Advances in Infectious Diseases

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2164-2648 / 2164-2656
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 340
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Lúcia Ribeiro Dias, Catarina Almeida, Fernando Nogueira, Rita Soares, Sofia Garcês Soares, Maria Lima Costa, Maria Teresa Boncoraglio, Filipa Ceia
Advances in Infectious Diseases, Volume 12, pp 563-567; https://doi.org/10.4236/aid.2022.123041

Abstract:
A 74-year-old man with terminal chronic kidney disease, under hemodialysis and with residual diuresis, was admitted due to myalgia, arthralgia, fever and pyuria in the previous 10 days. The patient had a recent diagnosis of high-grade non-invasive bladder cancer and was doing weekly BCG intravesical administrations. The symptoms started three days before the fifth administration. He had done cefixime as an outpatient and started piperacillin-tazobactam on hospital admission, but the fever persisted, and there was no bacterial isolation in urine or blood culture. On the tenth and seventeenth day after the last BCG intravesical administration Mycobacterium bovis was still isolated in the urine culture. The diagnosis of BCGitis was made and treatment was started, with a good response. Forty days after the last administration and under treatment, the culture remained positive for Mycobacterium bovis in the urine. We raise the question about the safety of BCG administration in patients with residual diuresis.
Tokponnon Tatchémè Filémon, Ossè Razaki, Arthur Sovi, Wakpo Abel, Hounto Ogouyémi Aurore, Sissinto Yolande, Adechoubou Alioun, Houansou Télesphore, Oke Mariam, Kinde-Gazard Dorothée, et al.
Advances in Infectious Diseases, Volume 12, pp 57-73; https://doi.org/10.4236/aid.2022.121005

Abstract:
Context: The resistance to pyrethroids in malaria vectors continues to grow in Africa and could therefore compromise or reduce substantially the effectiveness of LLINs in preventing malaria. It is therefore of paramount importance to evaluate the protective efficacy of LLINs in children sleeping in areas of vector resistance to insecticides in order to draw lessons for future interventions. This study assesses the effect of the use of LLINs on malaria morbidity in clusters of low and high resistance of vectors to pyrethroids. Methods: This is a cross-sectional case-control study with one control for one case that was conducted in the communes of Kétou, Ifangni, Kétou, and Pobè in the Plateau department of southern Benin. The use of LLINs and malaria morbidity was measured and compared in children from clusters of low and high vector resistance to insecticides. In each commune, 30 cases and 30 controls were recruited for a total of 240 children under 5 years of age from villages with low and high insecticide resistance. Results: According to the localities of origin of the children, of all parents of children surveyed, 169 (70.4%) asserted the children slept under an LLIN the day before they arrived at the health center. This rate represents 70.8% (85 children) among the cases and 70.0% (84 children) among the controls without significant difference (p = 0.8). The use of LLINs the day before the survey, the frequency of their use during the two weeks preceding the day of the survey, their availability at the household level, the use of other tools for protection against mosquito bites are the same in the two groups of children (cases and controls) (p > 0.05) as well in low and high resistance villages. On the other hand, the parasite prevalence, the splenomegaly and the geometric means of the parasite densities, are significantly higher in the cases than in the controls (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The evaluation of epidemiological indicators in children under five years old at the level of health centers did not enable demonstrating the impact of resistance on the operational effectiveness of the LLINs. The information collected within the four health facilities only reflects the situation that should normally be seen in the population under the real conditions of use of LLINs in high and low resistance areas.
Senyo Tagboto
Advances in Infectious Diseases, Volume 12, pp 128-136; https://doi.org/10.4236/aid.2022.121011

Abstract:
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection typically presents with respiratory symptoms. Additionally, there are a number of less frequent neurological manifestations of infection with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with case reports suggesting an association with the Guillain-Barre syndrome. Most patients present with the typical upper respiratory symptoms in association with these neurological symptoms. We present a case of an unvaccinated gentleman with none of the typical respiratory symptoms of COVID-19 who presented with the Guillain Barre syndrome and myalgia. His symptoms settled following treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins. This case highlights the importance of testing for COVID-19 in patients without typical symptoms but who present with neurological illness and supports the use of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.
Wetstein Pace, Holloway Adrian, Garber Nan, Patel Ripal
Advances in Infectious Diseases, Volume 12, pp 74-79; https://doi.org/10.4236/aid.2022.121006

