Green Chemistry & Technology Letters
Latest articles in this journal
Green Chemistry & Technology Letters, Volume 7, pp 01-06; https://doi.org/10.18510/gctl.2021.711
Purpose of the study: The purpose behind this study is to get the knowledge of the range of physicochemical parameters of the Bird's valley, Pune quarry water in comparison with the drinking water. Methodology: With the help of clean and sterilized polyethylene bottles of 1 liter capacity have been used for the collection of quarry water. Total 21 physico-chemical parameters have been analyzed and compared with the values for the drinking water. Analysis of water is carried out in the laboratory with the help of standard methods and techniques. Main Findings: Presence of mercury in quarry water is very much high i-e 0.006 mg/liter and coli form bacteria are also numerous in count. Applications of this study: This study gives us the idea about the range of the parameters of quarry water in comparison with drinking water and after the suitable treatment it could be converted into drinking water or not. Novelty/Originality of this study: Till the date no work has been done on quarry water like this, present study will help us to understand whether the quarry water could be used as a potable water or not.
Green Chemistry & Technology Letters, Volume 6, pp 18-24; https://doi.org/10.18510/gctl.2020.622
Purpose of the study: The purpose of this study is to make sure that the Bird valley’s quarry water is suitable for drinking purposes or not and to monitor the seasonal variations in the physico-chemical parameters of this quarry water. Methodology: Water samples from the quarry were collected in clean and sterilized polyethylene bottles. Water samples were collected from different points and mixed together to get an integrated sample. Some of the selected physico-chemical parameters of the quarry water have been analyzed. Results were compared with standard limits of IS: 10500-2012. All the parameters were analyzed in the laboratory by using standard methods and techniques. Main Findings: As per the obtained results this quarry water contains a very large number of Coliforms detected in the months of September and December and in June month Coliform count was 33 CFU/ml. This overall result for coliform is making this quarry water unfit for domestic purposes. Applications of this study: This study helps us to understand the current condition of this quarry water and also enables us to know whether the quarry water is fit for drinking purposes. It also enables us to know whether this quarry water can be used for domestic purposes after the treatment. Novelty/Originality of this study: Bird valley’s quarry water has not been analyzed from this point of view till date. This study will help us to understand the present condition of the water.
Green Chemistry & Technology Letters, Volume 6, pp 31-38; https://doi.org/10.18510/gctl.2020.624
Purpose of the study: Optimizing the process of pharmaceutical wastewater treatment by biosorption using a genetic algorithm. Methodology: The main steps followed were, determination of the wavelength at maximum absorbance (λmax), drawing the calibration curve between the absorbance and the concentration of diclofenac sodium, designing the experiment using Design-Expert software, finding the percentage removal of diclofenac sodium for each run, obtaining the model equation of the analysis, finding the optimized condition using genetic algorithm in MATLAB software, running the experiment at the optimized conditions and analyzing the results. Main Findings: The technique used in the optimizing process was effective, in which the percentage removal was obtained as 8.73% at the optimized conditions. It was equivalent to 3.43 mg removal / g of activated carbon. Applications of this study: This technique can be applied in different industries especially the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Novelty/Originality of this study: Using genetic algorithm in order to find the optimized condition of removing diclofenac sodium based on a set of data.
Green Chemistry & Technology Letters, Volume 6, pp 25-30; https://doi.org/10.18510/gctl.2020.623
Purpose of the study: The main purpose of this study is to do the comparison of the chemical constituents present in the leaves of Aloe Vera (A. barbadensis Mill) plant grown in different soil combinations using Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) data analysis. Plants were grown in two different combinations of soil, one in normal soil and the other in the combination of normal soil and solid chemical waste obtained from the chemistry laboratory of an educational institute. Methodology: One Aloe Vera (A. barbadensis Mill) plant was grown in normal soil without adding any compost or any fertilizer to the soil. The other plant was grown in soil, which was combined with the solid chemical waste collected from the chemistry laboratory. After observing the morphological characters of the plants, plants were studied for the chemical constituents present in them by using GC-MS data analysis technique. Main Findings: Growth of plants depends on the soil composition, physical characters and the surrounding environment. How the variation in chemical composition of soil affects the chemical constituents of plant leaves, has been discussed in this paper. According to morphological characters the Aloe Vera (A. barbadensis Mill) plant grown with soil combined with solid chemical waste has shown better results compared with the one grown in normal soil. GC-MS results also indicated variation in the chemical constitution of plant leaves taken for the research experiment. Applications of this study: This study has helped to understand that the soil environment and soil nutrients are largely responsible for the changes in chemical constituents of plants. This study can be applied to the other plants as well. Novelty/Originality of this study: In place of fertilizers, solid chemical waste from the laboratory was used for the research purpose. The method is useful and if implemented on a large scale, will help to curb pollution caused by educational institutes to some extent. This kind of research is not done previously by any other researcher.
