Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi)
ISSN / EISSN : 19783728 / 24429740
Current Publisher: universitas airlangga (10.20473)
Total articles ≅ 680
Latest articles in this journal
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 53, pp 93-98; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v53.i2.p93-98
Background: Dental arch form and dimension are fundamental factors in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Its dimension will increase, due to the eruption of teeth, and is also affected by ethnicity, nutrition, systemic disease, hormonal factors, and gender. Many teeth are erupting in 8–10-year-old children. Purpose: This study aimed to assess the correlation between age and dental arch dimension of Javanese children in good nutritional status for consideration of orthodontic treatment. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with 66 children aged 8–10 years in a normal dentoskeletal relationship, grouped based on age as the subject. Each group consisted of 22 pairs of dental study models, male and female. Anterior and posterior size of dental arch length were measured by digital sliding calipers from the midpoint between the right and left permanent central incisors perpendicular to the inter-canines and inter-molars. The width was measured at the inter-canines and inter-molars. Results: Pearson’s correlation test showed that there were significant correlations between age and maxillary dental arch lengths (p = 0.01, r = 0.31 for anterior, and p = 0.043, r = 0.249 for posterior). Conclusion: Based on this study, it can be concluded that there was a positive correlation between age and dental arch length of 8–10-year-old Javanese children in good nutritional status, especially in maxillary dental arch length.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 53, pp 111-114; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v53.i2.p111-114
Background: Long bleeding time is a risk factor in dental treatment, especially in patients who consume aspirin or other antithrombotic drugs. Holothuria scabra (H. scabra) are mostly echinodermata and have been studied in Indonesia; they contain omega-3 and glycosaminoglycans, with an influence of an antithrombotic drug. Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the thrombocyte counts during the post-administration of aspirin and the H. scabra extract in Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). Methods: This study was true experimental with a post-test control group design. The sample consisting of 30 healthy male Wistar rats (R. norvegicus) with a bodyweight of 150–250 g was divided into three groups (n = 10). The rats in Group 1 were given sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na CMC). The rats in Group 2 were given aspirin, and the rats in Group 3 were given the H. scabra ethanol extract with a 25 mg/200 g dose as per their body weight (BW). Oral administration was given for seven days. The rats’ blood was taken on the eighth day. The amount of thrombocyte was measured using Wright’s stain methods. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Least Significant Difference (LSD) tests were conducted for data analysis (p < 0.05). Results: The thrombocyte counts (179.00 ± 10.56) in aspirin administration were lower than those in H. scabra (265.00 ± 18.54) and control groups (334.17 ± 13.9), with a significant difference between the groups (p = 0.0001; p < 0.05). Conclusion: This study indicates that the oral administration of aspirin and H. scabra decreases thrombocyte counts, whereas the administration of aspirin reduces thrombocyte counts to levels lower than those in H. scabra in Wistar rats (R. norvegicus).
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 53, pp 81-87; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v53.i2.p81-87
Background: COVID-19 has been regarded as a new pandemic in the world. This disease is highly contagious and can be transmitted easily through droplets and air. This matter is considered as a red flag to all dentists all over the globe. Until today, there is only a few specific guideline in regards to dental practice during and after the pandemic. The protocol only revolves around the limitation of patients’ appointments and using level 3 personal protection equipment. There is no specific mention on the preparation method of the practice room especially in Indonesia. Purpose: This study aims to review literature on infection control in dental settings during COVID-19 pandemic and discuss possible recommendations based on available evidence. Review: The review also discussed the background of COVID-19, transmission, clinical findings, physicochemical properties, and cross infection in dental practice. Despite the usage of personal protective equipment, the rooms need to be set to specific requirement to reduce contamination inside the room. Until today, COVID-19 transmission must be prevented with the best method available. Conclusion: No single protocol may fully guarantee the safety of the patients and dental workers. We suggest to combine the protocol listed above to minimize to self and cross-contamination ’new normal’ practice.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 53, pp 99-106; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v53.i2.p99-106
