Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2160-5866 / 2160-5874
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 484
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Pei-Chen Lo, Nasir Hussain
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Volume 11, pp 58-72; doi:10.4236/jbbs.2021.112005

Abstract:
This paper reports distinct spatio-spectral properties of Zen-meditation EEG (electroencephalograph), compared with resting EEG, by implementing unsupervised machine learning scheme in clustering the brain mappings of centroid frequency (BMFc). Zen practitioners simultaneously concentrate on the third ventricle, hypothalamus and corpora quadrigemina touniversalize all brain neurons to construct a detached brain and gradually change the normal brain traits, leading to the process of brain-neuroplasticity. During such tri-aperture concentration, EEG exhibits prominent diffuse high-frequency oscillations. Unsupervised self-organizing map (SOM), clusters the dataset of quantitative EEG by matching the input feature vector Fc and the output cluster center through the SOM network weights. Input dataset contains brain mappings of 30 centroid frequencies extracted from CWT (continuous wavelet transform) coefficients. According to SOM clustering results, resting EEG is dominated by global low-frequency (14.4 Hz); whereas Zen-meditation EEG exhibits globally high-frequency (>16 Hz) activities throughout the entire record. Beta waves with a wide range of frequencies are often associated with active concentration. Nonetheless, clinic report discloses that benzodiazepines, medication treatment for anxiety, insomnia and panic attacks to relieve mind/body stress, often induce beta buzz. We may hypothesize that Zen-meditation practitioners attain the unique state of mindfulness concentration under optimal body-mind relaxation.
NanYao Chen, Min Guo, Dan Yu, Feng Zhou
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Volume 11, pp 1-9; doi:10.4236/jbbs.2021.111001

Abstract:
Objective: To investigate the bioinformatics of differentially expressed proteins in plasma in patients with acute cerebral infarction associated with H-type hypertension. Methods: Gene chip public database (gene expression omnibus, GEO) GDS4521 chip data, in the chip in 30 cases of H patients with acute cerebral infarction with high blood pressure and age, gender, matching the 20 H hypertension patients as the research object, collects the mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is used to detect the gene chip, using the GO (gene Ontology, GO), protein function analysis tools such as KEGG, screening and analysis of enrichment of differentially expressed genes function and related signaling pathway. Results: 31 genes in PBMCs were significantly changed in h-type hypertension and H-type hypertension with acute cerebral infarction, 32 of which were increased and 2 of which were decreased. GO analysis showed that in terms of biological processes, the genes related to inflammatory response and neutrophil chemotaxis were the most. In terms of molecular function, chemokine activity-related genes are the most. KEGG signaling pathway analysis showed that the most differentially expressed genes were located in the TNF signaling pathway. Conclusion: H-type hypertension with acute cerebral infarction has a variety of functional proteins and signaling pathways changes, suggesting that inflammatory response in H-type hypertension with acute cerebral infarction recovery period may still play a role in the prognosis and reactivation of the disease.
Juncheng Kohyama
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Volume 11, pp 97-106; doi:10.4236/jbbs.2021.115008

Abstract:
Backgrounds: Sleepiness is reported to predict sleep quality, academic performance and self-regulation. This study aimed to discover determinants of sleepiness. Methods: On 2722 questionnaires obtained from pupils in grades 5 - 12 in the Kanto district of Japan, lifestyle habits associated with sleepiness were analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression model. Results: The rate of sleepy pupils (who feel sleepy during class as often and always) increased from elementary school (6.3%) to senior high school (42.4%) via junior high school (17.1%). Higher grade (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 - 1.37; p Conclusions: To reduce adolescents’ sleepiness in the Kanto district of Japan, we recommend them to have adequate waking time, and to avoid late bedtime, breakfast skipping, excessive screen time, after-school activity, and physical activity. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm involvements of these recommended factors in sleepiness and both physical and mental health outcomes.
Shannon O’Brien, David Compton, Julianna M. Davis, Jennifer Elvir, Adrien Albritton
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Volume 11, pp 27-47; doi:10.4236/jbbs.2021.111003

