International Journal of Physiotherapy and Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2321-8975 / 2321-1822
Published by: I MED Research Publications (10.16965)
Total articles ≅ 545
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Latest articles in this journal

International Journal of Physiotherapy and Research, Volume 10, pp 4395-4400;

Background: Chest expansion measurement is included as a standard mode of measurement to evaluate patient’s baseline status of respiratory function. There are various anatomical and physiological differences between adult and paediatric respiratory system hence, adult values of chest expansion cannot be used as reference values in paediatric population. Also, there is lack of recent data that has evaluated chest expansion values in paediatric age group. So, the present study was undertaken to find out normal chest expansion values in children between 5-12 years of age. It is important to know the reference value for precise interpretation. Methodology: A cross sectional observational study was carried out in 600 children between age group of 5-12 years and with normal BMI(without H/O any cardiac/respiratory illness, musculoskeletal or neurological diseases, spinal deviations, cough and cold). Chest expansion measurements were assessed in sitting position at three levels that is, 2nd, 4th and 6th intercostal spaces(ICS), using an non- elastic measuring tape. It was taken as thoracic circumference at the end of maximum exhalation and inspiration. An average of three such readings at each level was taken into consideration. Results: To find value of chest expansion at 2nd, 4th and 6th ICS levels a average values of the three measurements taken at each level at same time was taken into consideration. Conclusion: The normative values of chest expansion in healthy children between age group of 5-12 years is 2nd Intercostal space- 1 inch/ 2.5 cm, 4th Intercostal space- 1 inch/2.5 cm, 6th Intercostal space- 1.7 inch/ 4.25cm. KEY WORDS: Chest Expansion, Normative Values, Children, Paediatric.
, Pradeep Kumar S, Poojasree B
International Journal of Physiotherapy and Research, Volume 10, pp 4337-4341;

Background: The teachers are the biggest asset of the society as they are the source of knowledge and teaches about morals to the children.They face many problems which mainly affect their quality of life. One of the problem is varicose veins which shows various symptoms like itching and ulceration. Aim: The aim of the study is to find the prevalence rate of varicose veins among school teachers. Objective: To determine the prevalence rate of varicose veins among school teachers using VEINES-symptoms questionnaire.To determine which gender has higher prevalence rate of Varicose veins. Materials: VEINES (venous insufficiency epidemiological and economic study). Results: The statistical analysis shows that the 40% of the school teachers were affected by varicose veins by using VEINES-symptoms questionnaire. Conclusion:Based on the present study findings,it was concluded that the school teachers are more prone to Varicose veins.The present study states that female school teachers has higher prevalence rate of Varicose veins than male teachers.Among the school teachers prolonged standing considered as the significant risk factors KEY WORDS: Varicose veins, School teachers, VEINES-symptoms questionnaire, Prevalence rate, Itching, Ulceration.
, Peggy R. Trueblood, Sheryl Flynn
International Journal of Physiotherapy and Research, Volume 10, pp 4369-4381;

