Advances in Infectious Diseases

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2164-2648 / 2164-2656
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 248
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Murakami Kiyotaka, Adachi Kazuhide, Damajanti Soejoedono Retno, Handharyani Ekowati, Tsukamoto Yasuhiro, Kiyotaka Murakami, Kazuhide Adachi, Retno Damajanti Soejoedono, Ekowati Handharyani, Yasuhiro Tsukamoto
Advances in Infectious Diseases, Volume 10, pp 1-10; doi:10.4236/aid.2020.101001

Abstract:
In recent years, effective microorganisms (EMs) have been administered to humans and domestic animals, and their usefulness has been recognized for promoting health and enhancing immunity. For example, the preventative effects against flu are enhanced by ingestion of Lactobacillus by humans, and symptom relief of atopic dermatitis has been reported, with EMs actually used in commercial products. In addition, EM preparations are being used in livestock to prevent infections (e.g. Salmonella and Escherichia coli infection). In poultry, avian influenza and Newcastle disease are terrible and fatal infectious diseases that cause significant economic damage. Furthermore, countries designated as contaminated with these pathogens can experience major trade problems. Given the above, how to protect livestock from infections safely and at low cost without using disinfectants, antibiotics and vaccines is a major issue. In the present study, we examined whether or not Newcastle disease could be suppressed by feeding chickens BX-1 as an EM feed. A field strain of Newcastle virus was cloned from cloaca swabs of large numbers of dying chickens in a poultry farm in Indonesia by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and hemaggregation assays. Chicken kidney cells and embryonated eggs were highly sensitive to this virus, and high titers of virus were able to be collected. The experimental viral inoculated to chickens showed a high mortality rate, with high pathogenicity in birds. Conventional chickens were also raised on a diet supplemented with BX-1 and directly infected with the Newcastle virus. The mortality was decreased in these infected birds. Even the low dose of BX-1 had an inhibitory effect on the lethality of the infection. These results suggest that BX-1 intake through an EM diet is effective in controlling Newcastle disease.
Abu Hena Mostafa Kamal, Pranab Karmaker, Wahida Khatun, Arup Kumar Saha, Latifur Rahman, Parvez Hassan
Advances in Infectious Diseases, Volume 10, pp 11-25; doi:10.4236/aid.2020.101002

Abstract:
Background: Sepsis was a life-threatening situation affecting roughly 27 million individuals globally every year. Devoid of proper management, sepsis could develop to austere sepsis and septic shock that reason certain eight million expiries every year. Initial identification and analysis of contaminations and quick introductions of antimicrobial management had long been predictable as essential principles of treatment. Methods: All patients were evaluated thoroughly by history, clinical and laboratory findings. Serum lactate levels were collected at 0 hr and 24 hrs of the total admission in the ICU. Blood culture and sensitivity was performed prior to antibiotic administration in this study. Results: In this research, total sample was 1367 patients. Among these sepsis patients were 305 (nearly 22%). These 305 studied sepsis cases, majority 128 (42%) of the patients were within the age group of 41 - 65 years, followed by 18 - 30 years consisting of 116 (38%) and the least number of sepsis patients were in the age group of >65 years (20%). This study found that 129 (42.3%) out of 305 blood samples screened from assumed sepsis infection were affirmative for the presence of sepsis causing pathogens. Among the 129 culture positive samples, majority of the isolated micro-organisms were gram negative bacteria 58% (75), followed by gram positive bacteria 38% (49), and 3.8% (5) were the fungi Candida albicans. Conclusion: At present, mortality & morbidity of sepsis subject was too big due to late identification, wrong & inadequate management of sepsis in the ward and also in the intensive care unit of Bangladesh.
Francisco E. Finamor, Luciana P. Finamor, Frederico J. N. Mancuso, Jaquelina S. Ota-Arakaki, Marcelo R. S. Moraes, Cristina Muccioli, Nancy Bellei
Advances in Infectious Diseases, Volume 10, pp 160-167; doi:10.4236/aid.2020.103016

Abstract:
Neuro-endocrinological manifestations rarely are described in cases of SARS- CoV-2. We describe a case of a previously hypertensive patient who presented COVID-19 and developed refractory arterial hypotension. In the investigation, low levels of ACTH and cortisol were observed, suggesting secondary adrenal insufficiency as the cause of refractory hypotension.
Emelda E. Chukwu, Francisca O. Nwaokorie
Advances in Infectious Diseases, Volume 10, pp 64-75; doi:10.4236/aid.2020.102006

