Applied Microbiology

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ISSN : 0003-6919
Published by: American Society for Microbiology (10.1128)
Total articles ≅ 16,459
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H. P. Fleming, J. L. Etchells, R. N. Costilow
Applied Microbiology, Volume 30, pp 1040-1042; https://doi.org/10.1128/am.30.6.1040-1042.1975

Abstract:
We reported earlier that Pediococcus cerevisiae FBB-61 inhibited Lactobacillus plantarum FBB-67 in mixed species inoculation used for the fermentation of brined cucumbers. Herein, 16 isolates of the Pediococcus genus from various sources were tested for inhibitory activity against L. plantarum and other microorganisms by a seeded-agar screening technique. Only two of the 16 isolates gave consistent and distinctive zones of inhibition, and both were isolated from fermenting cucumber brines on separate occasions. These two isolates did not inhibit each other but did inhibit the other 14 Pediococcus isolates in addition to L. plantarum . They also inhibited several other gram-positive bacteria, but not four species each of gram-negative bacteria and yeasts tested. Inoculation of cucumber juice broth with P. cerevisiae FBB-61 and L. plantarum WSO resulted in a drastic reduction in the plate count of L. plantarum WSO during day 1, but counts increased rapidly thereafter. Consequently, acid production by L. plantarum WSO was delayed. Noninhibitory isolates of Pediococcus had no appreciable effect on growth and acid production by L. plantarum WSO.
H. P. Fleming, J. L. Etchells, R. N. Costilow
Published: 1 December 1975
Applied Microbiology, Volume 30, pp 1040-1042

Abstract:
We reported earlier that Pediococcus cerevisiae FBB-61 inhibited Lactobacillus plantarum FBB-67 in mixed species inoculation used for the fermentation of brined cucumbers. Herein, 16 isolates of the Pediococcus genus from various sources were tested for inhibitory activity against L. plantarum and other microorganisms by a seeded-agar screening technique. Only two of the 16 isolates gave consistent and distinctive zones of inhibition, and both were isolated from fermenting cucumber brines on separate occasions. These two isolates did not inhibit each other but did inhibit the other 14 Pediococcus isolates in addition to L. plantarum. They also inhibited several other gram-positive bacteria, but not four species each of gram-negative bacteria and yeasts tested. Inoculation of cucumber juice broth with P. cerevisiae FBB-61 and L. plantarum WSO resulted in a drastic reduction in the plate count of L. plantarum WSO during day 1, but counts increased rapidly thereafter. Consequently, acid production by L. plantarum WSO was delayed. Noninhibitory isolates of Pediococcus had no appreciable effect on growth and acid production by L. plantarum WSO.
W K Nip, F C Chang, F S Chu, N Prentice
Published: 1 December 1975
Applied Microbiology, Volume 30, pp 1048-1049

Abstract:
The fate of ochratoxin A in brewing was investigated by adding (3H)ochratoxin A to the raw materials at 1- and 10-mug/g levels during mashing in a conventional microbrewing process. The results indicated that large portions (28 to 39%) of the added toxin were recovered in spent grains, with less recovery in the yeast (8 to 20%) and beer (14 to 18%). About 38 and 12% of the added toxin at levels of 1 and 10 mug/g, respectively, were degraded during brewing.
G Carhart, G Hegeman
Published: 1 December 1975
Applied Microbiology, Volume 30, pp 1046-1047

Abstract:
Optimum conditions for enrichment of mutants of Pseudomonas putida in liquid culture were established using a procedure which combines N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis with an improved D-cycloserine selection.
M. A. Hood, W. S. Bishop, F. W. Bishop, S. P. Meyers, T. Whelan
Published: 1 December 1975
Applied Microbiology, Volume 30, pp 982-987

