INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL "THE CAUCASUS AND THE WORLD"

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Published by: Association For Science (10.52340)
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Sima Suleimanli
INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL "THE CAUCASUS AND THE WORLD"; https://doi.org/10.52340/isj.2022.24.09

Abstract:
The article deals with the importance of international cooperation of customs authorities in the fight against illegal trafficking of cultural heritage objects. In this context, a classification of international treaties is carried out as a legal basis. The article defines the concept and features of customs cooperation. It is noted that customs cooperation, which is based on the principle of cooperation of international law, acts as an integral part of international cooperation in the fight against illegal trafficking of cultural heritage objects. In this sense, customs cooperation is also an integral part of boundary and international cooperation among law enforcement authorities. The article also presents an analysis of the trends and forms of customs cooperation. The need to distinguish those forms is also noted.
Yuri Bondar
INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL "THE CAUCASUS AND THE WORLD"; https://doi.org/10.52340/isj.2022.24.04

Abstract:
The information component is one of the main means of influence in the complex of so-called hybrid wars waged against independent states in the post-Soviet space by Russia.Information-semantic "formatting" of mass consciousness, public opinion and people's moods with the help of information management, manipulative technologies of influence is a priority in the activities of Russian propagandists and in the occupied territories of Ukraine. In our study, we tried to trace the use of such technologies in print and, to some extent, other mass media of the self-proclaimed “republics” of Donbass – the “LPR” and “DPR”. The sources for the thesis analysis were the publications of periodicals annexed and created by Moscow propagandists for 2017: XXI Century, Unity, Cossack Bulletin, Express News, Life of Lugansk, Respublika, Novorossiya, "Donetsk Republic", "Makievsky Worker of the DPR", "New Luch", "Enakievsky Worker", "Kochegarka", "Gorlovka. Today”, “World of News”, “Express Club”, as well as materials from online publications, programs and broadcasts of local radio and television.The media of the occupied areas of Donbass is a training ground and at the same time a kind of guide to the use of information manipulative technologies of influence, the use of propaganda tools. A proven technology is, in particular, the creation of a cult of personality - the image of a leader, the "father of the nation", who is worshiped and followed, whose opinion and decision should not be questioned. Such examples of indestructibility and courage, wise and far-sighted leaders in the publications of the so-called "DNR" and "LNR" appear all the leaders of the "republics", replacing each other from time to time. Also, according to the patterns of propaganda, those who are removed from power for one reason or another are obstructed in order to raise new leaders.
Шохистахо Н Ульжаева, Даниял Кидирниязов
INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL "THE CAUCASUS AND THE WORLD"; https://doi.org/10.52340/isj.2022.24.10

Abstract:
В данной статье речь идет о текстильных предприятиях, существовавших в Бухаре в средние века и ткани “Занданийчи”, которая в свое время была популярна на Востоке и Западе.В Средней Азии в это время города вдоль Великого шелкового пути стали торговыми центрами, также в Бухаре занданийчская ткань экспортировалась в страны Востока и Запада. Сегодня образцы ткани хранятся в музеях мира. В статье представлены ​​некоторые информации о них.
Kakhaber Pipia
INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL "THE CAUCASUS AND THE WORLD"; https://doi.org/10.52340/isj.2022.24.14

