Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science

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EISSN : 2799-8010
Total articles ≅ 22
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Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science, Volume 39, pp 89-97; https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2021.01669

Abstract:
More than 2 years after the explosion of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, extensive efforts have been made to develop safe and efficacious vaccines against infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The pandemic has opened a new era of vaccine development based on next-generation platforms, including messenger RNA (mRNA)-based technologies, and paved the way for the future of mRNA-based therapeutics to provide protection against a wide range of infectious diseases. Multiple vaccines have been developed at an unprecedented pace to protect against COVID-19 worldwide. However, important knowledge gaps remain to be addressed, especially in terms of how vaccines induce immunogenicity and efficacy in those who are elderly. Here, we discuss the various vaccine platforms that have been utilized to combat COVID-19 and emphasize how these platforms can be a powerful tool to react quickly to future pandemics.
, Sefanur Kose, , Elif Merve Kurt,
Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science, Volume 39, pp 58-61; https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2020.00864

Abstract:
Mega cisterna magna (MCM), one of the members of the Dandy-Walker complex, is a developmental malformation of the posterior fossa that is larger than 10 mm but morphologically does not affect the vermis and cerebellar hemispheres. Reports of psychiatric disorders associated with this anomaly are rare. We present the case of a patient with MCM who presented with a psychotic manic attack and was diagnosed with bipolar disorder. A 28-year-old female, single housewife, university graduate, presented with irritability, decreased sleep and appetite, distraction, and agitation. The patient also had a delusion of reference. In the clinical follow-up, an increase in energy and an increase in the amount of speech were observed. Her neurological examination was normal, and cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed an MCM. The relationship and clinical significance of MCM with psychosis and mood disorders have not yet been fully elucidated. It is not known whether this association is accidental or based on etiological commonality. The purpose of this case report is to review the relationship between the cerebellum and psychiatric symptoms and to contribute to the literature.
Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science, Volume 39, pp 53-57; https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2021.00969

Abstract:
Hepatic hemangiomas infrequently exhibit atypical imaging features, which may cause diagnostic confusion with hepatic malignancies and lead to unnecessary surgery. We report a rare case of multilocular cystic hemangioma of the liver mimicking a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the liver in a 48-year-old female, focusing on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features and their differential diagnosis.
Hyung Keun Song, , , , Pil Cho Choi,
Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science, Volume 39, pp 39-45; https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2021.01207

Abstract:
Background: The current guidelines for the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (APN) recommend that APN be diagnosed based on the clinical features and the presence of pyuria. However, we observed that some of the patients who are diagnosed with APN do not have characteristic clinical features or pyuria at the initial examination. We performed this study to investigate the characteristics of APN without pyuria.Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted on 391 patients diagnosed with APN based on clinical and radiologic findings, between 2015 and 2019. The clinical features, laboratory results, and computed tomography (CT) findings were compared between patients with normal white blood cell (WBC) counts and those with abnormal WBC counts (WBC of 0–5/high power field [HPF] vs. >5/HPF) in urine. Results: More than 50% of patients with APN had no typical urinary tract symptoms and one-third of them had no costovertebral angle (CVA) tenderness. Eighty-eight patients (22.5%) had normal WBC counts (0–5/HPF) on urine microscopy. There was a negative correlation between pyuria (WBC of >5/HPF) and previous antibiotic use (odds ratio, 0.249; 95% confidence interval, 0.140–0.441; p<0.001), and the probability of pyuria was reduced by 75.1% in patients who took antibiotics before visiting the emergency room. Conclusion: The diagnosis of APN should not be overlooked even if there are no typical clinical features, or urine microscopic examination is normal. If a patient has already taken antibiotics at the time of diagnosis, imaging studies such as CT should be performed more actively, regardless of the urinalysis results.
Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science, Volume 39, pp 24-30; https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2021.01165

Abstract:
Background: Texture analysis has been used as a method for quantifying image properties based on textural features. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) texture analysis for the evaluation of viable ovarian tissue on the perfusion map of ovarian endometriosis.Methods: To generate a normalized perfusion map, subtracted T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), T1WI and contrast-enhanced T-WI with sequences were performed using the same parameters in 25 patients with surgically confirmed ovarian endometriosis. Integrated density is defined as the sum of the values of the pixels in the image or selection. We investigated the parameters for texture analysis in ovarian endometriosis, including angular second moment (ASM), contrast, correlation, inverse difference moment (IDM), and entropy, which is equivalent to the product of area and mean gray value.Results: The perfusion ratio and integrated density of normal ovary were 0.52±0.05 and 238.72±136.21, respectively. Compared with the normal ovary, the affected ovary showed significant differences in total size (p<0.001), fractional area ratio (p<0.001), and perfusion ratio (p=0.010) but no significant differences in perfused tissue area (p=0.158) and integrated density (p=0.112). In comparison of parameters for texture analysis between the ovary with endometriosis and the contralateral normal ovary, ASM (p=0.004), contrast (p=0.002), IDM (p<0.001), and entropy (p=0.028) showed significant differences. A linear regression analysis revealed that fractional area had significant correlations with ASM (r2=0.211), IDM (r2=0.332), and entropy (r2=0.289).Conclusion: Magnetic resonance texture analysis could be useful for the evaluation of viable ovarian tissues in patients with ovarian endometriosis.
Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science, Volume 39, pp 62-66; https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2021.00934

Abstract:
Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-associated adrenal insufficiency is rare but may become a serious adverse event in patients treated with ICIs. The present case report documents two cases of adrenal insufficiency developed during chemotherapy plus tislelizumab (百泽安, Baize’an; BeiGene Ltd.) therapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Adrenal insufficiency developed after 6 and 13 cycles of treatment and was well controlled with hydrocortisone. The patients also developed hypothyroidism, which was managed with levothyroxine. Two patients showed a partial response, and one patient out of two achieved a near-complete response, sustaining over 11 months. Increased awareness of ICI-related adrenal insufficiency is crucial for early detection and prompt management of patients treated with ICIs.
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