with different joint angles in order to reveal the generation mechanism of the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and improve the accuracy of EMR early warning. We studied the time-frequency characteristics of EMR signals of coal samples with different joint angles. The study finds that, (1) with the increase of joint angle, the failure time and peak load of samples decrease first and increase later, and the postpeak failure time decreases gradually. The EMR counts’ peak value showed a slow rise, a sharp rise, and a slow rise in the three intervals of α = 0° to 45°, 45° to 60°, and 60° to 90°, respectively. The accumulated EMR counts showed a steady upward trend. The duration of the EMR waveform, the dominant frequency of the EMR, and the peak number of the frequency spectrum of coal samples are on the rise. (2) As the joint angle increases, the samples’ failure mode changes from the stage fracture dominated by tension cracks to the rapid fracture with the coexistence of shear and tension cracks and finally to the burst fracture which produces a large number of fragments. This is also the main reason for the difference of the EMR generation mechanism and the signal of samples with different joint angles. (3) According to the experimental results, we established the modified formulas for calculating the EMR threshold value and deviation of coal and rock with joints under different stress environments and revealed that the longer the EMR waveform duration, the higher the dominant frequency, and the more the number of spectrum peaks, the greater the burst risk of coal and rock.
Shock and Vibration, Volume 2021, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/4249957
The rock masses that occur in nature are damaged and unstable due to the impact of rock burst, coal and gas outbursts, and other human mining activities, posing a major threat to human life and safety. In the light of the early warning of the danger of the loaded rock mass, this paper adopts acoustic emission (AE) device to analyze the AE signal characteristics and damage laws of the loaded rock under different stress levels. Then, based on the AE signal characteristics of the loaded rock, data mining technology is used to construct a model to predict the failure and instability of the loaded rock mass and, finally, verify the reliability of the prediction model based on data mining. The results show that the AE signal characteristics of red sandstone under uniaxial load are related to the magnitude of the bearing stress. Before the plastic deformation stage, the AE energy and the cumulative count per second are both small. After the loaded rock enters the plastic deformation stage, the AE energy and the cumulative count per second both increase sharply. After the AE energy is greater than 500 mV ∗ ms and the cumulative count per second is greater than 150, the loaded rock mass will issue an early warning signal. The research results can provide a reference value for the safe production of the project site and the dangerous early warning of the loaded rock mass.
Shock and Vibration, Volume 2021, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/3999948
Dynamic load is an important factor affecting the safety and stability of subway tunnel structures. To obtain the variation law of shield tunnel structure dynamic response under aircraft taxiing load, a three-dimensional numerical simulation of such tunnel under the action of aircraft taxiing load is performed on the basis of a project involving a shield tunnel orthogonal underpass taxiway. The effects of sliding speed and tunnel depth on the structure of the shield tunnel are also analyzed. The results show that the transverse displacement and acceleration response of tunnel segment exhibit evident time-space effect under the action of aircraft taxiing load. The transverse displacement and arch waist acceleration of the shield segment increase first and then decrease. The transverse displacement of the arch waist reaches its maximum when the aircraft taxis directly above the tunnel. The sliding speed exhibits an evident influence on the dynamic response of shield tunnel structure. The vertical and convergence displacements of tunnel segments increase with the increase in sliding speed. The dynamic response of tunnel structure is significantly affected by the factors of tunnel buried depth. The vertical and convergence displacements of tunnel segments decrease with the increase in tunnel buried depth. Therefore, the safety of the shield tunnel structure can be ensured by controlling the taxiing speed when the aircraft taxis directly above the tunnel. The measures of increasing the buried depth of the tunnel or strengthening the tunnel structure need to be considered when the taxiing speed is large.