Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi)
ISSN / EISSN : 1978-3728 / 2442-9740
Current Publisher: Universitas Airlangga (10.20473)
Total articles ≅ 713
Latest articles in this journal
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 21-24; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v54.i1.p21-24
Background: The development of radio diagnostics in orthodontics is still a challenge in treating skeletal anomaly with facial asymmetry. The assessment of skeletal symmetry, which can be obtained by frontal radiographs such as panoramic radiograph and posteroanterior cephalograph, is still limited. Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate panoramic radiograph and posteroanterior cephalograph in measuring the vertical mandibular asymmetry based on Kjellberg technique. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study of 43 pre-treatment panoramic radiographs and posteroanterior cephalographs from dental faculty students at Universitas Sumatera Utara between 18–25 years old. The subjects have fully erupted permanent teeth until the second molar and complained about facial asymmetry. The validity and reliability of vertical mandibular asymmetry of Kjellberg technique with Cliniview software in both radiographs used Cohen-K analysis. Results: The measurement of vertical mandibular asymmetry showed no significant differences using panoramic radiograph and posteroanterior cephalograph (0.073-0.321 > 0.05). Conclusion: The vertical mandibular asymmetry analysis with Kjellberg technique in panoramic radiograph is potent as an adjunctive diagnostic tool in vertical mandibular asymmetry.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 16-20; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v54.i1.p16-20
Background: Alveolar bone defects caused by periodontitis may require regenerative therapy to restore bone structure. Propolis possesses antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which can stimulate bone regeneration. Propolis-carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) material was applied during open flap debridement (OFD) in periodontitis therapy. Purpose: To analyse the effect of the application of 10% propolis-CHA after OFD on type 1 collagen expression on periodontitis-induced rabbits. Methods: Six male rabbits, aged 5–8 months, weight 1500–2000 grams, were ligated with wire and injected with Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for six weeks to induce periodontitis. The samples were divided into three groups: group A (OFD only), group B (OFD+CHA) and group C (OFD+10% propolis-CHA). To acquire 10% propolis-CHA, the CHA block was cut into 10mg and then immersed in 1ml of 10% propolis solution for 24 hours at room temperature. Decapitation was performed on the seventh and 14th day after OFD was performed on each group and microscopic slides were prepared for type 1 collagen examination. The data was analysed using a two-way ANOVA with a 95% confidence interval followed by a post hoc LSD test. Results: The type 1 collagen expression in group C (61.36±1.88 on day seven and 70.25±3.89 on day 14) was significantly different from group A (42.91±1.78 on day seven and 45.18±2.48 on day 14) and group B (43.91±5.31 on day seven and 59.63±3.27 on day 14) on both the seventh day and the 14th day (p=0.000). Conclusion: The administration of 10% propolis-CHA during OFD can increase the type 1 collagen expression in the alveolar bone of rabbits on the seventh and 14th day.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 35-38; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v54.i1.p35-38
Background: Bitewing radiography is a technique that depicts the crown of the maxillary and mandibular teeth and the crest of the alveolar bone in the same receptor. The use of film holders and paper loops in bitewing techniques is very helpful in standardising radiographs, but it has some disadvantages, including the lack of efficiency and discomfort. Therefore, silicone has been widely used in the medical field as a replacement for paper loops. Purpose: This study was conducted to describe the compatibility of the silicone material as an alternative for bitewing radiography. Methods: This research is experimental and a one-shot case study. It used the Mann–Whitney (P < 0.05) test for statistical analysis to compare the results of the radiographs using silicone loops and paper loops and to analyse the quality of each radiograph: object coverage, density, contrast, sharpness, geometry, and overlapping. Results: The images where silicone loops were used show adequate results in six radiograph quality assessments. There was no significant difference between the radiographs that were obtained using the silicon loop and the paper loop (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Silicone loops can be an alternative tool for bitewing radiography because they result in optimal image quality.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 25-30; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v54.i1.p25-30
