Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2160-5866 / 2160-5874
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 465
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Latest articles in this journal

Chung Dingyu, Dingyu Chung
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Volume 10, pp 46-94; doi:10.4236/jbbs.2020.101004

The paper purposes that the three major civilizations are territorial rational civilization originated from the tribes before the Axial Age, discrete Western rational civilization originated from the mega empires in Middle East and Greece during the Axial Age, and the connective Eastern rational civilization originated from the mega empires in India and China during the Axial Age. Territorial rational civilization with territorial worldview for ingroup and outgroup individuals produces territorial nationalist democracy based on rule of boundary to deal with ingroup and outgroup individuals. Discrete Western rational civilization with discrete worldview for discrete and independent individuals produces discrete liberty-equality democracy based on rule of law to deal with discrete individuals. Connective Eastern rational civilization with connective worldview for connective and related individuals produces connective common wellbeing democracy based on rule of relation to deal with connective individuals. The current highly international interdependence produces the purposed internationalized interdependent community which allows the interdependent coexistence of the three rational civilizations by establishing the promotion of rational civilizations, the basic rules of relation and law, the potential civilizational and the regional defense boundaries, and the cooperation in international relations. The mental origin of the rational civilization consists of the social brain for instinctive intragroup relations and worldviews to form the original human social group, the mental immune system for instinctive mental therapy, theory of imaginary mind for imaginary religious and political entities with their own minds to form cohesive large social groups, and the thinking brain for rule to form rational civilization.
Licia Grazzi, Venusia Covelli, Francesca Memini, Paul B. Rizzoli
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Volume 10, pp 432-454; doi:10.4236/jbbs.2020.1010028

Objective: To explore meanings, perspectives and points of view of the subjective experience of paediatric patients with headache (PPwH) and create a first-person narrative for clinical practice. Methods: We conducted a qualitative, narrative research study with PPwH, 11 - 17 years old. Data were collected through narratives interviews and a twofold narrative analysis was performed: a narrative and a thematic analysis. Results: Twenty-three patients (14 girls; mean age 14.5; median duration of illness of 5.8 years) were recruited. Through narrative analysis and close reading, narratives revealed different ways to organize illness experience: PPwH can use 1) narrative sequences of recurrent events in order a) to describe the continuing living-through of the experience of headache, b) to define operative script or c) to characterize the illness experience generally as a “controlled” routine; or 2) a storied account of events, with well-defined characters, plot and evaluation of contingency and correlation between events to express a personal point of view and a moral standpoint about the illness experience. Through thematic analysis 5 main themes and 22 subthemes about the significance of being a PPwH emerged: a) disease dimension (description of pain), b) illness dimension, c) sickness, d) causality, e) coping and f) future perception. Then, a first-person narrative story was created as a tool enabling reflection and conversation during clinical consultation. Conclusions: Results suggest that promoting narrative dialogue can be an opportunity for the neurologist: the prototypical narrative developed from story analysis might be a tool to apply for the narrative-based medicine in the clinical setting.
Kimiko Kato, Kazuhito Yoshizaki
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Volume 10, pp 455-469; doi:10.4236/jbbs.2020.1010029

The goal of the present study was to investigate age-related changes in attentional allocation for shared task representations during joint performance; event-related potentials were recorded while participants performed a modified visual three-stimulus oddball task, both alone and together with another participant. Younger adults and older adults (14 each) participated in the study. Participants were required to identify rare target stimuli while ignoring frequent standards, as well as rare non-targets assigned to a partner’s action (i.e., no-go stimuli for one’s own task). ERP component, nogo-P3 and P3b were measured to investigate the inhibition and the attentional allocation to the partner’s stimuli. Results showed that younger adults elicited larger frontal nogo P3 and parietal P3b for non-targets in the joint than in the individual condition. Contrary to expectation, older adults induced frontal no-go P3 in the joint condition not in the individual condition. In the sharing of the task with another, the result suggested that the efficiency of matching of incoming information with the representation of the other’s task declined with age, whereas aging did not affect the suppression of incorrect preparation of motor responses instigated by this representation.
Zakaria I. Nanobashvili, Irine G. Bilanishvili, Maia D. Barbakadze, Tamar Z. Gaixarashvili, Salome A. Dolidze, Ketevan E. Khujadze, Levan X. Nachkebia, Nadejda A. Khizanishvili
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Volume 10, pp 18-28; doi:10.4236/jbbs.2020.101002

