Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1413-9596 / 1678-4456
Former Publisher: Universidade de Sorocaba (10.1590)
Total articles ≅ 1,763
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Nathália Gonçalves De Santana, Christina Malm, Mariana Zanini Maia, Tábata Megda, Suzane Lilian Beier, Leonardo Dias Mamão, Thaíssa Castro Franco
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, Volume 57; doi:10.11606/issn.1678-4456.bjvras.2020.162908

Abstract:
Surgical procedures in pet animals are usually associated with some degree of stress and pain. Hospitalization is one stress-triggering factor. The present study aimed to evaluate the degree of stress and pain during hospitalization of female dogs submitted to elective ovariohysterectomy (OVH) and to investigate the influence of hospitalization on the stress of these animals. Fifteen young adult crossbreed female dogs were divided into two groups: eight animals without surgery (Group 1 - control) and seven animals submitted to surgery (Group 2 - OVH). Pain and stress were evaluated. Visual analogue scale (VAS), simple descriptive pain scale (SDS) and modified Glasgow pain scale (MGPS) were used. Serum cortisol (μg/dL) and glucose (mg/dl) were also measured. No statistical difference was observed for cortisol (μg/dL) between the two groups. Despite the absence of statistical difference between groups and times, mean serum cortisol (μg/dL) values exceeded the normal values for the canine species at various times evaluated. Hyperglycemia was only observed at T4 in the OVH group. It was concluded that the hospitalization of animals was more relevant in the establishment of stress than the surgical procedure and associated pain. The influence of stress was a relevant factor in the results of assessments carried out using the MGPS.
Valdir Trindade Filipini, José Victor Vieira Isola, Adriana Pires Neves, Marlon Risso Barbosa, Barbara Cristina Dos Santos Wienke, Natálie Pontes Scherer, José Acélio Silveira Da Fontoura Júnior
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, Volume 57; doi:10.11606/issn.1678-4456.bjvras.2020.164061

Abstract:
The most used reproduction method in beef cattle in Brazil is natural breeding, which corresponds to 84% of calves born. Breeders adopt the bull:cow ratio of 1:25, which results in a sub utilization of bulls, making natural breeding antieconomic and underestimating the reproductive ability of competent bulls. The bull:cow ratio is determined by several factors, such as climate and nutrition, but the most determining factor is the fertility of the bull, estimated with more precision through breeding soundness examination of bulls. The aim of this study was to develop a simulation model as an aid to choose the best bull:cow ratio according to the combination of the many factors that determine this ratio. It is a conceptual, empiric, static, and determinist model which, through the processing of the input data, simulates the best BCR. Developed on the Vensim PLE 6.1 software, the model describes variables related to bulls and cows. Two equations were generated to predict the mating potential of males. In the same way, according to the reproductive status of females, equations were generated to predict the cyclicity rate of the cows. The sum of these equations originated the one that determines BCR according to the reproductive status of females. This model might serve as a tool to support decisions as to the best BCR and could be used with several combinations of models´ characteristics.
Giovanni Henrique Ferri, Israel Luz Cardoso, Juliana Augusta Gil, Claudio Martin Jonsson, Francisco Tadeu Rantin, Márcia Mayumi Ishikawa
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, Volume 57; doi:10.11606/issn.1678-4456.bjvras.2020.169354

Abstract:
Trichlorfon (TRF) is a pesticide widely used in aquaculture to control fish ectoparasites. This pesticide is an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, an essential enzyme for termination of nerve impulses. High rates of TRF use generate risks to the environment and human health. In the environment, pesticides can affect the local fauna and generate an ecological breakdown. There are several studies performed with fish production; however, gaps are created for native fish with other commercial values. The tuvira (Gymnotus carapo) is a fish native to Brazilian fauna and has great commercial importance in sport fishing. The present study aimed to determine the lethal concentration of trichlorfon (Masoten) in Gymnotus carapo and its sublethal effects on the enzyme AChE. In this study, the acute toxicity (the concentrations to kill 50% of the fish LC50) of TRF in tuviras (Gymnotus carapo) and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in liver and muscle tissue of tuviras submitted to sublethal concentrations were evaluated. For the acute assay, concentrations of 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, 15, 22.5, 30, 37.5 and 45 mg L-1 were used for a period of 96 h. After the acute exposure period, a LC50 of 6.38 mg L-1 was determined. In the sublethal assay, concentrations of 0.0, 0.238, 0.438 and 0.638 mg L-1 were used, based on 10% of the LC50, over a period of 14 days. Two collections were performed: one at seven days and the other at the end (day 14). Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in the liver was only shown (p < 0.05) for the treatment with 0.638 mg L-1 after 14 days of exposure. At seven days, muscle activity showed a significant difference only for the treatments 0.438 and 0.638 mg L-1, compared with the treatment 0.238 mg L-1 and control. At 14 days of exposure, only the treatment 0.638 mg L-1 showed significant differences in relation to the other groups, thus showing that enzyme recovery had occurred. The value found in the acute test allowed the conclusion that TRF presents moderately toxic characteristics to Gymnotus carapo. The toxicity parameter values calculated in the present study assisted in estimation of maximum allowable limits in bodies of water when combined with test data from other non-target organisms.
Débora Perrone Kauer, Juliana De Moura Alonso, Lucas Fernando Sergio Gushiken, Marivane Lemos, Carlos Roberto Padovani, Celso Antonio Rodrigues, Ana Liz Garcia Alves, Marcos Jun Watanabe, Jairo Kenupp Bastos, Cláudia Helena Pellizzon, et al.
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, Volume 57; doi:10.11606/issn.1678-4456.bjvras.2020.166095