Background: In general, children with physical disabilities have a lower level of oral hygiene compared to able-bodied children because their access to dental health care services is affected by their physical limitations. The level of oral hygiene available to children with disabilities can be improved with the involvement of parents/caregivers equipped with good knowledge and attitudes regarding oral health. Purpose: Determine the difference between the effectiveness of school and home visit-based dental health promotion in improving the knowledge and attitudes of parents/caregivers and students regarding oral hygiene as well as lowering the dental plaque scores of students with mild physical disabilities. Methods: This study is quasi-experimental and uses the two-group pretest–posttest design. The study’s design was created with a model of one observation before intervention (O1), two interventions (X1-2) and two observations after intervention (O2-3). The study samples are students with mild physical disabilities aged 8–15 years old in special needs school, or sekolah luar biasa (SLB), in Sleman, Yogyakarta, and their parents/caregivers. The locations of the study were SLBs and the respondents’ homes. The study instrument was a knowledge test for students with mild physical disabilities and their parents/caregivers, along with a questionnaire on the parents/caregivers’ attitudes towards oral and dental health. Plaque control examinations for students with mild physical disabilities were conducted using the O’Leary index. Results: School-based oral health promotion was better at improving the attitudes of parents/caregivers to oral hygiene than the home visits (p0.05). Conclusion: The school based-oral health promotion model was more effective in improving attitudes of the students’ parents/caregivers. Both the school-based and the home visit-based oral health promotion models were equally effective in enhancing the knowledge of parents/caregivers, along with the knowledge and dental plaque scores of students with mild disabilities.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 11-15; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v54.i1.p11-15
Background: Generally, after tooth extraction, trauma is caused by bone damage, which leads to a decreased bone density. Bone damage repair should be conducted using a bone graft containing hydroxyapatite (HA). HA can be synthesised from gypsum puger powder, which is abundant and easy to obtain. Hydroxyapatite gypsum puger (HAGP) was successful with 100% hydroxyapatite purity level. Purpose: To compare the ratio of trabecular bone density in Wistar rats between HAGP scaffold application and bovine hydroxyapatite (BHA) scaffold application. Methods: This study is a laboratory experiment using 6 treatment groups, namely K (-) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 7, K (-) PEG 28, HAGP + PEG 7, HAGP + PEG 28, BHA + PEG 7, and BHA + PEG 28. HAGP scaffold freeze-drying. The rats were anaesthetised intramuscularly, and their left mandibular incisor was removed. The scaffold was applied to the mouse socket, followed by tissue decapitation after 7 and 28 days. The examination was carried out with micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT). Next, statistical analysis using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was conducted (p <0.05). Results: The ANOVA test result showed a difference in bone density between the treatment and control groups on days 7 and 28. The Least Significant Difference (LSD) test result revealed that there was no significant difference between K (-) PEG 28 and HAGP + PEG 7 (p=0.133). Nevertheless, there were significant differences between the other groups. Conclusion: Based on the Micro-CT analysis, the trabecular bone density in Wistar rats following HAGP scaffold application is higher than that of BHA scaffold application.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 1-4; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v54.i1.p1-4
Background: Dental injury and trauma are some of the most important public health concerns among school children that may require immediate management, as they could result in consequences affecting the child aesthetically, psychologically and socially. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental trauma, the type of fracture, the most commonly affected tooth and the effect of gender on the occurrence of dental trauma. Methods: The methodology of this study was a cross-sectional survey consisting of a questionnaire and an oral examination which was conducted on 12-year-old public primary school children. Schools were selected from five different areas of Erbil city in Iraq. Results: The results indicate that 16.3% of the sample were affected with dental trauma in both genders. Maxillary central incisor was the most commonly affected tooth, and the majority of dental traumas were untreated. The most common type of dental trauma was simple enamel fracture. Conclusions: Child students are at great risk regarding dental trauma, which may affect their social activity especially within their school life.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 39-45; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v54.i1.p39-45
Background: Gingival tissue and periodontal ligament act as sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that play a vital role in periodontal regeneration, but they both have limitations for cell availability. MSCs cultivated and expanded in various media formulations could be used as a basis for the development of cell therapy protocols. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the optimum culture media formulation for cultivation and expansion of human gingival-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hGMSCs) and human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs). Methods: The hGMSCs and hPDLSCs were obtained from gingival tissue and periodontal ligament specimens from an adult patient. The two different culture media formulations used were: 1) α-minimum essential media (α-MEM) supplemented with 10% FBS, 100 U/mL penicillin, 100mg/mL streptomycin and 2.5 µg/mL amphotericin B; and 2) Dulbecco’s minimum essential media-Low Glucose (DMEM-LG) supplemented with 10% FBS, 2 mMol/L L-glutamine, 100 U/mL penicillin, 100mg/mL streptomycin and 2.5 µg/mL amphotericin B. The minced-gingival tissue and periodontal ligament samples were seeded in 3 cm tissue culture dishes with one of two experimental culture media, and incubated at 37oC in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2. Results: Cell morphology was observed on days two and five of the third passage. The gingival tissue and periodontal ligament primary cells exhibited fibroblast-like morphology, long processes and were spindle-shaped. The hPDLSCs grown in α-MEM exhibited a significant increase in cell viability and proliferation rate compared to the hPDLSCs grown in DMEM-LG. However, hGMSCs displayed similar cell viability and proliferation rate on both types of experimental media. Both the hGMSCs and hPDLSCs expressed MSC markers, including CD105, CD146, and CD90, but did not express CD45. Conclusion: Culture media formulations of α-MEM and DMEM-LG can be used for the cultivation and expansion of both hGMSCs and hPDLSCs.