ISSN / EISSN : 2168-8184 / 2168-8184
Published by: Cureus, Inc. (10.7759)
Total articles ≅ 25,198
Latest articles in this journal
Cureus, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.25205
A 58-year-old male patient with a history of Parkinson's disease and solitary cervical spinal sarcoma underwent corpectomy, a fusion of C3-C6 with cervical fixation plate placement, and stereotactic body radiation therapy, presented 18 months following surgery with dysphagia, concomitant with weakness, diplopia. The initial workup in cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed aerodigestive tract soft tissue enhancement. Dysphagia progressed during hospitalization, and the patient was intubated due to aspiration pneumonia and respiratory failure. Further evaluations with esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed posterior pharyngeal wall, upper cervical esophageal erosion, and the presence of a cervical fixation plate in the hypopharynx.
Cureus, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.25202
Introduction: Endoscopic techniques in spine surgery continue to gain popularity due to their potential for decreased blood loss and post-operative pain. However, limited studies have evaluated these techniques within the United States. Additionally, given the limited number of practitioners with experience in endoscopy, most current studies are limited by a lack of heterogeneity. Methods: The American College of Surgeons’ National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database was queried to evaluate the effect of endoscopic surgery on adverse events. Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for open discectomy were compared with the relevant CPT codes for endoscopic lumbar discectomy. Baseline patient characteristics and adverse outcomes were then compared. Results: A total of 38,497 single-level lumbar discectomies were identified and included. Of these, 175 patients undergoing endoscopic discectomy were compared with 38,322 patients undergoing open discectomy. Endoscopic discectomy demonstrated a shorter operative time of 88.6 minutes than 92.1 minutes in the open group. However, this was not significant (p=0.08). Patients in the endoscopic group demonstrated a shorter total length of stay of 0.81 days vs 1.15 days (p=0.014). Total adverse events were lower in the endoscopic group at 0.6% vs 3.4% in the open group (p=0.03). Conclusion: Endoscopic discectomy demonstrated a significantly lower rate of adverse events and shorter total length of stay than open discectomy. Further research is necessary over time to evaluate larger patient populations as this technology is more rapidly incorporated.
Cureus, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.25207
In patients with acute coronary syndrome or obstructive coronary artery disease, stents, especially drug-eluting stents (DESs), are used for percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). DES prevents abrupt closure of the stented artery. Stent thrombosis is an uncommon but serious complication of PCI, especially with the recent advancement of stent technology. We present a case of a 75-year-old male who initially suffered a non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) treated appropriately with PCI and subsequently developed stent thrombosis after 10 days of initial stent placement. He then underwent emergent repeat PCI with successful replacement of stents overlapping previous stents. The patient did well following the procedure. His clopidogrel was changed to a more potent antiplatelet ticagrelor. He remained stable throughout the hospital stay and was discharged home without any further complications following the next 90 days.
Cureus, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.25224
Background: The growing number of cases presenting with COVID-19 during the pandemic has led to a significant shortage of hospital beds. Many patients may not require hospitalization and can be clinically observed in home settings. We have identified a set of psychosocial factors that correlate with unsuccessful home isolation (HI), which in turn might negatively affect the transmission control in the community. Therefore, we developed the Chula COVID-19 Psychosocial Home Isolation Evaluation Tool (CCPHIET), a new screening tool for assessing the psychosocial suitability for HI. This study examines the CCPHIET’s validity and reliability. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study included COVID-19 patients who were deemed to be medically safe for 14-days of HI. The CCPHIET is comprised of eight clinical domains pertinent to HI behavioral compliance and risk for non-adherence. We explored its statistical validity and reliability and discussed the potential utility of this tool. Results: A total of 65 COVID-19 patients participated in this study. Most patients (58.5%) were deemed to be appropriate candidates for HI according to the CCPHIET. The results of this study demonstrate that the CCPHIET has an acceptable content validity (IOC index > 0.5), moderate internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.611) and substantial to excellent inter-rater reliability (Intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.944, Cohen’s kappa= 0.627). Conclusions: CCPHIET is an easy-to-use tool for assessing the psychosocial suitability of patients advised for at-home isolation with mild and asymptomatic COVID-19. Its implementation can assist clinicians in identifying and redirecting resources to patients at the highest risk for breaking quarantine and save on unnecessary, costly absolute institutional quarantine for those deemed to be psychosocially fit for full adherence.
Cureus, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.25214
Introduction: Adult spinal deformity (ASD) results in significant patient morbidity and burden to quality of life. The degree to which systemic risk factors and comorbidities that contribute to ASD affect specific spinopelvic parameters is not well-documented. We determine the extent to which preoperative risk factors may contribute to spinopelvic parameters associated with ASD. Methods: Retrospective single-center study of 48 patients with ASD. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate correlation between systemic comorbidities (obesity, arterial hypertension (HTN), hyperlipidemia (HLD), cardiomyopathy, diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma) and the following radiographic parameters: pelvic incidence (PI), lumbar lordosis (LL), C7 sagittal vertical axis (C7SVA), and the T10-L2 sagittal cobb angle. Results: A total of 48 patients were included with mean C7SVA of 79.6 mm (SD: 63, range: 43-254), mean LL of 32.9° (SD: 15.9, range: -14 to 78), T10-L2 sagittal cobb angle of 3° (SD: 12.7, range: -24 to 30), and PI was 49° (SD: 10.7, range: 21 to 77). Only DM correlated with sagittal imbalance with high C7SVA and PI-LL mismatch. The beta coefficient for DM and preoperative C7SVA was 0.49, t=3.16, p=0.003, preoperative PI-LL mismatch standardized beta coefficient was -0.4, t=-2.38, p=0.022, and preoperative T10-L2 sagittal cobb standard beta coefficient was -0.07, t=-0.46, p=0.645. No significant correlations were found for asthma, COPD, HTN, HLD, or cardiomyopathy. Conclusions: Diagnosis of DM was found to correlate with pathologic C7SVA and significant PI-LL mismatch associated with ASD. HTN, HLD, cardiomyopathy, obesity, and pulmonary disease did not correlate with radiographic findings of sagittal imbalance.