Abstract:
Copaifera langsdorffii is a Brazilian native plant that is used for wound healing or as an anti-inflammatory agent. Non-healing wounds are an important health problem, particularly in horses, because they can cause the animal invalidity or even lead to death. In addition, horses respond to skin wounds with chronic inflammatory response and intense wound granulation, thereby delaying the healing process. By this way, our aim was to evaluate the healing potential of Copaifera langsdorffii hydroalcoholic extract (HE) and oil-resin creams (OR) in horse skin wounds. Four wounds were performed bilaterally in the lumbar region of six horses with a 2 cm punch and treated daily with the respective treatments: saline solution, vehicle, 10% HE creams or 10% OR cream. Daily planimetry analyses were performed to measure the wound area and clinical parameters. In four different experimental periods (3, 7, 14 and 21 d), wound biopsies were removed and used for microscopic analyses. SS wounds presented a significant small area at day 3 and 7, OR wounds presented significant small area in comparison with HE at 14 d, and no significant difference was observed between treatments at 21 d. A better microscopic and clinical healing activity of HE and OR was identified in comparison with the controls. The OR group showed better healing quality, specifically after 7 d of treatment. Therefore, Copaifera langsdorffii formulations demonstrated their wound healing potential in horse skin lesions, exhibiting an improvement of the macro- and microscopic parameters.
Hayder Mohammad Al-Rammahi, Abdulameer Abed Hatem, Asaad Chasib Al-Atabi
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, Volume 57; doi:10.11606/issn.1678-4456.bjvras.2020.166996

Abstract:
This study was designed to detect equine piroplasmosis using the molecular technique in Al-Najaf province during the season that showed an increment in tick activities. Blood samples were collected from 110 horses with more than two signs of piroplasmosis. After DNA extraction, the product was examined by a polymerase chain reaction to amplify 18SrRNA. The results showed that the overall percentage of equine theileriosis was 38.18%. According to gender, the percentage of infection was 43.48% and 29.27% in females and males, respectively. Significant variations appeared between infected horses according to age, and the percentage of infection was 50% and 35.22% in less than 2 years and more than 2 years age, respectively. Moreover, the percentage of infection was 62.5% and 19.35% in animals with and without acariasis, respectively. Significant variations were also seen in equine theileriosis according to geographical areas, and the higher percentage was reported in Hera district (60.87%), while the lowest percentage was in the center of Al-Najaf (21.43%). This difference may be due to different distribution of vector of disease (tick), which may be the availability of the suitable weather that helped in the multiplication of the intermediate vectors. In conclusion, this study proved the variations in the occurrences of equine piroplasmosis according to gender, age, and geographical areas.
Márcia Marques Jericó, Fernando Mathias Bento, Ricardo Duarte Silva, Felipe Braz De Siqueira Cardozo, Fabiano De Granville Ponce, Rogério Márcio Soila, Priscila Viau Furtado, Fabrício Lorenzini Aranha Machado
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, Volume 57; doi:10.11606/issn.1678-4456.bjvras.2020.167299

Abstract:
The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis function may be impaired in patients with critical illnesses, especially cases of sepsis, named critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI). This study examined the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in normal dogs (n = 10) and dogs with critical diseases (n = 16), through determinations of endogenous ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone), basal cortisol and cortisol after stimulation in low doses of synthetic ACTH (1.0μg/kg/IV). The stimulation test with ACTH dose tested was verified as effective for evaluation of adrenal function in healthy and sick dogs. Ill dogs differed from healthy dogs by presenting higher basal cortisol values. Eight sick dogs presented a decrease in endogenous ACTH, basal cortisol, or Δ-cortisol. No significant differences were found between the control groups and critically ill dogs for the values of endogenous ACTH, cortisol after stimulation or Δ-cortisol. We concluded that the stimulation test with low-dose ACTH was effective for evaluation of adrenal function, as well as the fact that a considerable portion of critically ill dogs studied here, especially with sepsis, had evidence of inadequate corticosteroid response to stress.
Nadia Yuri Shimosaka Sato, Bárbara Buff Blumer Bastos, Marco Aurélio Amador Pereira, Karina D’Angelo Campos, Aline Magalhaes Ambrósio, Maira Rezende Formenton, Denise Tabacchi Fantoni
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, Volume 57; doi:10.11606/issn.1678-4456.bjvras.2020.164351