Abstract:
In the presented work, there is studied the issue of the Roman border defense system in the Eastern Black Sea region on the base of an analysis of antique sources; It is shown that this system was part of Rome's common- eastern frontier-defense line. The Eastern part of Black Sea coast, historical Colchis, as a secure rear and strategic beachhead against Parthia in the battle for Armenia, had a well-defined place in the Roman geopolitics. Besides, Colchis had a great communicative significance relative Bosporus. Of course, the political situation in East had a big influence on relations of this region with Rome.In 63 A.D., after the abolition of the Kingdom of Pontus by Nero (54-68), Colchis was occupied by Romans and it became the part of the province of Galatia. By the order of Nero, Roman garrisons were stationed in the seaside settlements of Colchis – Apsarus, Phasis and Sebastopolis. These measures were the starting point of establishment of the Roman frontier-defence system in the Eastern Black Sea coast. This system began its actively functioning in Vespasian’s time. During the rule of Vespasian (69-79) Colchis was the part of united Cappadocia-Galatia, so called “Cappadocian complex”. Bording the Euphrates river to the east, Cappadocia was the most eastern province of the Empire. The military presence in Cappadocia served as an important response force against invasions from the Parthian Empire and allowed the Roman's easy intervention into the affairs of their client kingdom of Armenia. The ,,Cappadocian Complex” received two legions. These legions were located on the Cappadocia-Lesser Armenia line, in Satala and Melitene. In the I-III centuries the Roman garrisons of the coastal fortresses of Colchis were subordinate to the Asia Minor forces of the empire; the main command of these forces was located in the Cappadocia. Later garrisons began to obey the Armenian duke.Of all the fortresses of the Eastern Black sea coast, Apsaros is the closest to the immediate borders of the Roman Empire. For a long time Apsaros was one of the significant points of the Pontus-Caucasian border line, the Roman frontier defensive system at the coast of the East Black Sea. The mentioned defense system, as you know, was founded in the times of emperor Nero's reign (54-68 A.D.), the 60's of the 1-st century. The first Roman garrison appeared in Apsaros at that very time. In the 2-nd century five cohorts were dislocated in Apsaros. At the time of the visit to Apsarus by Flavius Arrian (131 A.D.), there was a powerful garrison, numbering from a thousand to two and a half thousand soldiers. As for other Roman fortresses of the Eastern Black Sea region, on the base of an analysis of antique sources, it turns out that during Nero (54-68) roman garrisons were dislocated in Fasis. For the first time, the Roman fortress in Fasis mentions Flavius Arrian (nearly 95-175), who left us a very detailed description of it. In the 2nd century 400 soldiers were dislocated in Fasis; The first Roman garrison, for a short period, appeared in Sebastopolis In the era of Augustus (27 B.C.-14 A.D.). According to archaeological and antique written sources, In the 2nd-3rd centuries the garrison of Sebastopol consisted of 200-300 soldiers. The basic purposes of the Pontus Caucasian frontier-defence system were consolidation of the Roman power in the region, taking control of the passages to the Northern Caucasus, and protection of coastwise navigation. In the middle of the II century, after inclusion of Pityus into this system, formation of the Pontus Caucasian frontier-defence line was finished.
Shahla Nuruzade
INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL "THE CAUCASUS AND THE WORLD"; https://doi.org/10.52340/isj.2022.24.19

Abstract:
The article examines the formation and promotion of "Soviet values" and "Soviet man" in Azerbaijan during the Soviet era. During the 70 years of Azerbaijan's membership in the USSR, a campaign was conducted against the traditional spiritual culture in accordance with the Soviet national policy, the policy of forming "Soviet values" as well as the "Soviet man" who carries these values. Ethnos, national music, folklore, customs, folk and religious holidays, traditional etiquette norms, family values, etc. are moral values that preserve the identity of the ethnos. For the formation of the "Soviet man", first of all, "new" values, Soviet values, were propagated. In order to unite the Soviet peoples around a common ideology, first of all, the elimination of ethno-moral values and the promotion of slogans such as "socialist internationalism", "Soviet patriotism", and "friendship of peoples" were intended. He had to propagate the Soviet way of life and ideology in all spheres of culture and form a "Soviet man" with "Soviet values" and "Soviet values". At first glance, this policy of the Soviet government has no disadvantages. However, the values promoted by Soviet ideologues were different from the traditional values of Azerbaijanis, where the term "patriotism" already meant "Soviet patriotism", "internationalism", "friendship of peoples" and "friendship" with socialist peoples, Soviet peoples, and the world proletariat. Soviet culture and Soviet values were formed in the USSR under the name "cultural revolution". The article reflects the policy of Russification in Azerbaijan during the Soviet era, the methods of forming new Soviet holidays and ceremonies, and the Soviet way of life in general. Names and surnames play an important role in the value system of the people. A person's given name and surname are important indicators of a person's ideology, worldview, and generation. The national policy of the Soviet government was also reflected in the field of anthroponymy. The change in this area was mainly in two directions: first, the change of names, and second, the change in the structure of the anthroponymic model. Along with the new socialist as well as international names, which are not traditional for Azerbaijanis, changes have been made in the structure of surnames. In Azerbaijan, as in other Soviet republics, the next and most important means of propaganda, which played a psychological role in the formation of Soviet values, was the process of admitting students to the ranks of the Komsomol, pioneers, and Octoberists. The ceremonies organized for this purpose instilled in the students enthusiasm, confidence in the building of socialism, Soviet patriotism, and so on. had to play a big role in creating such feelings. However, the processes taking place in the country as a result of the collapse of the USSR and Azerbaijan's independence showed that this policy was not successful. One of the reasons for the failure of Soviet national policy is the self-formation of the people's system of values, which led to the alienation of foreign ideology from its worldview.
Zurab Papaskiri
INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL "THE CAUCASUS AND THE WORLD"; https://doi.org/10.52340/isj.2022.24.17