Abstract:
Traditionally, ketamine was considered useful as a dissociative anesthetic. More recently, ketamine has been examined for its effects as a fast-acting antidepressant, for treatment-resistant depression, and as a non-opiate treatment of chronic pain. Unfortunately, ketamine has enjoyed popularity as a recreational drug among both adolescents and young adults. While some research suggests the use of this drug during neurodevelopment is not without consequence, relatively little work has been conducted to examine the chronic effects of ketamine on the adolescent brain at different stages of neural development. Using a rodent model of development, we probed the effects of early adolescent exposure to ketamine. Between postnatal days 22 to 40, a period comprising early to mid-adolescence, rats were exposed to one of two doses of ketamine or saline. Beginning at 90 days of age and drug free for 50 days, a series of neuropsychological assessments were employed to examine general activity, spatial navigation, as well as nonspatial response learning. Contrary to prediction, except for differences in general activity levels, no spatial or nonspatial impairments were found among the drug- and saline-treated animals. The present results are considered in light of ketamine-associated effects found in a related study with older adolescent rats and the role of drug exposure during different points in adolescent brain development.
Gabriel Salazar Tortolero, Cherifa Nechat, Marta Fragoso Martinez, Beatriz Chavarria, Javier Emilio Codas, Iolanda Caballero Saez, Hector Cruz Tabuenca, Consuelo Martinez, Marta Andrés
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Volume 11, pp 73-81; doi:10.4236/jbbs.2021.113006

Abstract:
There have been reported a large number of neurological symptoms in CoV-2 infected patients after the COVID-19 outbreak was declared in January 2020. Cases reports as well as series of COVID-19 patients have shown a wide variety of neurological symptoms such as stroke, encephalomyelitis, polyradiculoneuropathy and other neurological conditions. Despite the fact, a high incidence of neurological symptoms have been reported during the COVID-19 pandemic, the proportion of them in acute and in a more chronic phase has not been exactly described in most of the papers published until now. We described in this article the neurological symptoms in a series of COVID-19 patients during the acute phase of infection while they were admitted into the hospital and subsequently the persisting neurological symptoms showed in the following 6 months in the outpatients’ evaluation once they were discharged from the hospital in the province of Catalonia-Spain from January to June of 2020.
Yuyu Wang, Jingshan Shi
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Volume 11, pp 83-95; doi:10.4236/jbbs.2021.114007

Abstract:
Healthy aging is the ultimate goal of all life science research and the most ideal state of a human being. There are many factors that affect aging, including genetic background, the environment, mental state and living habits and so on, which affect the body’s internal environment and its steady state. The ultimate starting point of the body’s aging all comes down to cellular aging. At the cellular level, aging is an irreversible block in the cell cycle, and the P53 gene plays a pivotal role in regulating the cell cycle. Aging is not only regulated by genes but also influenced by epigenetics affecting gene expression. DNA methylation, a novel biomarker of aging, plays a major role in epigenetics. This paper’s mini-review briefly summarizes P53 and DNA methylation in aging.
Yulia S. Mednikova, Nadezhda M. Zakharova, Natalia V. Pasikova
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Volume 11, pp 107-130; doi:10.4236/jbbs.2021.115009

Abstract:
In sensorimotor cortical slices of guinea pig using local iontophoretic application of glutamate to the soma and dendrites it was found that a decrease of temperature of incubating fluid from 34 to 21°C - 22°C changes the somatic responses to the local injection of glutamate to the dendritic loci, while the responses to iontophoretic application of glutamate to the soma remain unchanged. Hypothermic changes in reactivity to dendritic stimulation start below 30°C and coincide with changes in the spontaneous activity of neurons, both in the direction of increasing and decreasing the frequency of firing in different nerve cells. On hypothermic decrease of spontaneous activity, the latencies of evoked dendritic responses on the soma became more longer, while on hypothermic increase of firing level, somatic spike responses to iontophoretic application of glutamate to dendritic loci appeared with shorter latencies. Hypothermic changes in the physiological parameters of neurons were accompanied by a drop in spike amplitude at the same temperature and with its further decrease. At the same time, there was a decrease of spike reaction to iontophoretic application of acetylcholine below 30°. It is proposed that the reason for hypothermic changes of neuronal activity is decreasing rate of M-cholinergic process at 27°C - 29°C which leads to opening K+ channels of neuronal membranes and hence to attenuation of conductive function of dendrites and to imbalance of K+ ion homeostasis. Peculiarities of hypothermic regulation of neuronal spike activity depend on individual functional properties of cortical neurons.
Lauriann Young, Annice Webber-Waugh, Karen Thaxter
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Volume 11, pp 143-156; doi:10.4236/jbbs.2021.117011