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 5-10; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v54.i1.p5-10
Background: Health education games can be an effective way for elementary school children to increase their dental health knowledge and oral health. Purpose: This study aims to test the effectiveness of using reminder sticker books by showing the increase in dental health knowledge and improvement in the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) in seven- to eight-year-olds. Methods: The study was quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest group design and descriptive analysis method. It involved 54 elementary school students. A reminder sticker book was used to measure the levels of knowledge and oral hygiene. Intraoral examinations were conducted, and the children’s frequency of attaching stickers in the morning and afternoon was measured. Frequency was divided into three categories. A questionnaire measured the children’s levels of knowledge, which were divided into five categories. Results: The reminder sticker game increased dental health knowledge, with the mean of the control group at 64.4, and the treatment group at 92.5. OHI-S means were 1.68 for the control group and 0.78 for the treatment group. An independent t-test measured the levels of knowledge before and after the study. OHI-S and ANOVA tests measured the increase of dental health knowledge, which was divided into five categories, and decrease in the OHI-S index (divided into three categories). Conclusion: Reminder sticker books can increase oral health knowledge and reduce OHI-S scores in seven- to eight-year-old children.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 52-56; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v54.i1.p52-56
Background: Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) bacteria mainly cause dental caries in children. These bacteria are not considered oral indigenous bacteria since they are transmitted from people around children during their deciduous teeth eruption. The detection of these bacteria can be used for dental caries prevention in children. Purpose: To determine the strain and serotype of S. mutans by using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization – time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on dental plaque samples taken from mother-child pairs. Methods: Sixteen dental plaque samples of mother-child pairs were cultured on brain heart infusion broth (BHIB) and mitis salivarius bacitracin (MSB) media until S. mutans colony isolates were obtained. Next, the isolates of S. mutans colony were introduced into the target plates of MALDI-TOF MS, and then ionized to become peptide mass fingerprint (PMF). Afterwards, the colony isolates were detected by database software. The detected S. mutans DNA then was extracted by using conventional 727 bp PCR (serotype C). Results: Six strains of S. mutans were detected by MALDI-TOF MS method. Five samples were classified into UA159, two samples were 3SN1, two samples were NFSM1, two samples were 11A1, two samples were U138, two samples were 4SM1, and one sample was classified into another bacterium. Five out of 16 samples were detected by PCR as serotype C (UA159). Conclusion: Six strains of S. mutans were detected, namely UA159, 3SN1, NFSM1, 11A1, U138, and 4SM1, one of them (UA159) was detected as serotype C.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 31-34; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v54.i1.p31-34
Background: Taste disorders often occur in the elderly, which can have serious consequences on their health status. Zinc and saliva volume have a role in maintaining taste acuity, especially in the elderly. Purpose: This study was to determine the correlation between salivary zinc levels, salivary volume, and taste disorders in elderly patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional research. Elderly patients with and without taste disorders were included in this study. Salivary zinc levels were measured using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) method. Salivary volume was measured using the spitting method. The correlation between salivary zinc levels, salivary volume, and taste disorders was analysed using the chi-square test. Multivariate analysis was performed to control for confounding variables with logistic regression. Results: Based on our findings, no significant correlation was determined between the levels of zinc in saliva and taste disorders. However, there was a significant correlation between salivary volume and taste disorders. Salivary volume and smoking were determined to be associated with taste disorders. Conclusion: This research showed that salivary zinc levels were not correlated with taste disorders; on the contrary, salivary volume was correlated with taste disorders. Smoking was determined to be a confounding variable on taste disorders in elderly patients.