Cureus, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.25226
The initial electrocardiogram finding in the setting of acute myocardial infarction typically shows either persistent ST-segment elevation or non-ST-segment elevation. In young adults, when coronary angiography is performed, can further classify the patient with an occluded vessel and those with non-occluded coronary arteries. In these subgroups, myocardial infarction can be explained on the basis of coronary artery thrombosis, embolization, spontaneous coronary artery dissection, myocardial bridging, coronary aneurysms, ectasia, anomalous origin of coronary arteries coronary microvascular dysfunction, and vasospasm, or a combination of these factors. We describe a 37-year-old male with a history of chest pain and electrocardiographic evidence of acute myocardial infarction who worked many hours under the sun before being presented to the emergency department. The initial laboratory tests showed evidence of acute kidney injury. He underwent a rescue coronary angiogram due to failed initial medical reperfusion therapy with Tenecteplase, which revealed occluded of the distal left anterior descending (LAD) artery with a minor lesion in proximal LAD and right coronary artery. Our patient experienced acute myocardial infarction owing to severe dehydration. This case is important as it highlights that severe dehydration can be considered one of the triggering factors for acute myocardial infarction in young men who are at risk. Proper hydration could be a preventive measure.
Cureus, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.25211
Schwannomas of the head and neck are relatively rare benign tumors that derive from the Schwann cells. Schwannomas are usually asymptomatic; however, tumors of bigger size may produce unspecific symptoms due to compression of the adjacent anatomic structures. Vagus nerve schwannomas may present as solitary neck masses, produce hoarseness of voice, or induce paroxysmal cough on palpation, which is also pathognomonic. Preoperative diagnosis is challenging and imaging studies may play a vital role in the diagnosis. Surgical treatment with complete tumor removal is the treatment of choice. In this study, we present a case of vagus nerve schwannoma in an adult male patient.
Cureus, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.25220
Drug-induced gingival overgrowth is an adverse effect of certain drugs, including amlodipine, in genetically susceptible individuals. Although the exact mechanism of gingival hypertrophy remains unclear, a unifying multifactorial hypothesis has been constructed. Gingival hypertrophy causes difficulty in speech and mastication, poor oral hygiene, and poor aesthetic appearance. Here, we present the case of a 49-year-old woman who developed gum hypertrophy following amlodipine use for two years. Maintenance of oral hygiene and substitution of offending agent is commonly the first step in management.
Cureus, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.25203
Background: Lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve is a terminal sensory branch of the musculocutaneous nerve. Lateral antebrachial cutaneous neuropathy (LABCN) is rare and often underdiagnosed. Less than 100 cases have been described in the orthopedic literature. Methods: It’s a single-center retrospective study. A retrospective chart review of patients with LABCN who were seen over 16 years was performed. Demographics and detailed clinical information were recorded. In addition, electrodiagnostic data were reviewed, and clinical outcome was recorded. Results: Fifteen patients were included in this study. Postsurgical etiology was the most common (n = 7) cause of LABCN. Other cases included antecubital fossa phlebotomy and intravenous placement (n = 4), trauma (n = 1), overuse or repetitive forearm use (n = 2), and dog bite (n = 1). No etiology was found in one case, but the patient had diabetes. Conclusion: Our study proposes that patient positioning during orthopedic surgeries leading to stretch or compression of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve is the most likely cause of LABCN. Antecubital fossa needle placement is the second most common cause of LABCN. However, it’s a rare mononeuropathy and can be underdiagnosed. Therefore, detailed history, examination, and nerve conduction studies of the bilateral lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve could help establish the diagnosis after other etiologies have been carefully excluded.
Cureus, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.25215
Postoperative complications (POCs) are significant concerns to surgeons because of their possible fatality or long-term disabilities. This study aimed to investigate the early POCs of gastrointestinal surgery and its associated factors in Yemeni patients treated in a teaching hospital in Sana'a University referral hospital. A retrospective cross-sectional study from June 2016 to June 2020 was conducted at Al-Kuwait Teaching Hospital, Sana'a University, Yemen. The patients' characteristics, causative factors, primary treatment, and POCs were recorded from their medical profiles. Univariate analysis was utilized to identify the risk factors associated with gastrointestinal POCs within 30 postoperative days. The 30-postoperative day mortality was 3.6%, and major POCs occurred in 22 (20%) patients. There is no statistically significant relationship between POCs and age, sex, smoking, khat chewing, comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, anemia, jaundice, heart disease), emergency cases, drain insertion, and operative time (p ˃ 0.05). There was a significant relationship between POCs and preoperative poor nutritional status, high American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade, need for blood transfusion, major abdominal surgeries, iatrogenic injury, small bowel resection, reoperation, and history of the previous laparotomy (p ≤ 0.05). There is a significant relationship between preoperative poor nutritional status, high ASA, need for blood transfusion, major abdominal surgeries, reoperation, small bowel resection, iatrogenic injury, previous laparotomy, and POCs across different gastrointestinal procedures. These factors should be assessed when auditing surgical outcomes.