Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi)

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1978-3728 / 2442-9740
Published by: Universitas Airlangga (10.20473)
Total articles ≅ 746
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Fadli Jazaldi, Benny M. Soegiharto, Astrid Dinda Hutabarat, Noertami Soedarsono, Elza Ibrahim Auerkari
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 216-220;

Background: Class II malocclusion is one of the main orthodontic issues for patients in seeking treatment. The prevalence of class II malocclusion varies in different populations. Variation in skeletal profile is mainly controlled internally by a regulatory gene. Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) plays a role in osteoblast differentiation and is highly expressed during development. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the relation of regulatory gene variation in the Runx2 promoter with class II malocclusion. Methods: DNA samples were acquired from 95 orthodontic patients in Jakarta, Indonesia, who were divided into two groups: class I skeletal malocclusion (control group) and class II malocclusion. A single nucleotide polymorphism was investigated using the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. The distribution of alleles was assessed using the Hardy-Weinberg test. The relationship between polymorphism and skeletal variation was assessed with the Chi-Square test and logistic regression. Results: The frequency distributions of genotypes and alleles were tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and found to be slightly deviated. There was an equal distribution of G and T alleles throughout class II and class I skeletal malocclusions and the Chi-Square test showed that this relationship was not significant (p=0.5). Conclusion: Runx2 rs59983488 polymorphism was found in the Indonesian subpopulation; however, an association between Runx2 rs59983488 polymorphism and class II skeletal malocclusion was not found.
Fitri Aniowati, Cantika Nadrotan Naim, Nova Dwi Anggraeni, Pratiwi Nur Widyaningsih
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 210-215;

Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is an oral cancer with a low life expectancy, less than five years after diagnosis. The drug therapy often used for OSCC patients is cisplatin, but it is considered to cause tumour persistence, drug resistance, and high toxicity. Therefore, it is important to test the development of alternative drugs from natural ingredients. One potential ingredient is green chilli pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.). It contains capsaicin that functions as an anticancer agent by suppressing BCa tumorigenesis so that proliferation is inhibited, as well as increasing and preventing p53 antibody mutations that play a role in cancer cell apoptosis. Purpose: This study aimed to compare effectiveness using capsaicin nanoparticle gel from green chilli pepper extract levels of 1% and 3.3% to reduce OSCC nodules. Methods: This study used 20 Rattus norvegicus that were randomly divided into five groups; C- (rat without treatment), C+ (rat induced to 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)), E1 (DMBA exposed and given cisplatin, E2 (rat induced to DMBA and capsaicin extract nanoparticle gel with a concentration of 1%), and E3 (rat induced to DMBA and capsaicin extract nanoparticle gel with a concentration of 3.3%). The data were analysed statistically with the one-way ANOVA and least significance difference (LSD) test. Results: The comparison of mean nodule volume between C+ (5.834 ± 2.77 mm3) with E1 (1.75 ± 0.37 mm3), E2 (1.747 ± 0.36 mm3), and E3 (1.812 ± 0.11 mm3) had a significant difference (p = 0.00, p ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: Capsaicin nanoparticle gel with green chilli pepper extract at levels of 1% (E2) reduces OSCC nodules by more than gel with green chilli pepper extract at 3.3% (E3) concentration.
Imelia Arifatus Sani, Siska Maulidina Cahyani, Safira Fariha, O. Oliresianela, D. Diah
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 221-226;

Background: In Indonesia, the prevalence of dental and oral problems is still high at 57.6% in 2018, especially periodontitis at 74.1%. Peptidoglycan is an essential component of the bacterial cell wall. Peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase (PGT) is a protein target that plays a role in transferring lipid disaccharides II to growing glycan chains for bacterial cell wall synthesis. Propolis is a natural ingredient produced by bees and has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral and antioxidant properties so that it has the potential to be a natural mouthwash ingredient. One of the antibacterial properties of propolis is to be able to kill and reduce the number of bacteria that cause periodontitis. Purpose: This study aims to investigate the potential of a specific compound of propolis as an inhibitor of protein peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase through bonding interactions. Methods: The method used is an in-silico test in molecular docking with computational software, namely Molegro virtual docker and Discovery Studio visualizer. Results: This study showed the types of bonds between the four compounds, and chlorhexidine as a control showed similar types of bonds, including hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions and unfavourable bonds. The binding energy values of each of the five compounds were pinocembrin -222.166 kJ/mol, hesperetin -230.144 kJ/mol, chrysin -219.45 kJ/mol, caffeic acid phenethyl ester -266.64 kJ/mol and chlorhexidine -362.71 kJ/mol. Conclusion: Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is the most significant potential as an inhibitor of protein peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase and chlorhexidine has the highest binding affinity than the four propolis compounds, followed by caffeic acid phenethyl ester in propolis in silico.
Hilda Fitria Lubis, Arfah Azriana
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 205-209;