Abstract:
The first state formations on the territory of Georgia started to rise at least from the end of the 2nd Millennia BC. The oldest Assyrian cuneiform inscriptions about Daiaeni (Diaukhi of Urartian sources) and Kilkhi (Kulkha) give us information about the state system in Southern and South-Western Georgia. The scholars have more and more certainty regarding the strong organization of those political formations. The Urartian cuneiform inscription of the 8th c. BC and the Greek mythological tradition make it especially true regarding Kulkha-Kolkha kingdom. Around 7th-6th cc. BC the Ancient Greek written sources confirm the existence of the state formation in Western Georgia. It is known as Colchis. Xenophon’s “Country of Pasians,” where the “descendant of Aeetes,” the legendary king of Colchians, is also identified with Colchis. According to Cyril Toumanoff, Colchis was the “first Caucasian State to have achieved the coalescence of the newcomer and the autochthon” and it could be “justly regarded as not a proto-Georgian, but a Georgian (West-Georgian) kingdom...”.There is no consensus among the scholars regarding the extent of the statehood in Colchis. Most of them (Simon Janashia, Otar Lordkipanidze, Teimuraz Mikeladze, Meri Inadze, Nodar Lomouri, Guram Lordkipanidze, etc.) do not doubt that Colchis was highly established state formation with a king as a ruler. The Russian scholars (Anna Boltunova-Amiranashvili, Yuri Voronov, Viktor Schnirelmann, Valery Yaylenko) oppose this view and refute the existence of a state in Colchis even in the 6th-2nd cc. BC. At the same time, there is no unanimity among the Georgian historians too. Nikoloz Berdzenishvili had expressed some kind of scepticism in the state organization of Colchis. As for Guram Koranashvili, he fervently opposes any kind of statehood in Colchis.It is not correct to hyperbolize the Colchian statehood, but denial of any kind of statehood in Colchis is senseless. It is impossible to ignore the fact that the Classical written sources, for nearly five centuries, are mentioning only Colchis at the Eastern Black Sea shore in a vast region from Trapezous (Trebizond) to the north of Dioskurias and Pitius. Byzantine sources consider the kingdom of Lazika as a direct successor to the Ancient Colchis. Such a continuous unity could only be based on the political hegemony of the Colchians, “the leading… ethnical element” of this state formation, according to S. Janashia. It is impossible to imagine that the “the unity of the Colchian universe… throughout the whole Colchis” could be maintained by “tribal union” or military democracy. The Colchian political hegemony definitely would need a more sophisticated state system even if it were imperfect. The above-said does not mean that the 6th-2nd cc. BC Colchis was a centralized state. It is highly probably that it was not able to become “a Great Nation” and full-fledged national state. The scarce information regarding the Colchian kings proves this. There are few exceptions. First of all, it is Akes, whose coins are found inside the borders of Historical Colchis, namely in Trapezund (1865) and in village Kinchkha of Khoni municipality (1946). Scholars think that the geography of coins proves that the inscription on the coin – ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΚΟΥ – belongs to the king of Colchis, who reigned after 195 BC.There is also known Saulaces, “descendant of Aeetes.” According to Pliny the Elder, he “reigned in Colchis” and “is said to have come on a tract of virgin soil in the country of the Suani and elsewhere and to have dug up from it a great quantity of gold and silver, his realm being moreover famous for golden fleeces.” The numismatic material supports Pliny’s note. There are coins minted by Saulaces, who, according to number of scholars, is supposed to be the Colchian king mentioned by Pliny. Although, some scholars read the inscription as Saumakos and presume that the coins were minted by the king of Bosphorus, but the recent finding of similar coin in Crimea (2006) with clearly eligible word ΣΑΥΛΑΚΟΥ leaves no doubt that those coins belong to Saulaces, the king of Colchis.Those are all the notes given in the Classical sources regarding the Colchian kings. The fact that we do not have the local Colchian narrative sources (even in Greek) strengthens the argument about the imperfection of the Colchian statehood. Meanwhile, the Eastern-Georgian state of Kartli-Iberia has such historical narration. According to it, there was no separate state in Western Georgia, and the historical Colchis/Egrisi was part of the state structure of Kartli.Nevertheless, it is impossible to ignore the fact that there definitely was a unified state organism in Colchis in the 6th-2nd cc., the so-called political Colchis of N. Berdzenishvili. Both Greek and Georgian historical traditions correlate regarding the borders of the Colchis. According to the Greek authors, the vast territory populated by the Colchians was beginning near Trapezous in the south and ending at the Caucasus range in the North. As for the Georgian sources, they put the extreme north-western border of Egrisi at the “river of Little Khazaria in the north, which is the Caucasus mountain border”. The Ancient Greek and Medieval Georgian sources are strengthened by the already mentioned 5th c. “Periplus” of the anonymous author and mentioning of “Old Lazika” nearby the “river called Tofsida”, at the mouth of the present-day r. Negopsukho north-west to Tuapse.
Makhruya Khakimova
INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL "THE CAUCASUS AND THE WORLD"; https://doi.org/10.52340/isj.2022.24.23