Green Chemistry & Technology Letters, Volume 6, pp 01-17; https://doi.org/10.18510/gctl.2020.621
Purpose of the study: Microalgae with better carbon sequestration potential, higher biomass, and lipid productivity in comparison to terrestrial counterparts is emerging as a viable sustainable alternative to fossil fuels. Diatoms, a subgroup of a broader category of microalgae are well-known for their role as a bio-indicator in palaeo-climatological studies across historical timelines. Understanding ecology, community structure, and habitat preference of diatoms are prerequisites for prioritizing diatom strains towards sustainable biofuel production along with value-added product extraction. Method: Selection of appropriate strains, economically viable harvesting and environmentally sound transesterification are the challenges faced in microalgal industry. The present study focusses on understanding the variability in benthic diatom community assemblages across seasons and its affinity to different substrata at fixed sampling locations in an estuarine eco-system through field sampling for twelve months covering all seasons. Main Findings: The results highlight the tolerance and resilience in select diatom strains in fluctuating water qualities and seasonal variations, the insights much needed during mass cultivation under open environments. Statistical data analyses revealed distinct demarcation between sensitive and tolerant species with selective habitat preferences and resilience to fluctuating environmental conditions. Variations of benthic diatom community structure across various substrata highlights substratum affinity of diatom strains. From the inferences derived through field studies, mixed consortia of diatoms were developed, monitored, and optimized for higher biomass and lipid productivity under controlled laboratory conditions. Application of the Study: The results highlight the prospects of phyco-prospecting of indigenously grown diatom strains for sustainable biofuel production.
Green Chemistry & Technology Letters, Volume 6, pp 04-13; https://doi.org/10.18510/gctl.2020.612re
Purpose: The review article discusses the title topic describing mostly authors' work on green chemical, photochemical and electrochemical methods for the treatment of organic wastes present in different matrices. Emphasis is mainly placed on the importance of the matrix, associated compounds and the method's selection. Methodology: Different green methods of treatment for organic waste available are reviewed with an outline of scientific principles. Different case studies, from the authors, work, involving the treatment of organic waste present in different matrices are discussed. Available green chemical, photochemical, and electrochemical methods are reviewed, and results obtained are described and discussed. The rationale behind the choice of method was discussed in detail. Laboratory to plant adoption and the considerations therein are considered. Main findings: The selection of treatment method depends on the nature of the organic waste and the matrix in which it is present. This has been brought out in the study. Advanced oxidation and electrochemical oxidation processes are practically useful methods for waste treatment and discussed with case studies. The optimization of the advanced oxidation process is still an empirical approach. It needs a sound scientific base. Applications of the work: The case studies described in the paper enable the proper choice of treatment method among several available options. The study covers the essential green chemical techniques, viz., photochemical and electrochemical techniques. The novelty of the work: Many of the organic substrates subjected to treatment study were rarely reported in the open literature. Laboratory to plant scale development and the factors involved therein have been brought in many places.
Green Chemistry & Technology Letters, Volume 6, pp 14-26; https://doi.org/10.18510/gctl.2020.613
Purpose of the study: The main objective of the present work is to assess the efficacy of the restoration endeavour in Bengaluru lakes, Karnataka, India. Rapid urbanisation coupled with industrialisation in urban areas has greatly stressed the available water resources qualitatively and quantitatively. This has also resulted in the generation of enormous sewage and wastewater after independence. Method: Environmental monitoring of 40 restored lakes was carried out to identify the key issues and assessing water quality (physical, chemical and biological). Weighted arithmetic water quality index (WQI) and Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) was determined using data of physicochemical parameters of lakes. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) performed using PAST3 software to identify the factors responsible for variations in water quality. Main Findings: The monitored forty lakes distributed across the three major watersheds namely Koramangala and Challaghatta valley, Vrishabhavathi valley and Hebbal valley were grouped under three different WQI status like good water quality (10%); poor water quality (37%) and very poor water quality (53%). Majority of these restored lakes has become polluted which indicates improper decontamination and poor maintenance of restored lakes. Application of this study: This study provides vital information for policymakers to understand the gaps which helps in the course correction while implementing further rejuvenation of lakes. Novelty/Originality of this study: The efficacy of rejuvenation was assessed through integrated cost-effective scientific approaches for the lake monitoring. Monitoring during the pre and post rejuvenation period has aided in assessing the efficacy of rejuvenation, which is done for the first time in India.
