Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi)
ISSN / EISSN : 1978-3728 / 2442-9740
Published by: Universitas Airlangga (10.20473)
Total articles ≅ 724
Latest articles in this journal
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 108-112; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v54.i2.p108-112
Background: Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is a facial growth ‘disorder that occurs during gestation and has multifactorial causes owing to both genetic and environmental factors. Several factors can increase the likelihood of CL/P, and one of them is family history. Differences in results obtained from studies conducted across several countries concerning family history as a risk factor for CL/P suggest there is no consensus on how the condition is inherited. Purpose: This study aims to review the literature on the role of family history as a risk factor contributing to the incidence of non-syndromic CL/P (NSCL/P). Review: This review discusses the etiology of CL/P and the risk factors influencing the incidence of CL/P. The review also examines the criteria for inheriting multifactorial disorders to calculate the risks involved should there be a recurrence of the condition based on family history. Conclusion: CL/P is a type of multifactorial disorder with unclear etiology. Therefore, it is important to investigate the risk factors stemming from family history (which play an important role) related to the recurrence risk. Additionally, there should be focus on increasing genetic education and offering counselling to parents and pregnant women.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 92-95; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v54.i2.p92-95
Background: The prevalence of occlusion and various occlusal characteristics differ between populations. Major contributions to these different types of occlusion and occlusal features include ethnic, genetic and environmental factors. Purpose: The objective of the study was to understand the type and prevalence of terminal plane relationships and other occlusal traits, including physiological spacing and primate spacing, in Emirati schoolchildren. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 458 participants in the age range of 3–6 years. A clinical evaluation was performed to record other occlusal characteristics. The data was then subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The present study revealed that the bilateral flush terminal plane was seen in 40.8% of the examined children, the bilateral mesial step in 37.3% and the bilateral distal step in 1.7%. It was found that 44.5% of the examined children had physiologic space in both the upper and lower arches, while 14.19% of them had physiologic space only in the upper arch, 2.18% had it only in the lower arch, and 39% of them had no physiologic space. Primate space was found to be present in both the upper and lower arches in 46% of the examined children. Conclusions: The bilateral flush terminal plane relationship was the most common, and the bilateral distal step was the least common of the terminal plane relationships. In addition, primate spacing had a lower prevalence when compared to other studies.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 96-101; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v54.i2.p96-101
Background: Facial aesthetics are closely related to the harmonious proportions of the facial components. One of the components is facial height. The reference of facial height proportion of certain racial groups needs to be known by orthodontists and surgeons to create treatment outcomes that can be specifically designed for these particular demographics. One of the factors that can affect facial height proportion is malocclusion. Purpose: This study aimed to determine facial height proportion based on Angle’s classification of malocclusion in Deutero-Malayids. Methods: This study used a descriptive cross-sectional method, which was conducted on 116 Deutero-Malayid subjects. The subjects’ malocclusion was first examined using Angle’s classification of malocclusion. Upper and lower facial height were then measured to determine the proportion of these dimensions. The results were then grouped based on each malocclusion class. Results: It was found that the upper and lower facial height proportions in the class I malocclusion group were 46.74% and 53.26% in males and 47.52% and 52.48% in females, respectively. The upper and lower facial height proportions in the class II malocclusion group were 48.46% and 51.54% in females. Upper and lower facial height proportions in the class III malocclusion group were 45.31% and 54.69% in males and 46.29% and 53.71% in females, respectively. Conclusion: The largest proportion of upper facial height in Deutero-Malayids was seen in the class II malocclusion group, followed by class I and class III. The largest proportion of lower facial height in Deutero-Malayids was seen in the class III malocclusion group, followed by class I and class II.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 102-107; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v54.i2.p102-107