Background: One in four older adults in the age range 65 and above, report falls in the US each year. Some falls cause injuries or even deaths and can pose a significant economic burden on society. This pilot study compares two different methods of measuring fall risk in older adults. The goal of this research is to investigate the feasibility of a digital fall risk assessment tool, compared with the traditional functional gait and balance assessments. Methods: Community dwelling older adults aged 60 years or older were recruited. Physical therapy students guided the participants through the following traditional paper-based tests: Berg Balance Scale (BBS) or Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB), 30 Second Chair Stand (30CST), 50-foot Walk Test, Balance Efficacy Scale (BES), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale (CES-D). All participants then independently completed the following digitally guided tests using the Health in Motion© (Blue Marble Health) remote therapeutic monitoring platform that comprised of Fall Risk Questionnaire (FRQ), One Leg Stand Test (OLST), 30 Second Sit to Stand Test (30STST), and 2 Question Depression Screen (2QDS). Results: This pilot study involved six female and one male community-dwelling older adults aged 67-90 years (81.57 ± 8.07). In general, the digital fall risk assessments correlated with some of the traditional paper-based fall risk tests. Specifically, there was a statistically significant moderate correlation between the digital fall risk questionnaire (FRQ) and the paper-based BES (r=0.77, p=0.043), and CES-D (r=0.76, p=.046). There was a statistically significant very strong correlation between the digital OLST and the 50-foot walk preferred speed (r=0.80, p=0.056), fast speed (r=0.92, p=.0009), and moderate correlation with 30CST (r=0.79, p=0.033). Further, there was a 100% match between both digital and paper-based depression tests. In terms of average total duration of administering the test, the digital fall risk assessment takes 7 minutes in comparison to 60 minutes with traditional balance and gait assessment. Conclusion: During the global COVID-19 pandemic and beyond, digital fall risk self-assessment tools can enable clinicians to collect asynchronous, objective, and standardized assessments prior to their telehealth visits. KEYWORDS: Fall Prevention, Fall Screening, Self-Assessment Mhealth App, Telehealth, Pro Bono Balance Clinic, Remote Patient Monitoring.
, Sahu Deepali Nilanchal, Rahul Krishnan, Priya Kesar
International Journal of Physiotherapy and Research, Volume 10, pp 4382-4388;

Background: Disorder of plantar fascia caused from overuse, excessive overload or prolonged standing time is called plantar fasciitis. Conservative treatment is a primary choice of treatment for plantar fasciitis and physiotherapist play a vital role. Interventions such as ultrasound, soft tissue massage, orthotics, taping, hot pack, cold pack, stretching and strengthening exercises are used by physiotherapists for treatment of this condition. Objectives: This study is aimed to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of myofascial release technique and static stretching of plantar fascia, on pain among adults with plantar fasciitis. Methods: All the subjects were screened as per the inclusion & exclusion criteria. After getting their written consent, a total of 42 plantar fasciitis patients with mean age of 28 years were included in the study. They were randomly allocated into two groups with n= 21 in each group. Group A was given Myofascial Release Technique whereas Group B was given Static Stretching on the affected plantar fascia. The interventions were carried out for twice a week for two weeks. Visual Analogue Scale was used as the outcome measure and it was measured pre- and post-intervention at baseline during week one and at the end of treatment at week two. Results: The study demonstrated statistically significant difference between pre-treatment and post-treatment visual analogue scale scores, in both groups: MFR (p < .0001) and Static Stretching (p < .0011). Conclusion: Both MFR as well as static stretching are effective in reducing pain in plantar fasciitis patients. KEY WORDS: Plantar Fasciitis, Static Stretching, Myofascial Release, Pain, Visual Analogue Scale.
, Smita Patil
International Journal of Physiotherapy and Research, Volume 10, pp 4364-4368;

Background: Painful restriction of shoulder movement, without an underlying cause, which results in complete loss of motion of the glenohumeral joint is called Frozen Shoulder. The process is started with an inflammation of the lining of the joint within the shoulder. Gradually this area thickens and results in the shoulder becoming stiffer and more painful. It is seen commonly at the age of 40-65 years and more often in women. Overall, this condition affects work, leisure, and quality of life. Frozen shoulder often progresses in three stages: the freezing, frozen and thawing phases. Risk factors for frozen shoulder are diabetes, thyroid, history of shoulder trauma, cervical radiculopathy, post-operative immobilization, and shoulder surgery. Cyriax described the typical capsular patterns of the gle¬no humeral joint in the frozen shoulder with abduction more limited than external rotation, and external rota¬tion more limited than internalrotation. This study aims to establish the effect of gleno humeral capsulo ligamentous stretch maneuvers on bilateral frozen shoulder. Methods: A total of 40 subjects diagnosed with bilateral frozen shoulder were selected for the study. Subjects received low load prolonged stretching, mobilization and shoulder range of motion exercises. Each session was conducted for 30 minutes duration, 5 days per week for 4 weeks. Outcome measures used were Numerical pain rating scale (NPRS), Goniometer and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI). Results: The results of the study demonstrate that there was a significant effect of gleno humeral capsulo ligamentous stretch on numerical pain rating scale (p<0.0001), range of motion (Shoulder flexion, abduction, internal rotation and external rotation (p<0.0001), Shoulder pain and disability index (p<0.0001) during the pre and post intervention assessment. Conclusion: It is concluded that that the use of low load prolonged stretch and mobilization was very effective in reducing pain and improving range of motion. Shoulder range of motion exercises was effective in improving strength and flexibility of shoulder musculature. KEYWORDS: Low load prolonged stretch, mobilization, numerical pain rating scale, Shoulder pain and disability index, Bilateral frozen shoulder.
Vidhi Singh, Amandeep Singh, Santosh Pandey, Prayagraj Senior Physiotherapist
International Journal of Physiotherapy and Research, Volume 10, pp 4342-4348;