Recently it was shown by us that combined stimulation of hippocampus and dorsomedial hypothalamus resulted in suppression of the electroencephalographic seizure reactions and, respectively, manifestations of behavioral seizures reduced. It is expected, that augmentation of inhibitory processes in hippocampal neurons in the course of dorsomedial hypothalamus stimulation can trigger mechanisms preventing the development of epileptiform activity. Because of two important characteristics of the hippocampus—theta rhythm and epileptogenesis—these appear to be interrelated in respect of their cellular substrates, and as far as theta rhythm may modulate hippocampal excitability, a study of the functional relationship between theta rhythm and seizure activity was endeavored. The purpose of this study is to test this proposal by determining the effects on seizures of induction or suppression of hippocampal theta activity. Our findings show that: 1) against background of strong unusual sound stimulation (in our case-sound) blockade of local seizure reactions induced by hippocampal stimulation occurred; 2) the frequency of hippocampal interictal epileptiform dischargers increased with the transition from the awake state to drowsiness and a slow-wave sleep phase. After the animal came from slow-wave sleep to paradoxical sleep, epileptiform activity completely disappeared; 3) at threshold stimulation of hypothalamus when electrohippocampogram shows augmentation of the theta rhythm there is a significant reduction of seizure durations. When at hypothalamus stimulation instead of theta rhythm the electrical activity is desynchronized, there occurs a considerable intensification of seizure activity. Therefore, seizure-theta antagonism in our experiments could be interpreted as an adjustment of the inhibitory mechanisms when the theta rhythm is evoked.
Campbell Richard, L. Petranovich Christine, Cheek Savannah, Morrison Leslie, Hart Blaine, Richard Campbell, Christine L. Petranovich, Savannah Cheek, Leslie Morrison, Blaine Hart
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Volume 10, pp 118-127; doi:10.4236/jbbs.2020.102007

Purpose: This study aimed to characterize mood and quality of life and to examine the associations of these areas with subjective cognitive concerns and attitudes toward genetic testing for the Common Hispanic Mutation, a gene that has been associated with increased risk for CCM1. Method: Fifty-four adults with previous genetic testing for the Common Hispanic Mutation completed a mail survey that included assessments of the above identified areas. Results: Self-reported depressive symptoms and quality of life did not differ between those with positive and negative genetic test results. The negative group expressed a more favorable attitude toward genetic testing (p p = 0.06). Using generalized linear regression, more subjective cognitive concerns were associated with poorer quality of life and more depressive symptoms (p p < 0.05). Conclusions: Subjective cognitive concerns and negative attitudes toward genetic testing may influence emotional well-being after genetic testing for the Common Hispanic Mutation. Additional research is needed that uses objective neuropsychological measures to understand the associations of subjective cognitive concerns, emotional well-being, and cognitive test performance in individuals with CCM1. There is also a need for research that focuses on protective factors and resiliency following genetic testing for CCM1 and the development of mental health interventions to preempt psychosocial difficulties.
Osamu Nakata, Rumi Tanemura, Toru Nagao, Kazue Noda, Jiro Sagara
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Volume 10, pp 410-419; doi:10.4236/jbbs.2020.1010026

Objectives: People with acquired brain injury (ABI) have various difficulties when using everyday technology (ET) in their daily life. The aim of this study was to reveal the characteristics of perceived difficulties of people with ABI when using ET through a comparison with the control group. Method: We recruited participants in the Kansai area and Okayama prefecture between 2010 and 2015. A total of 24 participants (18 males and 6 females; aged 20 to 62 years; mean age: 42.6 ± 13.3 years) with ABI and 26 healthy controls were interviewed about their perceived difficulties using ET via the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire revised Japanese version (ETUQ-Japan). Results: Compared to the controls, the mean number of ETs used by people with ABI was significantly lower. When various difficulties arose, they were unable to independently manage ET, requiring the assistance of caregivers. Conclusion: It is necessary for the medical staff, involved in the home life of patients with ABI to consider the patient’s perceived difficulties when using ET.
Sato Yoichiro, Kageyama Kento, Yoichiro Sato, Kento Kageyama
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Volume 10, pp 179-190; doi:10.4236/jbbs.2020.104011