Background: Caries is one of the most common oral diseases that occur among children. Caries and dental trauma in children may cause early tooth loss, also known as premature loss, and result in occlusion abnormalities caused by the dental arch narrowing. A space maintainer is a preventive orthodontic appliance designed to maintain a narrow arch to prevent premature loss. Purpose: This study aims to describe the treatment of a case of space management in a patient with premature loss by using the space maintainer ‘Y model’. Case: An eight-year-old boy was accompanied by his mother, complaining that the lower posterior right tooth had been extracted. The mother was worried that the new tooth would have an overlapping growth. Case Management: The diagnosis was mandibular primary molar loss. The study cast was analysed based on Moyers 2.62 cm, Huckaba 2.24 mm, and curve determination 2.40 mm. The mandibular removable space maintainer treatment was performed on the patient and was followed by nine control visits every week. The outcome was a successful treatment from the use of the space maintainer ‘Y model’. Conclusion: The space maintainer treatment with the Y model in the paediatric patient showed a good result, evidenced by the tube opening of 1.2 mm, showing that the appliance followed lateral jaw growth.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 82-86; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v54.i2.p82-86
Background: Candida albicans was found to be dominant in patients with human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The antifungals fluconazole, ketoconazole, and nystatin were used as oral candidiasis therapy for HIV/AIDS, each of which has differing susceptibility in oral candidiasis therapy. Purpose: The present study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility and antifungal resistance to oral C. albicans in HIV/AIDS patients. Methods: The subjects followed the universal precaution principles. Oral Candida species were isolated from the saliva of 98 HIV/AIDS subjects. Identification of Candida species was carried out by the mycobiotic agar of API 20 C Aux system. Susceptibility and resistance antifungal tests on the Candida species were performed using a Fungus ATB Kit. Results: Candida albicans was the most dominant species found from 98 subjects (95%). The rest were other Candida species. There are 41 subjects (42%) with a history of oral candidiasis, and 57 subjects (58%) without. The history of those who used antifungals were: nystatin = 60 subjects (61%), fluconazole = 39 subjects (40%), and ketoconazole = two subjects (2%). These antifungals have a susceptibility above 80% against C. albicans, except the nystatin group (79%) (p>0.05; 0.628), but fluconazole has a strong correlation (r=0.820) to susceptibility, susceptibility-dependent dose, and resistance. Conclusion: Candida albicans was dominant in the saliva of HIV/AIDS patients. This fungus was effectively treated by fluconazole, ketoconazole and nystatin. These antifungals had a high susceptibility at ≤ 8 μg/mL to C. albicans.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 78-81; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v54.i2.p78-81
Background: Demineralisation and remineralisation is a natural process in tooth enamel. It is influenced by the content of calcium and phosphorus in saliva, which concentrations are affected by the consumption of food, including formula milk. Demineralisation and remineralisation determine the roughness and hardness of the enamel surface. Purpose: This study compared the effect of formula milk on the roughness and hardness of tooth enamel. Methods: Maxillary premolar extracted teeth were demineralised with 37% phosphoric acid for 90 seconds and then divided into four treatment groups. For four days, the teeth were immersed twice a day in cow formula for five and ten minutes (Group I and II) and soy formula for five and ten minutes (Group III and IV). Before and after the immersion in milk, the teeth were submerged in artificial saliva. The enamel surface roughness and hardness were measured three times using a surface roughness tester and a Vickers microhardness tester, before and after demineralisation and after immersion in milk. Data were analysed using Kruskal–Wallis and post hoc Mann–Whitney tests. Results: There was no significant difference (p=0.88) observed in the roughness reduction among the treatment groups. The highest increase in hardness was noted for the ten-minute cow formula milk group (93.27 ± 16.00). The increase of hardness was higher after immersion for ten minutes. A substantial difference (p=0.03) was seen in the increase of hardness between the treatment groups. Conclusion: Immersion in cow and soy formula milk for five and ten minutes does not reduce the enamel roughness, but it increases the enamel hardness.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 87-91; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v54.i2.p87-91
Background: Tooth discoloration can be treated with tooth bleaching. Bleaching using 40% hydrogen peroxide can reduce the shear bond strength of resin composite because there are free radicals on the tooth surface, so it can delay the restoration. The application of antioxidants can eliminate free radicals after the bleaching procedure and increase the shear bond strength of the composite resin. The common antioxidants are ascorbic acid and natural ingredients, such as pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Purpose: To determine the effect of pomegranate extract gel on the shear bond strength of composite resin after 40% hydrogen peroxide bleaching application. Methods: This research used 32 maxillary first premolars that were divided into four groups. The samples were bleached, then the labial was prepared and antioxidant gel was applied: group P1 pomegranate gel extract of 5%, group P2 pomegranate gel extract of 10%, group K1 positive control ascorbic acid gel of 10% and group K2 as the negative control. The samples were restored with a nanohybrid composite resin. The shear bond strength was tested using a universal testing machine. The data were tested using a one-way ANOVA followed by a post-hoc LSD test. Results: The pomegranate gel extract increased the shear bond strength of the composite resin after the bleaching procedure of 40% hydrogen peroxide compared with the ascorbic acid gel group and the negative control group. The one-way ANOVA test showed a significant difference (p<0.05). The post-hoc LSD test showed significant differences between the treatment and negative control groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: The pomegranate gel extract as an antioxidant increased the shear bond strength of the composite resin restoration after the 40% hydrogen peroxide bleaching application.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 74-77; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v54.i2.p74-77