Background: Falls are a frequent reason for injury-related hospitalisation or mortality in older people. This research discusses a unique conceptual framework on dynamic stability and weight support in reducing the chance of falls and slips, based on induced slip training or an obstacle course principle. Objective: To find either an obstacle course or induced slip training for slips and falls in elderly people. Design: Berg Balance Scale and a modified timed up and go test study. Study setting: Community centres and communities in Agra and Mathura. Participants: A total of 30 subjects were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Outcome measure: Obstacle course training and timed up & go test were used as for assessing older people with balance and mobility issues. Results: In elderly people, the low friction surface trained group maintained their balance while walking at their usual speed in timed up and go. Conclusion: Based on findings of the study, the low friction surface group showed a faster time to walk over the same surface without losing balance. They were able to adjust their posture in response to the stresses by applying tactics learnt via repetition, resulting in more stable and safe movement. KEY WORD: Geriatric slips and falls, Induced slip, Obstacle course, Up and go test.
, Lavanya Ayyer
International Journal of Physiotherapy and Research, Volume 10, pp 4389-4394;

Background: COVID-19 disease has spread worldwide irrespective of age, gender and comorbidities. lung is the main affecting organ in corona virus disease due to which patients infected with covid19 has impacting on exercise tolerance, quality of life and dyspnoea. Purpose: to observe the effects of pulmonary rehabilitation in post covid patients. Objectives: to observe the effects of pulmonary rehabilitation of dyspnoea by MMRC scale and exercise tolerance by 6min walk test in post covid patients. Methodology: A total of 61 patients meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. dyspnoea and exercise tolerance score has recorded before and after the pulmonary rehabilitation. Result: post pulmonary rehabilitation score in terms of dyspnoea and exercise tolerance has showed extremely significant improvement (p<0.001) as compared to pre pulmonary rehabilitation score. Conclusion: pulmonary rehabilitation is effective in improving dyspnoea and exercise tolerance in post covid patients. KEYWORDS: Pulmonary Rehabilitation, COVID-19, Exercise Tolerance, Dyspnoea.
, Namrata Kadam
International Journal of Physiotherapy and Research, Volume 10, pp 4358-4363;