Green Chemistry & Technology Letters, Volume 6, pp 01-03; https://doi.org/10.18510/gctl.2020.611
Chemistry is a science whose progress is exponential as it touches every aspect of our existence and provides all the things required for life to survive on this planet. Chemistry is rightly called the Science of Life. Chemical processes provide food, clothing, shelter medicines, and energy to sustain life. Feeding the ever-increasing population is a big challenge calling for increased production of crops, minimizing losses during their harvesting and storage and use of new, improved varieties like Genetically modified (GM) food grains and pulses. The use of fertilizers has increased manifold over the years, leading to an increase in the production of food. Clothing is made from plant fibres like cotton and silk. New and better varieties of cotton have been developed. Nylon, produced by the polymer industry is also a critical clothing material in some parts of the world. New materials like composites, fly ash bricks, and polymeric wastes are being increasingly used for construction purposes, especially for housing and roads. Research for the synthesis of new drugs to combat diseases is a continuous activity, and the pharmaceutical industry has a considerable investment, especially in our country. Indigenous medicine systems like Ayurveda, Homoeopathy and Unani are also contributing to health welfare, especially in India. Of late, nanomedicines are emerging as an essential area of medicine. Non-conventional energy sources like solar, nuclear, hydro, biodiesel and wind energy are being increasingly tapped as possible substitutes for the fast depleting coal and oil reserves. The International Solar Alliance, initiated by India, aims at forging a strong partnership between all nations to tap and use solar energy.
Green Chemistry & Technology Letters, Volume 5, pp 01-09; https://doi.org/10.18510/gctl.2019.511
Purpose of study: The corrosion behavior of mild steel and the inhibition effect of ascorbic acid (an anti-oxidant additive) on aluminum coatings on the mild steel have been studied by weight loss technique under different corrosive medium. Methodology: Tap water, 3% Na2CO3 solution, seawater and open-air were chosen as different corrosive medium at ambient temperature range of 35- 400C. Corrosion was recorded using the weight-loss method and the rate was calculated. Later similar mid steel samples were coated with Sodium Bicarbonate paste, aluminum paint with ascorbic acid additive, and aluminum paint without ascorbic acid additive, in similar corroding medium, and the corrosion rate was calculated using the weight-loss method. Main Findings: Results show that the percentage of mild steel corrosion was found to be highest in the seawater and lowest in 3% Na2CO3 solution. Sodium Bicarbonate paste reduces the corrosion rate more studies on the corrosion protection was performed by coating the mild steel surface with aluminum paint along with ascorbic acid inhibitor i.e., a green corrosion inhibitor and it was found that the weight loss data is: 85.03 g from 85.05 g, 82.39 g from 82.43 g, no weight loss and 85.73 g from 85.74 g in tap water, seawater, 3% Na2CO3 solution and air medium respectively. Thus, the addition of ascorbic acid inhibitor gave the highest inhibition efficiency for aluminum paint.
Green Chemistry & Technology Letters, Volume 4, pp 10-12; https://doi.org/10.18510/gctl.2018.422
Green chemistry involves the design and development of products and processes that minimize or eliminate the use and generation of chemicals hazardous to the environment and human health. The principles of green chemistry involve the development of green catalysts and use of non-toxic reagents. Green chemistry emphasizes the use of reactions improved atom efficiency, use of solvent-free or environmentally benign recyclable solvent system and the use of renewable resources. Nowadays, green chemistry plays a new paradigm in the field of agriculture. Sustainable agriculture and green chemistry are both revolutionary fields and intertwined. In the last few years, for sustainable production in agriculture use of renewable biomass resources increases to generate bio-based food products with low inputs, zero waste, substantial social values and minimizing environmental impact. This article provides a good insight into green chemistry principles in sustainable agriculture.