Background: Malocclusion often occurs in children due to discrepancies between primary teeth and permanent teeth. An assessment of the severity of the malocclusion is necessary for establishing the diagnosis and determining the need for treatment. The Occlusal Feature Index (OFI) and Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) are indices that assess the need for orthodontic treatment, but they use different weights. Purpose: This study aimed to compare the need for orthodontic treatment based on the OFI and DAI in 10–14-year-old children. Methods: The sample in this study is secondary data in the form of 66 study models pre-treatment in children aged 10–14 years at the Universitas Sumatra Utara (USU) Dental Hospital. All samples were collected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The measurement results were analysed statistically by the Chi-square test to see the comparison between the OFI and DAI. The results obtained are presented in the form of frequency and percentage. Results: For the OFI, 42.4% of the samples had no orthodontic treatment needed, 31.8% were indicated to treat, and 25.8% require mandatory treatment. For the DAI, 47% of samples had no/little treatment need, 25.8% had elective treatment need, 16.7% had treatment considered mandatory, and 10.6% treatment highly desirable. Based on the assessment to compare the OFI and DAI using the Chi-square test, p=0.001 was obtained. Conclusion: There was a significant difference in the need for orthodontic treatment between OFI and DAI in children aged 10–14 years at the USU Dental Hospital.
Rona Aulianisa, Rini Widyaningrum, , , Munakhir Mudjosemedi
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 200-204;

Background: An obstacle in forensic odontology is an incomplete body caused by post-mortem damage. The problem can be solved by using lateral cephalometric radiographs for victim identification. Sex determination can be performed on the maxillary sinus, which is the largest among the paranasal sinuses. Purpose: This study aims to analyse the maxillary sinuses’ width and height on lateral cephalometric radiographs among male and female subjects. Methods: The study samples were 60 lateral cephalometric radiographs (30 males and 30 females) between the ages of 20 and 40, with complete permanent dentition (or third molar absence). The height and the width of maxillary sinus measurement were performed using measurement tools of EzDent-i Vatech Software. Results: The average width of the maxillary sinus on males was 40.60 ± 1.56 mm, and the height was 35.02 ± 2.09 mm, while the width and the height on females were 36.93 ± 1.30 mm and 29.72 ± 1.76 mm, respectively. The independent t-test reveals a significant difference (p<0.05) between males and females, both in the maxillary sinus’s width and height on the lateral cephalometric radiograph. Conclusion: The maxillary sinus in males is larger than in females, it opening up possibilities for disaster victim identification.
Yessy Ariesanti, Irvan Septrian Syah Putra Rasad, Maylan Nimas, Nadira Syabilla
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 190-194;

Background: Inflammatory cells and fibroblasts have an essential role in the wound healing process. Persea americana Mill. seed categorises as a waste; it contains rich nutrients that can accelerate wound healing activity. Purpose: This study aims to determine the effect of Persea americana Mill. seed against inflammatory cells and fibroblast formation in tooth extraction socket healing. Methods: Ninety-six Sprague Dawley rats had their lower left molars removed. Forty-eight rats tested for inflammatory cells were divided into four groups: negative control group (IC1), positive control group (IC2), Persea americana Mill. seed extract concentrations of 50% (IE1) and 90% (IE2). Another 48 rats used for fibroblast were divided into three groups: the control group (FC1), Persea americana Mill. seed concentrations of 50% (FE1) and 90% (FE2). The gel was applied to the socket under general anaesthesia. Four rats from each group were decapitated for histopathological tissue preparations with Haematoxylin Eosin (HE) staining on the 3rd, 5th and 7th days for inflammatory cells and the 3rd, 5th, 7th and 14th days for fibroblast formation. The preparations for each research were scored under the microscope at 40x magnification. The obtained data was analysed using the Kruska—Wallis and the Mann—Whitney test. Results: A significant decrease (p<0.05) of inflammatory cells in IE2 on the 5th and 7th day. A significant increase (p0.05) between FE1 and FE2 was based on the interval days. Conclusion: Persea americana Mill. seed extract can decrease the inflammatory cells and accelerate the fibroblast formation in tooth extraction socket healing.
Chindy Fransiska Br Nainggolan, Dwi Tjahyaning Putranti
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 195-199;