Although observational motor learning is one method of skill acquisition, this type of motor learning is not equally effective for all individuals. To clarify factors associated with the effectiveness of motor learning, we examined the association between model-observational skill acquisition and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), which is reportedly associated with motor learning via visual information. Twenty healthy adults performed the Kendama task. The participants practiced under three conditions: using their own methods (self), following observation of model actions (model-observation), and following observation of their own actions (self-observation). Measurement trials were performed 20 times prior to self-practice sessions and after each practice session. Success ratios were calculated for each measurement trial. All participants completed the AQ. The difference in success ratios for measurement sessions following practices between the self and model-observation conditions was significantly negatively correlated with AQ scores. Individuals with low AQ values can more easily acquire skills via model-observational motor learning than those with relatively higher AQ values.
Xiaoli Wu, Lu Zhang, Yudong Chen, Yang LingYu, Lingyu Yang, Fei Gao, Yuqi Yang, Xueyan Hu, Changqing Ye, Yuge Zhang, et al.
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Volume 10, pp 387-399; doi:10.4236/jbbs.2019.1010024

This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of comprehensive rehabilitation for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and to explore the factors influencing the prognosis of rehabilitation. This was a retrospective study. Twenty-five patients with aSAH were treated with physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, cognitive therapy, music therapy, Chinese acupuncture, hyperbaric oxygen, and transcranial magnetic stimulation. The general data of all patients were collected, and the functional scores at admission were compared with those at discharge. The Mini Mental State Examination, Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale (FMAS) for motor and balance assessment, Holden Functional Ambulation Classification (FAC), modified Rankin Scale, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, Modified Barthel Index for activities of daily living (ADL), and Glasgow Outcome Scale were significantly improved among 25 patients with aSAH after 1 month of comprehensive rehabilitation training. Hydrocephalus was an independent factor of the ability to perform ADLs (odds ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval, 2.03. 3.15; p = 0.000). The improvement of ADLs in aSAH patients was not related to sex, surgical method, aneurysm location, age, or smoking status. Comprehensive and professional rehabilitation is effective for the cognition, movement, walking, ADLs, and functional prognosis of patients with aSAH, while early hydrocephalus may be a risk factor for poor ADLs.
Julie Fonseca Cruz, Kévin Vidaud-Laperrière, Claire Brechet, Pom Charras
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Volume 10, pp 371-385; doi:10.4236/jbbs.2020.109023

According to a generalized magnitude system, the representation of time, space and number relies on a common cognitive mechanism. However, in the context of negative emotional stimuli, temporal durations undergo a subjective overestimation, while numerosity judgments are underestimated. This finding clearly challenged the existence of a generalized magnitude system. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether angry faces biases both temporal and spatial estimates compared to neutral faces in children aged 5 - 6-year-old and 9 - 10-year-old. Children were to judge as short or long either the temporal interval or the distance separating two visual stimuli in a bisection task. Overall, the study suggests that negative emotion with high arousal (angry faces) leads to a distortion of both duration and distance. Such distortion is reported early in development, even before the maturation of time perception.
Xiaodan Wang, Yunsuo Gao, Min Guo, Juncheng Guo
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Volume 10, pp 400-409; doi:10.4236/jbbs.2020.1010025

Objective: To explore the pathogenesis of PTSD in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene methylation of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, PTSD) in Hainan Province, the relationship between the influence of BDNF gene methylation and the influence of PTSD. Methods: A case-control study method was adopted, strictly in accordance with DSM-IV and PTSD diagnosis, and 150 Li PTSD patients matched with gender and age of 300 Han PTSD patients were selected as the research objects. The peripheral venous whole blood of the subjects was drawn, genomic DNA was extracted, modified with bisulfite, and directly sequenced to quantitatively detect the methylation status of the CpG island in the promoter region of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Results: The results showed that the methylation levels of CPGl, CPG2, CPG3, CPG4, CPG5, CPG6, CPG7, CPG9, CPGl2, CPGl3, CPGl4, CPGl5, CPGl6, CPGl7, and CPGl8 in THE BDNF promoter were significantly different between the HAN PTSD group and the Li PTSD group (P Conclusion: It is suggested that CPG methylation in the promoter region of BDNF gene is closely related to patients with PTSD. There is a statistical difference in the level of CpG methylation in the promoter region of BDNF gene in PTSD between Li and Han ethnic groups in Hainan Province. CpG methylation in the promoter region of BDNF gene may be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of PTSD.
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