Journal of Audiology and Otology
ISSN / EISSN : 23841621 / 23841710
Current Publisher: The Korean Audiological Society (10.7874)
Total articles ≅ 175
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Audiology and Otology; doi:10.7874/jao.2019.00486
Journal of Audiology and Otology; doi:10.7874/jao.2019.00374
Journal of Audiology and Otology, Volume 24, pp 53-60; doi:10.7874/jao.2020.00115
Several novel animal models that represent the pathophysiological process of endolymphatic hydrops (ELH) of Meniere’s disease (MD) have been developed. Animal models are important to identify and characterize the pathophysiology of ELH and to corroborate molecular and genetic findings in humans. This review of the current animal models will be useful in understanding the pathophysiology of and developing proper treatments for MD. Surgical animal models will be replaced by medication-induced animal models. Study models previously developed in guinea pigs will be developed in several smaller animals for ease of conducting molecular analysis. In this review, we provided updated resources including our previous studies regarding the current and desirable animal models for MD.
Journal of Audiology and Otology, Volume 24, pp 79-84; doi:10.7874/jao.2019.00388
Hearing can be elicited in response to vibratory stimuli delivered to fluid in the external auditory meatus. To obtain a complete audiogram in subjects with normal hearing in response to pure tone vibratory stimuli delivered to fluid applied to the external meatus. Pure tone vibratory stimuli in the audiometric range from 0.25 to 6.0 kHz were delivered to fluid applied to the external meatus of eight participants with normal hearing (15 dB or better) using a rod attached to a standard clinical bone vibrator. The fluid thresholds obtained were compared to the air conduction (AC), bone conduction (BC; mastoid), and soft tissue conduction (STC; neck) thresholds in the same subjects. Fluid stimulation thresholds were obtained at every frequency in each subject. The fluid and STC (neck) audiograms sloped down at higher frequencies, while the AC and BC audiograms were flat. It is likely that the fluid stimulation audiograms did not involve AC mechanisms or even, possibly, osseous BC mechanisms. The thresholds elicited in response to the fluid in the meatus likely reflect a form of STC and may result from excitation of the inner ear by the vibrations induced in the fluid. The sloping fluid audiograms may reflect transmission pathways that are less effective at higher frequencies.
Journal of Audiology and Otology; doi:10.7874/jao.2019.00381
The Gaps-In-Noise (GIN) test is a clinically effective measure of the integrity of the central auditory nervous system. The GIN procedure can be applied to a pediatric population above 7 years of age. The present study conducted the GIN test to compare the abilities of auditory temporal resolution among typically developing children, children with speech sound disorder (SSD), and children with cognitive difficulty (CD). Children aged 8 to 11 years-(total n=30) participated in this study. There were 10 children in each of the following three groups: typically developing children, children with SSD, and children with CD. The Urimal Test of Articulation and Phonology was conducted as a clinical assessment of the children's articulation and phonology. The Korean version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (K-WISC-III) was administered as a screening test for general cognitive function. According to the procedure of Musiek, the pre-recorded stimuli of the GIN test were presented at 50 dB SL. The results were scored by the approximated threshold and the overall percent correct score (%). All the typically developing children had normal auditory temporal resolution based on the clinical cutoff criteria of the GIN test. The children with SSD or CD had significantly reduced gap detection performance compared to age-matched typically developing children. The children's intelligence score measured by the K-WISC-III test explained 37% of the variance in the percent-correct score. Children with SSD or CD exhibited poorer ability to resolve rapid temporal acoustic cues over time compared to the age-matched typically developing children. The ability to detect a brief temporal gap embedded in a stimulus may be related to the general cognitive ability or phonological processing.
Journal of Audiology and Otology, Volume 24, pp 107-111; doi:10.7874/jao.2019.00297
The present study aimed to determine the test-retest reliability of subjective visual horizontal (SVH) testing when tested with solid and dotted line images. In this repeated measures study, 36 healthy young Malaysian adults (mean age=23.3±2.3 years, 17 males and 19 females) were enrolled. All of them were healthy and had no hearing, vestibular, balance, or vision problems. The SVH angles were recorded from each participant in an upright body position using a computerized device. They were asked to report their horizontality perception for solid and dotted line images (in the presence of a static black background). After 1 week, the SVH procedure was repeated. The test-retest reliability of SVH was found to be good for both solid line [intraclass correlation (ICC)=0.80] and dotted line (ICC=0.78). As revealed by Bland-Altman plots, for each visual image, the agreements of SVH between the two sessions were within the clinically accepted criteria (±2°). The SVH testing was found to be temporally reliable, which can be clinically beneficial. Both solid and dotted lines in the SVH testing are reliable to be used among young adults.