Abstract:
Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) a is a painful condition related to myofascial trigger points (TP) in skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to perform a literature review on the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of MPS in veterinary medicine. The research sites used for this purpose were: Scientific Electronic Library, PubMed and Medline. The inclusion criteria for the papers were: must be written in English; published between 1990 and 2018; include the following keywords: myofascial pain syndrome veterinary/dog/canine/cat/feline/horse/equine, trigger points veterinary/dog/canine/cat/feline/horse/equine. Through the review, it was observed that veterinary clinical studies are scarce, and the articles found lack information such as MPS description, incidence and specific treatment techniques in dogs and horses, and no studies in cats were found.
Paulo Eduardo Brandão, Beatriz Alcântara Leite, Sueli Akemi Taniwaki Miyagi
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, Volume 57; doi:10.11606/issn.1678-4456.bjvras.2020.166086

Abstract:
Avian coronavirus (AvCoV) infects a range of tissues in chickens and several other avian species. Although the virus can be isolated in chicken embryos, only a few strains of the 6 genotypes/33 lineages can grow in cell lines, with the Beaudette strain (GI-1 lineage) being the most used for in vitro studies. Considering the differences between cell lines and chicken embryos as habitats for AvCoV, this study aimed to assess the diversity of the genes coding for the nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) and spike envelope protein (S) after serial passages in BHK-21 and Vero cells. After 14 passages of an embryo-adapted Beaudette strain, the virus loads fluctuated in both cell lines, with the highest loads being 8.72 log genome copies/µL for Vero and 6.36 log genome copies/µL for BHK-21 cells. No polymorphisms were found for nsp3; regarding S, not only aa substitutions (Vero: 8th passage A150S, and 14th S150A; BHK-21: 4th S53F, 8th F53Y, and 8th S95R), but also minor variants could be detected on chromatograms with fluctuating intensities. As the regions of these aa substitutions are within the receptor-binding domain of S, it can be speculated that differences in cell receptors between Vero and BHK-21 cells and the speed of cell death led to the selection of different dominant strains, while the stability of nsp3 supports its function as a protease involved in AvCoV replication. In conclusion, AvCoV quasispecies evolution is influenced by the biological model under consideration, and a gradual transition is seen for minor and major variants.
Juliana De Moura Alonso, Alice Ribeiro Ávila, Emanuel Vitor Pereira Apolonio, Bruna Dos Santos, Ana Liz Garcia Alves, Marcos Jun Watanabe, Celso Antonio Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto Hussni
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, Volume 57; doi:10.11606/issn.1678-4456.bjvras.2020.166204

Abstract:
Medical management of abdominal abscesses in horses requires prolonged antibiotic therapy and presents varied success rates. A 6-year-old male horse with a history of colic and multiple abdominal punctures to relieve gas was attended. At admission, tachycardia, tachypnea, hyperthermia, mucosal congestion, dehydration, and rigid gait were observed. The association of physical examination, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings allowed the diagnoses of peritonitis and abdominal abscess. Supporting treatment plus broad spectrum antibiotic therapy was performed: daily intraperitoneal ceftriaxone (25 mg/kg, 7 days); daily intravenous gentamicin (6.6 mg/kg, 7 days); per os metronidazole three times a day (15 mg/kg 12 days), followed by the same dose twice a day (15 mg/kg 33 days), totaling 45 days of treatment. Plasma fibrinogen and ultrasonographic examination were the most effective tools to evaluate abscess evolution. There was normalization of the physical examination 24 h after beginning the treatment, consecutive regression of the nucleated cell count in the peritoneal fluid, and regression of plasma fibrinogen and size of the abscess. On the 10th treatment day, the animal was discharged from the hospital, maintaining oral therapy with metronidazole every 12 h (15 mg / kg). When the animal returned on the 30th day, an abscess size regression was observed. However, there was no resolution, and therapy with metronidazole was maintained. On the 45th day of treatment, a new hospital evaluation was performed, where the abscess resolved, and metronidazole was suspended. It is highlighted that the therapeutic association used in the treatment of abdominal infection and abscess resulted in a rapid clinical response
Luciana Siqueira Silveira Dos Santos, Herbert Sousa Soares, Carolina Silveira Mascarenhas, Paulo Roberto Silveira Dos Santos, Solange Maria Gennari, Nara Amélia Da Rosa Farias
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, Volume 57; doi:10.11606/issn.1678-4456.bjvras.2020.164867

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to detect the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in serum samples from 100 sparrows (Passer domesticus Linnaeus, 1758) that were caught in an urban area in southern Brazil. The modified agglutination test (MAT) was used to investigate anti-T. gondii antibodies and samples with a cut-off dilution > 5 were considered positive. Among the 100 serum samples analyzed, 80 (80%) were reactive. These results demonstrate that P. domesticus may play an important role in the epidemiological chain of T. gondii, since it is widely distributed throughout Brazil, and it may act as a source of infection to domestic, semi-domestic cats and to free-living wild felids.
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