Abstract:
Background: Listeriosis affects immunosuppressed individual’s especially pregnant women. Maternal infections are usually mild for the woman, but may have devastating effects on the unborn child, including miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm labour and serious neonatal illness. WHO recommends that pregnant women should be educated to avoid foods with high risk of contamination. This study seeks to evaluate knowledge and practices predisposing to listeria infections during pregnancy. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study on pregnant women, attending the antenatal clinic of Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) using semi structured questionnaires. The knowledge score of participants was collated and analyzed using SPSS version 26. Results: The mean age of the participants was 32.07 ± 5.6 years. Forty-three (30.7%) women have had previous miscarriages with the mean no of miscarriage of 1.54. Out of 147 participants, only 20 (13.6%) admitted having heard of listeriosis while 127 (86.4%) had never heard of listeriosis and none of the participants has ever been tested for listeriosis. The Overall knowledge score was poor, and this was irrespective of age and duration of pregnancy. However, women with graduate and/or postgraduate degrees were more likely to have heard of Listeriosis (X2 = 10.88, P = 0.028). Conclusion: Our study shows a low level of knowledge about this food-borne illness, which can lead to severe illnesses in pregnant women and their unborn child. It is necessarily to educate pregnant women on the risk of listeriosis. This would be a key factor in creating and implementing accurate measures of prevention and control.
Iraj Salehi-Abari, Shabnam Khazaeli
Advances in Infectious Diseases, Volume 10, pp 123-128; doi:10.4236/aid.2020.103012

Abstract:
The new Coronavirus disease or COVID-19 is a contagious viral/immunological systemic disorder with predominantly respiratory features caused by human infection with SARS-CoV-2, which is rapidly spreading from person-to-person all around the world as a pandemic. As long as there is no effective vaccine available to prevent this disease and no definitive treatment is provided to cure it, it is better to prevent this disease by following a series of principles, which are: home quarantine of asymptomatic to mild COVID-19 patients and hospitalization of severe cases, physical distancing, staying at home, handwashing, cleaning and disinfecting high-touch surfaces, face-mask using, cough and sneeze covering, healthy nutritious diet along with the routine life activities and daily exercise, video communication by phone/online with family, and finally practice to relieve stress/anxiety.
Iraj Salehi-Abari, Shabnam Khazaeli
Advances in Infectious Diseases, Volume 10, pp 168-174; doi:10.4236/aid.2020.103017

Abstract:
COVID-19 is a new contagious, deadly viral/immunological systemic disorder with predominantly respiratory features caused by human infection with SARS-CoV-2, which is rapidly spreading from person-to-person all around the world as a pandemic, whereas, Allergic Rhinitis is an old non-contagious, non-deadly, and non-viral disorder with nasal inflammation which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens. Mild to moderate COVID-19 can be mistaken with Allergic Rhinitis. Fever, dry cough, dyspnea, fatigue, body ache, anosmia, and lack of taste are the cardinal feature of COVID-19, whereas runny nose, stuffy nose, sneezing, postnasal discharge, itchy eyes, and itchy skin are the cardinal feature of Allergic Rhinitis. Some of the cardinal feature of COVID-19 can be accessory feature of Allergic Rhinitis and vice versa. These two diseases are usually distinguishable by an expert physician. At the same time, an inexperienced physician will easily confuse them. The known cases of Allergic Rhinitis have allergies in this spring or year similar to previous years, not COVID-19, unless this time the symptoms are sudden, new, or more severe, and with previous conventional allergy treatment; don’t give up and get even worse. In fact, the mission of this article is to provide the easiest way to differentiate these two diseases. In the SARS-CoV-2 epidemics in the Red zones, when we cannot differentiate these two diseases; Allergic Rhinitis should be discarded in favor of COVID-19.
Reaz Uddin Chowdhury, Shanzida Akter Kazi, Muhammad Zahangir Alam, Anwarul Kabir Muhammad, Islam Bhuiyan Sahedul, Akram Arifa, Rahman Sohel, Kazi Shanzida Akter, Muhammad Anwarul Kabir, Sahedul Islam Bhuiyan, et al.
Advances in Infectious Diseases, Volume 10, pp 101-109; doi:10.4236/aid.2020.103010

Abstract:
Background: Since 2019, the pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread very rapidly in China and Worldwide. COVID-19 is a highly contagious, infectious and rapidly spreading viral disease with an alarming case fatality rate up to 5%. Case Report: In this article, we report a case of 60 years old non diabetic, hypertensive woman infected with COVID-19 who has end stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis for last 18 months. COVID-19 patients with ESRD need isolation dialysis but most of them cannot be handled properly due to limited hemodialysis machine. With these unavailability and risk, we continue the treatment along with hemodialysis for controlling uraemia and fluid balance. With all effort this patient ended with an uneventful course with clinical improvement, improvement of all laboratory parameters and resolution of radiological findings but follow up RT-PCR cannot done due to changing guideline of discharge criteria of COVID-19 patient in Bangladesh. He positively responded to meropenem, clarithromycin, favipiravir, thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin along with supplemental oxygen therapy. After that she was discharged with an advice of 14 days home isolation with regular hemodialysis and a follow up visit after 14 days in the outpatient department. Conclusion: An ESRD patient on regular hemodialysis suffering from severe pneumonia has high risk of mortality. Combined effort from the health care workers are needed to decrease the mortality of COVID-19 infected ESRD patients.
Lucy Idoko, Kingsley C. Okafor, Gift M. Amlabu, Chidindu N. Idika, Blessing E. Oguche
Advances in Infectious Diseases, Volume 10, pp 90-110; doi:10.4236/aid.2020.102008