Background: Type III gypsum is a material used to make dental master casts. It may be added to an accelerator, such as slurry water, to shorten setting time. Calcium sulphate in slurry water may affect setting time, compressive strength and dimensional stability. Purpose: The study evaluated the effect of slurry water on the setting time, compressive strength and dimensional stability of type III gypsum. Methods: Eighty-one samples were made of type III gypsum, divided into three groups: group A was gypsum mixed with 1% slurry water, group B, gypsum mixed with 2% slurry water and group C, gypsum mixed with distilled water. Each sample was formed using a standardised master mould. For testing setting time, a cylindrical mould 25 mm in diameter and height was used; for compressive strength testing, the cylindrical mould was 20 mm in diameter and 40 mm in height; and for dimensional stability testing, a pair of cylindrical, ruled block and mould were used. Setting time was tested using Vicat’s apparatus; compressive strength was tested using a universal testing machine; and dimensional stability was tested using digital callipers. The data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and least significant difference (LSD) tests. Results: One-way ANOVA and LSD tests showed significant differences in the effect of slurry water on the setting time, compressive strength and dimensional stability of type III gypsum (p<0.05). Conclusion: The use of slurry water can shorten setting time, decrease compressive strength and increase dimensional change of type III gypsum.
Riyan Iman Marsetyo, Sagita Putri Andyningtyas, Chonny Salsabilla Zamrutizahra, Ivan Nur Fadela, Agus Subiwahjudi, Ira Widjiastuti
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 186-189;

Background: According to Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas) (2013) and the World Health Organisation (WHO), caries is still a global problem and highly prevalent in Indonesia. Caries is mainly caused by Streptococcus mutans with virulence factors known as glucosyltransferase (GTF). The GTF enzyme contribute to the pathogenesis of caries by converting sucrose to fructose and glucan, which are then used in the formation of biofilms and dental plaques. Natural propolis compounds containing flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins and tannins, can inhibit GTF enzyme activity. Purpose: This study aimed to determine an effective concentration of propolis extract for inhibiting the S. mutans GTF enzyme activity. Methods: This study used propolis extract at 14 μg/ mL, 16 μg/m and 1 μg/mL to determine the inhibitory effect on S. mutans GTF enzyme activity. The GTF enzyme were obtained from the supernatant from S. mutans culture centrifugation. The GTF enzyme activity was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to calculate the fructose level. Results: The mean fructose concentration at 14 μg/mL, 16 μg/mL, and 18μg/mL were 3.31%, 1.56%, and 0.29%, respectively. Conclusion: The most effective concentration of propolis extract for inhibiting the effect of S. mutans GTF enzyme activity is 14 μg/mL.
Putri Intan Sitasari, Niken Merrystia, Ida Bagus Narmada
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 174-180;

Background: Dental anomalies usually lead to complicated decisions having to be made in terms of the orthodontic treatment of permanent dentition; tooth rotation is the most common of these irregularities. The prevalence rate of this phenomenon is 2.1–5.1% in patients who have not received orthodontic treatment. Purpose: This case report aimed to manage the complete bilateral rotation of maxillary canines with couple force by using a Nance appliance modification. Case: A 17-year-old male patient came in wanting to straighten his teeth. He complained about his bilateral canines, which were not in a normal position. There was an impacted left maxillary second premolar and an ectopically erupted right maxillary first premolar. He also had protrusions in the upper and lower anterior teeth and crowding in the lower anterior teeth as well as upper and lower midline deviations. Case Management: A clinical examination showed a class I relationship between the dental and cephalometry measurements and highlighted a class I skeletal pattern. The upper right first premolar was extracted and the left second premolar had undergone an odontectomy to allay protrusion and correct crowding. Bilaterally rotated upper canines were derotated using a modified Nance appliance and an elastomeric chain with couple force. Conclusion: The success of the orthodontic treatment was influenced by the specific nature of the patient’s dental and medical history, extraoral and intraoral examination, diagnosis and treatment planning, which was followed by a systematic approach to treatment. The Nance appliance modification reduced the total treatment time by achieving controlled anchorage and derotation of the canines.
Tengku Natasha Eleena Binti Tengku Ahmad Noor, James Lian Yoon Chen, Mohd Safwani Affan Alli, Mohd Hosni Bin Mahmood
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 169-173;

Background: This article discussed the management of pericoronitis for partial eruption of molar on pediatric patients. Purpose: This case report was to discuss how to manage a pediatric patient with a partially erupted second molar by using an electrosurgery method as the last alternative; also, it assessed whether or not the treatment facilitates spontaneous tooth eruption in respect to incomplete treatments. Case: A 9-years-old girl visited the Kuching Armed Forces Dental Clinic with her parents and complained of recurrent swelling on her lower right jaw in the last six months and noticed a tooth-like white lump under it. After a deliberate examination, the dentists came up with a diagnosis of pericoronitis because of a partially erupted second molar. Case Management: In managing a pediatric patient, a systematic desensitization was performed whereby the first visit was more of non-invasive treatment such as oral health instructions, a proper tooth brushing technique, and local scaling and debridement. Operculectomy using the electrosurgery had been carried out in the fourth visit and reviewed after one-week treatment that shows uneventful healing. Conclusion: To prevent and treat oral problems, it is imperative to develop child’s interest and willingness in using dental services. Hence, an early diagnosis is critical, especially as parents seek for the best treatment duration and treatment methods with the least number of consequences. The food impaction and the recurrent swelling because of pericoronitis have a major impact on the patient; therefore, treatment is provided regardless of patient’s age.
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