Background: Abalone (Haliotis varia Linnaeus) shells possess a high arginine content and are expected to be an alternative desensitisation material that is both insoluble and able to properly close dentinal tubules. Different methods of manufacturing abalone gel affect the molecular weight, hydrophilic or hydrophobic properties and protein content of the lysis. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effects of different manufacturing methods on the dentinal tubule closure of abalone desensitisation gel. Methods: This study involved the extraction of abalone shells followed by preparative and thin-layer chromatography. The drying of the samples was carried out by the precipitation, drying, and addition methods. The research was divided into eight treatment groups, each consisting of three samples (F1, F2, F3). Each sample was applied to two study subjects’ post-extracted third molars, which were cut into disc shapes and subsequently etched with 6% citric acid. The percentage of dentinal tubule occlusion was calculated by Image J (NIH, USA) software. Data were analysed using three-way ANOVA. Results: The results showed that there were significant differences (p < 0.05) both in terms of the effects of the samples with deposition and addition on the occlusion of the dentinal tubules and in terms of the interactions between the samples with drying and addition. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in terms of the interactions of the samples’ three manufacturing methods. Conclusion: The manufacture of abalone gel as a desensitisation material requires a minimum of two interactions between the sample-making method and the addition, deposition, and drying methods. The best method was deposition.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 53, pp 88-92; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v53.i2.p88-92
Background: One cause of pulpitis is mechanical trauma such as pulp perforation. The emergency treatment of pulpitis in a clinic uses eugenol. Eugenol in a high concentration causes cytotoxicity, which causes local necrosis and inhibits the recovery process, while in lower doses it can cause oral mucosal hypersensitivity. Due to these side effects, it is worth considering other biocompatible materials with minimal side effects, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) which is found in green tea. As a polyphenol, EGCG has a radical scavenging ability, which has an effect on reducing the number of neutrophils. The application of EGCG is expected to reduce neutrophils on the second day after injury so the rehabilitation process is completed more quickly and ongoing inflammation and pulp necrosis is prevented. Purpose: To analyse the efficacy of topical hydrogel EGCG in reducing the number of neutrophils after 48 hours in the perforated dental pulp of Wistar rats. Method: 20 Wistar rats were divided equally into four groups, which were designated control (C) and treatment groups (T1, T2, T3). The upper first molar teeth of each rat were perforated and then T1, T2, and T3 were given 60 ppm, 90 ppm and 120 ppm hydrogel EGCG respectively. On the second day, the rats were sacrificed. HPA preparations were made to calculate the number of neutrophils in each group. Data was analysed using Kolmogorov–Smirnov, Levene’s, one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (p0.05). Conclusion: 90 ppm hydrogel EGCG is effective in reducing the number of neutrophils in the perforated dental pulp of Wistar rats.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 53, pp 107-110; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v53.i2.p107-110
Background: Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy that occurs in the world, with more than 330,000 deaths a year. In cancer, mutations occur in proteins, accompanied by unfolding proteins, caused by the unstable micro-environment in cells. To stabilise this condition, protein protectors called heat shock proteins (HSPs) are needed. HSPs are activated by a group of transcription factors known as heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). HSF1 is a considered target in cancer therapy. Moringa oleifera leaves are known to have anti-cancer properties because of bioactive compounds called flavonoid and isothiocyanate and are used as herbal therapy for cancer. Purpose: To investigate the potential effect of ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera on HSF1 expression in oral cancer induced by benzo[a]pyrene. Methods: This study used 25 male Wistar rats divided into five groups consisting of the negative control group (K-), which was only given aquadest; the positive control group (K+), which was induced with benzo[a]pyrene and given aquadest; and treatment groups that were induced with benzo[a]pyrene and given Moringa oleifera leaf extract at concentrations of 3.125% (P1), 6.25% (P2), and 9.375% (P3). Examination of HSF1 expression was carried out by immunohistochemistry staining. Data were analysed using the Kruskal–Wallis test and post-hoc Tukey HSD. Results: HSF1 expression in the P1, P2, and P3 groups decreased significantly compared to the K+ group. There were no significant differences between the P1, P2, and P3 groups (p > 0.005). Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves in three concentrations can decrease expression of HSF1 in oral cancer induced by benzo[a]pyrene.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 53, pp 67-70; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v53.i2.p67-70
Background: Stainless steel is a material that can be used in orthodontics for components of dental braces, such as brackets, archwires and molar bands. Orthodontic archwires exposed to toothpaste can release nickel ions that cause hypersensitivity. The excessive use of sodium lauryl sulphate in detergent toothpaste can cause mouth irritation, severe ulceration, decreased salivary solubility and taste sensitivity changes. Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the nickel ion released by stainless steel archwires after immersion in detergent and non-detergent toothpaste. Methods: Forty stainless steel archwires from Ortho Organizer (0.016 x 0.022in) were divided into two groups (n=20). Group 1 comprised stainless steel archwires immersed in detergent toothpaste. Group 2 consisted of stainless steel archwires immersed in non-detergent toothpaste. These archwires were immersed in 1.5g toothpaste then kept in an incubator at 37°C for around 24 hours. After that, the archwires were removed from the toothpaste, and the toothpaste was dissolved in 25ml of Aquadest. The amount of nickel ion released was examined by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). After that, the structure of the sample surface was examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A statistical analysis was done using the Shapiro–Wilk normality test (p>0.05). An independent t-test was carried out to compare the two groups (p0.05). The SEM images of the archwire surfaces showed that there were more corrosive contour changes in the archwire surface in group 1 than in group 2. Conclusion: There was no difference between the nickel ion released from stainless steel orthodontic archwires after immersion in detergent and non-detergent toothpaste. After immersion in detergent toothpaste, stainless steel archwire surfaces showed more corrosive contour changes than those immersed in non-detergent toothpaste.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 53, pp 76-80; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v53.i2.p76-80
Background: Carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHA) is used as a scaffold to repair bone resorption. Alveolar bone resorption in periodontitis caused by an infection requires the presence of an antibacterial to support bone regeneration. Human β-defensin 3 (HBD3) is an antimicrobial peptide. The local application of the HBD3 antimicrobial is beneficial to inhibiting drug resistance and protecting tissue regeneration against invasive bacteria. Purpose: This study aims to investigate the effect of the administration of a combination of CHA with HBD3 on the collagen density of periodontitis rats (Sprague Dawley). Methods: This study was a true experimental study with a post-test control group design. Thirty-two Sprague Dawley animal models were randomly blind selected placed under anaesthetic, then a 2-mm silk ligature was attached as a ligation to the mandibular incisors for 14 days in order to generate periodontitis. The study subjects were divided into two groups, the group with CHA and CHA loaded HBD3 (CHA + HBD3) implantation. On days 7, 14, 21 and 28, four rats were taken randomly from each group for decapitation, followed by histological processing and examination with trichome Mallory staining. The data was analysed using the Kruskal Wallis test (p
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 53, pp 57-61; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v53.i2.p57-61
Background: Composite resins are widely used in dentistry to restore dental caries. Recently, short fibre-reinforced composite (FRC) resins have been widely used for high-stress areas, especially in posterior teeth. Bombyx mori silk fibre is under research to reinforce dental composite resin as it has good mechanical properties. Purpose: This study aims to obtain the effects of alkalisation and silk fibre volume fraction on the flexural strength of FRC. Methods: Bombyx mori silk fibres were obtained from Perhutani, Pati, Indonesia. Samples were divided into two alkalisation groups (4% and 8%). Alkalisation of the silk fibres was conducted through the scouring process in NaOH, hydrolysis (30% H2SO4) and drying. Silk fibres were then reinforced in a resin matrix. The samples were subdivided based on the fibre volume fraction reinforcements, which were 0%, 5%, 10% and 15%. Each group of samples consisted of three specimens (n = 3). Flexural strength was measured using a universal testing machine. Data were analysed by two-way ANOVA (p < 0.05) and post-hoc least significant difference test (p < 0.05). Results: The results showed the flexural strength (MPa) means of the 4% alkalisation group were 169.31 ± 54.28 (0%), 76.08 ± 43.69 (5%), 107.86 ± 40.61 (10%) and 101.99 ± 10.61 (15%). The flexural strength (MPa) means of the 8% alkalisation group were 169.31 ± 54.28 (0%), 82.62 ± 22.41 (5%), 111.07 ± 32.89 (10%) and 153.23 ± 23.80 (15%). Statistical analysis by ANOVA indicated that the fibre volume fraction affected the flexural strength of composite resins. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the volume fraction of silk fibre increases the flexural strength of composite resins, although the strength is not as high as a composite resin without fibres. However, the alkalisation percentage did not affect the flexural strength of composite resins, and there was no interaction between alkalisation percentage and fibre volume fraction with the flexural strength of composite resins.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 53, pp 62-66; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v53.i2.p62-66
Background: Photosensitisers play a vital role for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in diode laser 405 nm therapy. Curcumin, chlorophyll and riboflavin have been used and viewed in several studies as effective photosensitisers for the elimination of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), a persistent microorganism that may cause endodontic failure. While each has given valuable and promising results as an alternative endodontic irrigant, no study has compared the efficacy of these three natural dyes. Purpose: To prove that the photosensitiser curcumin in diode laser 405 nm therapy is more effective for E. faecalis biofilm degradation than chlorophyll and riboflavin, and that a duration of irradiation of 90 seconds is more effective than 60 seconds. Methods: The biofilm monospecies E. faecalis was divided into two microplates with 96-well according to the irradiation periods: 60 seconds (Group 1) and 90 seconds (Group 2). Each group contained one control (without a photosensitiser) and three treatments were carried out by adding the photosensitisers curcumin, chlorophyll and riboflavin, where each treatment contained eleven samples. After irradiation for 60 seconds and 90 seconds, a crystal violet assay was carried out for each group. Results: The one-way ANOVA test showed a significant difference between groups based on the irradiation period. Tukey’s test showed each treatment in each group also showed a significant difference (p