Abstract:
Introduction: Malaria control becomes effective if countries adopt the World Health Organization & Global Malaria Programme (WHO/GMP) recommendation with includes diagnosis of malaria cases and treatment with effective medicines, distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). Ownership and utilization of mosquito nets for malaria prevention is still sub-optimal with only 62% ownership of at least one mosquito net and only 37% of children using the nets. This seeks to investigate the willingness to buy and the use ITN use among caregivers of under five children attending immunization clinic in Bingham University Teaching Hospital. Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study design carried out among 242 caregivers of all ages and sex of under-five children attending immunization clinic at Bingham University Teaching Hospital (BHUTH) in Jos North Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. A Simple Random Sampling technique was used to select respondents. Findings: Two hundred and sixteen 216 (89.3%) of the children use ITNs, majority of the children 190 (78.5%) slept under ITN the night before the interview, 226 (93.4%) owned ITNs, 156 (64.5%) got the ITNs for free while 60 (24.8%) paid for it and majority 172 (71.1%) of the children use ITN every night. Tertiary education, having much younger children (less than 3 years) and perception as a means of malaria prevention were associated with higher use of ITNs. Majority 220 (90.9%) the caregivers were willing to buy ITN and also recommend ITN to others. Caregivers who were traders and civil servants were willing to buy ITN than farmers, tertiary education, having children 1 - 3 months old, and owning 3 or more ITNs was associated with willingness to buy ITNs. Conclusion: About 90% of the children of caregivers use ITNs and over three quarters slept under ITN the night before the interview and majority use it every night. Majority the caregivers were willing to buy ITN and also recommend ITN to others. The government and health care workers should continue to encourage and enlighten caregivers to keep using ITNs for their children and sustain mass free distribution of ITNs to improve ownership and utilization of ITNs.
Zameer Shervani, Intazam Khan, Umair Yaqub Qazi
Advances in Infectious Diseases, Volume 10, pp 56-66; doi:10.4236/aid.2020.103007

Abstract:
The novel coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2) delayed the Tokyo 2020 Games. The traveling by air, rail, road, and sea inside and outside the countries has stopped to contain the virus. The amount of money lost and assistance needed to reschedule and conduct the Games in 2021 have been estimated. With more than one billion population is under the semi-locked down and movement of people is restricted, athletes cannot prepare at home and participate in the Games. The COVID-19 outbreak has spread around the world; it has already infected 5.7 million people and caused 355,000 deaths reported on May 28, 2020 and the figures increasing every day. The publication of this article is important as the postponement of the Olympics has costed Japan $6 billion and the organizers have worked very hard for seven years. If the Games are conducted in 2021, it will be the—beginning of the world recovery—from big COVID-19 pandemic. In this communication, the development in testing, treatment, and vaccine preparation for SARS-Cov-2 have occurred so far in different countries and companies have been discussed to know the possibilities if the pandemic can be overcome and the Games can be conducted in 2021.
Mariana Silva Nunes, Gustavo Tedde-Filho, João Carlos Geber-Júnior, Willian Darwin Júnior, Viviane Uliane Peterle, Ana Paula Monteiro Gomides
Advances in Infectious Diseases, Volume 10, pp 176-180; doi:10.4236/aid.2020.104015

Abstract:
Introduction: The Rheumatic Fever (RF) is a systemic inflammatory disease, caused by Group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, predominating in children and adolescents. The clinical manifestations are varied and included in Jones Criteria for diagnosis. The cardiac manifestations are the most relevant, causing severe sequelae such as valvulitis. The RF is still a major public health problem in developing countries despite its primary prophylaxis being simple and effective if well applied. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the number of hospital admissions and deaths in Brazil from 2008 to 2018. Methodology: Cross-sectional, descriptive, quantitative, documentary study with database provided by the Health Informatics Department of the Brazilian Ministry of Health (DATASUS). Results: In the studied period, a higher prevalence was observed among females (48,232 hospitalizations) and in the adult age group (59,270 hospitalizations and 3972 deaths). The total number of hospitalizations was 83,209 and the total number of deaths was 6572. The total mortality rate was 7.84. The region with the highest number of hospitalizations was the Southeast (22,863 hospitalizations). The total amount spent in hospitalizations was R$879,676,458.63, with an average value per hospitalization of R$ 10,496.21. The average length of stay was 12.7 days. Conclusion: Rheumatic heart disease is an important cause of hospitalizations in Brazil. Measures of early diagnosis and adequate treatment should be strongly stimulated.
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