Background: Patients with mandible deviation often have idiopathic scoliosis, which might affect the result of orthodontic and orthopaedic treatment. Orthodontic treatment not only focuses on aesthetic and functional but also orthopaedic stability. A thorough examination is needed to obtain orthopaedic stability by evaluating the occlusion and posture to establish the best strategy of treatment and interdisciplinary approach. Purpose: This study was conducted to assess the correlation between mandible deviation and idiopathic scoliosis. Methods: This is a descriptive-analytic study with a cross-sectional approach. From 60 samples, 35 patients were chosen based on the inclusion criteria of the total sampling technique. Patients were referred to have skull posteroanterior (PA) and a thoracolumbar PA radiograph taken. Skull PA radiographs were analysed with Grummon’s method using the Orthovision program. Cobb’s angle analysis was used by the radiologist to analyse the thoracolumbar PA radiographs. The data gathered was then further analysed using the Spearman test and the Crosstabs test, using SPSS 23.0. Results: Correlation between mandible deviation and the severity of idiopathic scoliosis is not significant (p=0.866). The direction prevalence of mandible deviation towards Cobb’s angle is 54.3% to the right and 45.7% to the left. All patients with mandible deviation have Cobb’s angle. Conclusion: There is no correlation between mandible deviation and the severity of idiopathic scoliosis. However, many cases showed that the direction of mandible deviation and of idiopathic scoliosis is the same.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 68-73; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v54.i2.p68-73
Background: Bone regeneration studies involving the use of chitosan–hydroxyapatite (Ch-HA) scaffold seeded with human amnion mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) have largely incorporated tissue engineering experiments. However, at the time of writing, the results of such investigations remain unclear. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the osteogenic differentiation of the scaffold Ch-HA that is seeded with hAMSCs in the regeneration of calvaria bone defect. Methods: Ch-HA scaffold of 5 mm diameter and 2 mm height was created by lyophilisation and desalination method. hAMSCs were cultured in hypoxia environment (5% oxygen, 10% carbon dioxide, 15% nitrogen) and seeded on the scaffold. Twenty male Wistar rat subjects (8 – 10 weeks, 200 - 250 grams) were randomly divided into two groups: control and hydroxyapatite scaffold (HAS). Defects (similar size to scaffold size) were created in the calvaria bone of the all-group subjects, but a scaffold was subsequently implanted only in the treatment group members. Control group left without treatment. After observation lasting 1 and 8 weeks, the subjects were examined histologically and immunohistochemically. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA test. Results: Angiogenesis; expression of vascular endothelial growth factor; bone morphogenetic protein; RunX-2; alkaline phosphatase; type-1 collagen; osteocalcin and the area of new trabecular bone were all significantly greater in the HAS group compared to the control group. Conclusion: The three-dimensional Ch-HA scaffold seeded with hypoxic hAMSCs induced bone remodeling in calvaria defect according to the expression of the osteogenic and angiogenic marker.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 54, pp 63-67; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v54.i2.p63-67
Background: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that occurs in periodontal tissues. Porphyromonas gingivalis is also known as a bacterium commonly associated with the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Tetracycline is one of the antibiotics often used in periodontal tissue treatment. Propolis and Moringa oleifera are also known to have certain compounds assumed to be able to inhibit biofilm growth. Purpose: This study aims to understand the effectiveness of the combination of Moringa oleifera and propolis on porphyomonas gingivalis biofilms compared to 0.7% tetracycline. Methods: A biofilm inhibition activity test was performed using the broth micro dilution method. First, bacteria were prepared by making a suspension in brain heart infusion media and adjusting it to 0.5 McFarland I standard. Second, fifteen samples were divided into five groups; group K as control group (0.1% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose), T (0.7% tetracycline), and treatment groups with the combination of propolis and Moringa oleifera in various concentrations, such as P1(10%+20%), P2(10%+40%), and P3(10%+80%). Third, the result data obtained in the form of optical density (OD) was read by using an ELISA reader. Next, statistical analysis using analysis of the variance test was conducted (p<0.05. Results: There was no significant difference between group T and group P1 (0.075). Nevertheless, there were significant differences between group T and group P2 as well as between group T and group P3 (0.00) (p=< 0.05). Conclusion: The combination of 10% propolis and 40% Moringa oleifera as well as the combination of 10% propolis and 80% Moringa oleifera have better antibacterial effectiveness against Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilm than 0.7% tetracycline.