Abstract:
The article discusses legal acts adopted in the republic to ensure the rights and interests of women, strengthen their position in society, and recognize them as important participants in development. It also provides facts about the work done. The protection of women's rights in our republic, the strengthening of their place in society are reflected in the opportunities provided to them. The decrees and resolutions adopted in this direction are an opportunity for their comprehensive support.In our country, there is an increase in the level of political and legal culture and social activity of women in all levels of state and public administration, the judicial and legal system, the activities of non-governmental organizations, social systems, in general, in all spheres of public life. First of all, the adoption of the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the action strategy for 2017-2021, the law “on guarantees of equal rights and opportunities for women and men”, and then the “strategy for achieving gender equality in Uzbekistan until 2030” serve as the basis for ensuring the activity of women in social and political processes. As evidence, we can cite the fact that the number of women in the Senate and the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis meets world standards. In addition, the growing number of women among specialists in all fields, their performance of official duties on an equal basis with men testify to the level of gender equality in the Republic. Sufficient work has also been done in the Republic to provide housing for those in need of social protection, the disabled, and women with many children. By providing them with jobs, allocating preferential loans, and providing subsidies, women were given opportunities for self-realization in society. "Women's Notebook" was organized and socially protected. The State has also allocated additional funds to train women in additional professions and organized training courses. The establishment of the badge "Mo'tabar ayol", the State Prizes named after Zulfiya is an expression of the recognition of women in society. Particular attention is paid to ensuring that girls who receive a state grant receive an additional place in higher education. Subsequent state control over their employment is the basis for the protection of their rights. Respect for women in society ensures that the next generation of this society will be healthy, educated and modern.
Maia Tsurtsumia
INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL "THE CAUCASUS AND THE WORLD"; https://doi.org/10.52340/isj.2022.24.24

Abstract:
Current social sciences differentiate the notion of “sex” as of the biological understanding versus “gender” that denotes the social and sociological phenomenon of the sex. Being one of the basic dimensions of the social structure of human society, in conjunction with several other cultural and socio-demographic data (race, age, ethnic belonging, social strata, etc.) it is essential foundation of nay social system whatsoever. Always based upon certain cultural background, this dimension in imbedded in every essential social institution of the society and determines social relationships between the men and the women there. [1]. Currently gender studies is one of the basic tools for the research of any given society. Both social and political sciences pay tribute to “Gender” and consider it as almost equal and important as the ”Class” is in terms of history – the main contributor to the stability of the society. For better understanding of social and political processes from gender standpoint there are special tools used for sociological modeling that can clarify the process of formation of social identity and its temporal modifications. Publications of Frances Woolley, Judith Lorber, Gisela Bock and other outstanding scholars give some insights on problematic issues emphasized in current gender studies. [2].
Latifa Askerova-Surkhalizade
INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL "THE CAUCASUS AND THE WORLD"; https://doi.org/10.52340/isj.2022.24.05

Abstract:
The presented text was drawn up on the proud words of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev on the liberation of Shusha. President Ilham Aliyev addressed the people directly from the Alley of Martyrs on November 8, 2020 and announced the liberation of the ancient Azerbaijani city of Shusha. November 8 is declared Victory Day. Shusha is an invaluable center of Azerbaijani culture. In this regard, its release is important. That is why President Ilham Aliyev has officially declared Shusha the cultural capital of Azerbaijan. Today Shusha is being restored, revived and decorated. A new Victory road is being built in Shusha and preparations are underway for the resettlement of Shusha residents to the city in the near future. In order to increase the political significance of Shusha, President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev and President of the Republic of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdogan signed the well-known "Shusha Declaration" between the two countries.
Vugar Hajiyev
INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL "THE CAUCASUS AND THE WORLD"; https://doi.org/10.52340/isj.2022.24.11

Abstract:
The article deals with the causes of the long-term Armenian-Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and the false ideology that served to create this conflict. The Armenian-Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh conflict has long disturbed peace in the South Caucasus and damaged relations between almost all countries in the region. Historically, the perpetrators of many wars and conflicts around the world have sown the seeds of enmity between nations by using fictitious ideologies and using it to their advantage. Russian ideologists who promoted the idea of "Great Russia" also used the armenians as a tool in their imperialist interests. The armenians, resettled to the South Caucasus by tsarist Russia and finally able to establish a state, also began to put forward the idea of "Great Armenia". That is why the Nagorno-Karabakh problem arose. Unfortunately, the propagandists and driving forces of this fictitious ideology were historians. They have "contributed" to this ideology by writing many books that are repetitive, not based on any real history, and are purely propaganda. The purpose of this article is to reveal the roots of the Karabakh problem based on historical facts.
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