Background: Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) or Shin splints is exercise-induced lower leg pain along the distal posterior-medial aspect of tibia caused by repetitive loading stress during running and jumping. It is one of the most common lower leg sports injury. Cryotherapy is the most commonly used treatment during immediate care of athletic injuries and acute soft tissue injuries and is also included as part of RICE (rest, ice, compression and elevation). Cryotherapy is helpful in reducing swelling as well as it exerts analgesic effect. The external compression is also used during immediate care phase and it helps in decrease tissue temperature and prevent oedema formation. Cryotherapy in combination with intermittent pneumatic compression hypothetically help in reducing the physiologic effects of traumatic tissue damage which is based on the models of cryotherapy and static compression therapy. This study aims to establish the efficacy of cryo-compression on shin splints in female amateur marathon runners. Methods: A total 30 subjects diagnosed with shin splints were selected for study. Subjects received cryo-compression for reducing pain and swelling and exercises to strengthen the muscles. Each session was conducted for 45 minutes duration, 5 days per week for 4 weeks. Outcome measure used was Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), Goniometry for ROM and Manual muscle testing (MMT). Results: According to statistical analysis, the results of the study demonstrate that there was a significant effect of the use of cryo-compression on numerical pain rating scale (p<0.0001), range of motion (ankle plantarflexion, dorsiflexion, eversion and inversion) (p<0.0001), manual muscle testing – ankle plantarflexors (p=0.0028) and ankle dorsiflexors (p<0.0001) during the pre and post intervention assessment. Conclusion: The conducted study shows that efficacy of cryo-compression on shin splints in female amateur marathon runners is very effective in reducing pain, increasing range of motion (ROM) and strength of muscles along with other treatment program. KEYWORDS: Cryo-compression, shin splints, numerical pain rating scale (NPRS), range of motion, ankle plantarflexion, ankle dorsiflexion, ankle eversion, ankle inversion, manual muscle testing, ankle plantarflexors, ankle dorsiflexors.
, Pooja Kesharwani
International Journal of Physiotherapy and Research, Volume 10, pp 4349-4357;

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD), is a irreversible decline in renal function that usually develops over the years. With its high prevalence, morbidity and mortality, is an important public health problem. Several issues contribute to increase in number of same in India. There are limited exercise guidelines on the optimal type, frequency, intensity, and duration of physical activity to prevent chronic kidney disease. There is a need to study whether physiotherapy interventions can improve cardiorespiratory fitness, reduce or prevent muscle wasting, make patients with chronic illness more independent in activities of daily living, and improve quality of life during or even before dialysis. Purpose of the study: To study the feasibility of physiotherapy treatment on functional capacity in chronic kidney disease patients. Results: The results were statistically significant with respect to all the outcome measures. Results showed improvement in all the outcome parameters and significant improvement was seen in 2-minute step test,1-min sit to stand test, and Fatigue severity scale. Conclusion: Based on results obtained it proves that exercises significantly improved patients exercise/functional capacity (muscular strength and aerobic endurance), quality of life, number of steps in 2-minute duration as well as number of repetitions of sit to stand in 1 minute duration and also decrease in experimental group. KEYWORDS: Chronic kidney disease, Exercise therapy, Rehabilitation, Post-dialysis physical therapy.
, Ken Miller,
International Journal of Physiotherapy and Research, Volume 10, pp 4295-4303;

Introduction: Interventions for older adults with multiple medical diagnoses may need to have a more general focus that can be applied across a broad range of medical conditions. Ba-Duan-Jin (BDJ), a non-disease specific Tai Chi-QI Gong based mind-body training coordinated with deep breathing, may be a good choice. Case Description: A 79-year-old white female patient, with diagnoses of cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal, and perceived sleep dysfunctions, was referred for consultation of geriatric rehabilitation for poor endurance and balance in a senior living retirement complex where rehabilitation services were provided. A BDJ-based deep diaphragmatic breathing (DDB) progressive training was provided 45-50 minutes each time and 3 times a week for 6 months. At the baseline, the end of 3rd and 5th month of this study, this patient was assessed with the Barthel index for activity of daily living, 1-minute heart rate recovery, Pittsburg sleep quality index, head elevation during sleeping, 4-stage balance, and 2-minute walk test. At the end of 3rd and 6th month, the patient was able to have improved strength, endurance, balance, cardiorespiratory function, gastral regurgitation, and activities of daily living. The mechanism of the beneficial effects of BDJ-based deep breathing in this case was discussed with body mechanical and anatomical consideration. KEY WORDS: Older adults, Ba-Duan-Jin, Tai Chi, Multimorbidity, Diaphragmatic anatomy.
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