Abstract:
Aim: The effect of patented nutritional supplementation on drug-seeking behavior in cocaine addicted rats during acute drug withdrawal was investigated using a biased Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) paradigm. Method: Twenty-four (24) male Sprague-Dawley rats with pre-conditioned preference for the black chamber of the CPP box were randomly divided into Cocaine (COC) or Saline (SAL) treated groups. Rats (n = 12) treated with cocaine hydrochloride 20 mg/kg/ml, i.p. (COC group) were confined individually to the white chamber on days 1, 3, 5 and 7. On alternate days, they were given 1 ml saline vehicle, i.p. and confined to the black chamber. Control rats (SAL group, n = 12) received only vehicle on all 8 days and were confined on alternate days to the white or black chamber. Positive place preference was confirmed for COC rats, which subsequently received 6 increasing daily doses of cocaine. CPP performances of both COC and SAL rats were recorded following an acute 3-day withdrawal period. All animals were then randomly assigned to rats fed either chow reconstituted with the nutritional supplement (COC-S and SAL-S) or standard rat chow (COC-N and SAL-N) for 8 weeks, followed by final CPP performances. Results: Following supplementation, COC-S rats made significantly less entries and time spent in the white chamber (p Conclusion: Drug-seeking behavior that persisted during cocaine withdrawal was significantly diminished in the nutritionally supplemented.
Dingyu Chung
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Volume 11, pp 10-26; doi:10.4236/jbbs.2021.111002

Abstract:
Despite almost half a century of research for theory of mind, its evolutionary origin is largely unknown. This paper proposes that the evolutionary origin of theory of mind starts from the beginning of the human evolution to form hominins through bipedalism and the mixed habitat. The feet of the early hominins were still adapted for grasping trees rather than walking for long distances and running fast on the ground. The early hominins lived in the mixed habitat of grassy woodland with patches of denser forest, and freshwater springs. The difficulty of walking in the mixed habitat leads to division of labor for the home specialist group (small children, old people, and mothers with small children, and pregnant women) in the safe forest area and the exploration specialist group (young people without the care of small children) in the dangerous open area. The different tasks, attitudes, and mentalities in different specialist groups produce theory of mind as the ability to attribute different mental states to different specialist groups. (Uniformity of mind instead of theory of mind is for generalists without division of labor). The early Homo species with the open habitat developed theory of mind for hunter specialist group and gatherer specialist group. The middle Homo species with complex stone tools developed theory of mind for the cooperative specialist groups in the large production of complex stone tools. The late Homo species with complex social interaction developed theory of mind for mind reading to enhance cooperation and to detect cheaters in complex social interaction. For religion, the unusually harsh Upper Paleolithic Period developed theory of mind for imaginary specialists in terms of supernatural power, guidance, and comfort. Therefore, the three general types of theory of mind are for specialists in division of labor, mind reading in complex social interaction, and imaginary specialists in imaginary division of labor under harsh conditions. Self-awareness in the mirror self-recognition test is also explained.
G. Salazar, S. Ferreiro, M. Fragoso, J. Codas, H. Cruz
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Volume 11, pp 49-57; doi:10.4236/jbbs.2021.112004

Abstract:
Cervical Dystonia (CD) is the most common type of focal dystonia in the movement disorders units of any specialized hospital around the world. Botulinum Toxin (BT) infiltration is the treatment of choice for CD, according to most of the experts around the world, however the efficacy and tolerance of BT therapy in CD depend on the accuracy when BT is released into the muscles. We reviewed the medical literature in regard to the use of guiding tools for the BT infiltration in CD patients. Results: The use of guiding tools such as Ultrasound or EMG definitely improves the accuracy for releasing the BT into the muscles involved according to some authors. Conclusion: the use of Ultrasound and EMG improves the efficacy and reduce the adverse effects in the BT therapy in CD patients.
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