Journal of Audiology and Otology, Volume 24, pp 61-70; doi:10.7874/jao.2019.00346
To assess the academic performance, communication skills, and psychosocial development of prelingual deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) attending mainstream schools, and to evaluate the impact of auditory speech perception on their classroom performance. As participant, 67 children with CI attending mainstream schools were included. A survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire on academic performance in the native language, second language, mathematics, social studies, science, art, communication skills, self-esteem, and social relations. Additionally, auditory and speech performances on the last follow-up were reviewed retrospectively. Most implanted children attending mainstream school appeared to have positive self-esteem and confidence, and had little difficulty in conversing in a quiet classroom. Also, half of the implanted children (38/67) scored above average in general academic achievement. However, academic achievement in the second language (English), social studies, and science were usually poorer than general academic achievement. Furthermore, half of the implanted children had difficulty in understanding the class content (30/67) or conversing with peers in a noisy classroom (32/67). These difficulties were significantly associated with poor speech perception. Improving the listening environment for implanted children attending mainstream schools is necessary.
Journal of Audiology and Otology, Volume 24, pp 35-39; doi:10.7874/jao.2019.00262
The cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) is a useful objective test for diagnosing hearing loss and auditory disorders. Prior to its clinical applications in the pediatric population, the possible influences of fundamental variables on the CAEP should be studied. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of age and type of stimulus on the CAEP waveforms. Thirty-five healthy Malaysian children aged 4 to 12 years participated in this repeated-measures study. The CAEP waveforms were recorded from each child using a 1 kHz tone burst and the speech syllable /ba/. Latencies and amplitudes of P1, N1, and P2 peaks were analyzed accordingly. Significant negative correlations were found between age and speech-evoked CAEP latency for each peak (p< 0.05). However, no significant correlations were found between age and tone-evoked CAEP amplitudes and latencies (p>0.05). The speech syllable /ba/ produced a higher mean P1 amplitude than the 1 kHz tone burst (p=0.001). The CAEP latencies recorded with the speech syllable became shorter with age. While both tone-burst and speech stimuli were appropriate for recording the CAEP, significantly bigger amplitudes were found in speech-evoked CAEP. The preliminary normative CAEP data provided in the present study may be beneficial for clinical and research applications in Malaysian children.
Journal of Audiology and Otology, Volume 24, pp 71-78; doi:10.7874/jao.2019.00353
Currently limited information is available on speech stimuli processing at the subcortical level in the recipients of cochlear implant (CI). Speech processing in the brainstem level is measured using speech-auditory brainstem response (S-ABR). The purpose of the present study was to measure the S-ABR components in the sound-field presentation in CI recipients, and compare with normal hearing (NH) children. In this descriptive-analytical study, participants were divided in two groups: patients with CIs; and NH group. The CI group consisted of 20 prelingual hearing impairment children (mean age=8.90 ± 0.79 years), with ipsilateral CIs (right side). The control group consisted of 20 healthy NH children, with comparable age and sex distribution. The S-ABR was evoked by the 40-ms synthesized /da/ syllable stimulus that was indicated in the sound-field presentation. Sound-field S-ABR measured in the CI recipients indicated statistically significant delayed latencies, than in the NH group. In addition, these results demonstrated that the frequency following response peak amplitude was significantly higher in CI recipients, than in the NH counterparts (p<0.05). Finally, the neural phase locking were significantly lower in CI recipients (p<0.05). The findings of sound-field S-ABR demonstrated that CI recipients have neural encoding deficits in temporal and spectral domains at the brainstem level; therefore, the sound-field S-ABR can be considered an efficient clinical procedure to assess the speech process in CI recipients.
Journal of Audiology and Otology, Volume 24, pp 29-34; doi:10.7874/jao.2019.00409
Bilateral microphones with contralateral routing of signal (BiCROS) hearing aid is an option for hearing rehabilitation in individuals with asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss (ASNHL). The clinical factors influencing the trial and purchase of BiCROS were investigated. We reviewed the medical records of 78 patients with ASNHL who were recommended to use BiCROS and analyzed the demographic and audiological factors influencing the trial and purchase of BiCROS. Among the 78 patients, 52 (66.7%) availed of the free BiCROS trial and 21 (26.9%) purchased BiCROS. The mean pure tone audiometry (PTA) air conduction (AC) threshold of the better- and worse-hearing ears were 44.2±12.8 dB and 90.7±22.5 dB HL, respectively. The decision for trial or purchase of BiCROS was not influenced by age, sex, duration of hearing loss of the worse-hearing ear, or PTA AC threshold or speech discrimination score of both ears. The first and third quartiles of the PTA AC thresholds for the better-hearing ear of BiCROS buyers were 38.75 dB and 53.75 dB HL, respectively. The counterpart values for the worse-hearing ear were 72.50 dB and 118.75 dB HL, respectively. The clinical factors analyzed in this study were found to be irrelevant to the trial and purchase of BiCROS in patients with ASNHL. Nevertheless, the distribution range of the auditory thresholds of the subjects using BiCROS can be a useful basis for the counseling of patients with ASNHL and selection of candidates for BiCROS use.