Abstract:
Selected microbial parameters were monitored in sediments from a pristine and an oil-field salt marsh. Although numbers of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria and fungi were significantly greater in the oil field, the values did not show a strong correlation with levels of hydrocarbons (r = 0.43 and r = 0.49, respectively). However, a high correlation was noted between ratios of hydrocarbonoclastic and total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and levels of hydrocarbons as well as the relative concentration of hydrocarbons (ratio of hydrocarbons to chloroform extractables) (r = 0.87 and r = 0.77, respectively). Data suggest that this first ratio is a more valid microbial indicator of hydrocarbon abundance than other factors examined. Significant differences in the ratio of pigmented to total colony-forming units, the ratio of different to total colony-forming units, and the diversity index were noted between the natural and oil-field marsh. It is suggested that the presence of hydrocarbons alters the relative abundance of the most predominant aerobic heterotrophic bacteria.
R L Buchanan, J C Ayres
Published: 1 December 1975
Applied Microbiology, Volume 30, pp 1050-1051

Abstract:
The effect of initial pH on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 was examined in a semisynthetic medium. Maximal growth, aflatoxin production, and aflatoxin production per unit of growth occurred at initial pH levels of 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 respectively. Initial pH levels less than pH 6.0 favored production of the B toxins, whereas levels greater than pH 6.0 favored production of the G toxins.
J G Bradshaw, J T Peeler, R M Twedt
Published: 1 December 1975
Applied Microbiology, Volume 30, pp 943-945

Abstract:
Sporeformers isolated from a commercially canned food were identified as Bacillus cereus, lactose-positive variants. The thermal resistance of spore crops produced from each of two representative cultures was determined in 0.067 M phosphate buffer at pH 7.0. The D121.1 values for one isolate were approximately 0.03 min (z = 9.9C), whereas the D121.1 values for the other isolate were 2.35 min (z = 7.9 C). Thermal inactivation results for heat-stressed isolates from each strain showed no significant alteration in heat resistance from that of the two parent spore crops. Both isolates were reactive when injected into the ligated rabbit ileum.
Toshichika Ohtomo, Shigeo Murakoshi, Junta Sugiyama, Hiroshi Kurata
Published: 1 December 1975
Applied Microbiology, Volume 30, pp 1034-1035

Abstract:
Aflatoxin B1 (0.05 μM per larvae) was detected in silkworm larvae artificially attacked by an Aspergillus flavus isolate from a sericultural farm in Japan.
W E Gledhill
Published: 1 December 1975
Applied Microbiology, Volume 30, pp 922-929

Abstract:
A relatively simple shake-flask system for determining CO2 evolution was developed to assess the ultimate biodegradability by soil and sewage micro-organisms of chemicals which enter the environment. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) were used as model compounds to evaluate the method and were found to undergo substantial biodegradation in this dilute system. At the 30 mg/liter test concentration, higher-molecular-weight LAS compounds were biodegraded at a slower rate and to a lesser extent than lower-molecular-weight LAS, an effect which was eliminated or greatly reduced upon incremental addition of the LAS to the test medium during the first week of incubation. LA35S was used to demonstrate rapid LAS desulfonation, and 14CO2 evolution studies with (14C) benzene ring-labeled LAS indicated concomitant biodegradation of the entire LAS molecule as well as the LAS aromatic component. The test can be employed to examine numerous compounds at the same time and is readily adapted to studies of the effect of variation in temperature and oxygen concentration on biodegradation.
N K Yadav, K G Gupta
Applied Microbiology, Volume 30, pp 889-892; https://doi.org/10.1128/am.30.6.889-892.1975

Abstract:
Under optimal conditions, Torulopsis colliculosa NRRL 172 and Enterobacter B-87 (ATCC 27613) produced 50 to 500 mg of acetoin per g of substrate. Whereas cane molasses, gur, glucose, and sucrose were suitable substrates for acetoin production, lactose and mannitol supported very good growth but yielded little or no acetoin. Production of acetoin increased with increases in the concentration of glucose, yeast extract, and peptone. Combination of substrates and intermittent feeding of substrate failed to increase the yields.
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