Abstract:
Paenibacillus is a spore forming gram positive rod that is usually found in the environment. We describe a case of a patient who contracted this organism having never left the hospital after birth. This neonate contracted Paenibacillus septic shock requiring support with venous-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) while still admitted to the hospital after birth. This patient initially presented in severe septic shock due to a Streptococcus agalactiae infection requiring hemodynamic support with ECMO. Following treatment for the Streptococcus agalactiae infection, and while still on ECMO support, the blood culture became positive for Paenibacillus. Given that our patient had never left the hospital after birth, the finding of this organism in the blood is unique. The primary defense against this bacterium is usually the skin. The only invasive procedure this patient had was ECMO cannulation which is done in a sterile fashion. Most species are susceptible to vancomycin, clindamycin, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, carbapenems, penicillin, and cephalosporins. This patient was treated with penicillin G for 14 days for the S. agalactiae infection prior to the blood culture being positive for Paenibacillus. More than a hundred species had been identified in the genus Paenibacillus, however, few found to cause human infection. This case is unique as it is the first pediatric case with a Paenibacillus infection and the first pediatric case where this organism which rarely causes human infection was found in the blood culture of a patient on ECMO.
Mohammed Suleiman Zaroog, Dalal Altag Abdalaaty, Asad Adam Abbas, Nassir Abakar Babiker, Alia Mirghani Ahmed, Waddah Aljaely Mohammed
Advances in Infectious Diseases, Volume 12, pp 241-251; https://doi.org/10.4236/aid.2022.122021

Abstract:
Background: Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) SARS-CoV-2 assay remains the common test used to detect the coronavirus infection worldwide. Complete blood count (CBC) is a rapid and cost-effective test compared to RT-PCR, thus, it would be worthy to find a hematological indicator for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Objectives: This study aims to assess the efficacy of CBC indices as an initial diagnostic test for coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infection, which might be helpful during the outbreak of the disease. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, hospital based and case control study was carried out at Gezira isolation center for COVID-19, Gezira State, Sudan in the period from January to May 2021. A total of 178 COVID-19 patients with positive RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 assay result and another 178 volunteers of apparently healthy people were included in this study. CBC as well as D-dimer and C-reactive protein (CRP) were recorded from patient’s file and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) were calculated. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20. Results: Neutrophil percentage, total white blood cells (TWBCs) and platelet (PLT) were higher in the COVID-19 patients compared to their control, whereas, lymphocyte and monocyte showed lower percentages among the COVID-19 patients. Although the differences that observed in the means of PLT, neutrophils and monocytes between the case and control group were significant, all these mean values of both groups were lying within the normal range. On the other hand, there was a highly significant elevation in NLR and PLR and quite good increasing in LMR level among COVID-19 patients compared to their control. The results of receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis showed that the area under the curve of NLR, PLR and LMR were 0.948 (P. value = 0.00, 95% CI: 0.925 - 0.972), 0.925 (P. value = 0.00, 95% CI: 0.896 - 0.954) and 0.643 (P. value = 0.00, 95% CI: 0.584 - 0.702), respectively, suggesting the efficacy of using these tests as diagnostic tests for COVID-19 infection. D-dimer and CRP level were highly elevated in COVID-19 patients with significant differences compared to control group. Recommendation: The study recommends using NLR, PLR and LMR as rapid initial diagnostic test for SARS-CoV-2 infection in the area/time of disease spread out.
Inessa Nazaryan, Shahane Mnatsakanyan, Narek Pepanyan
Advances in Infectious Diseases, Volume 12, pp 337-346; https://doi.org/10.4236/aid.2022.122027

Abstract:
Background: In December 2019 in Wuhan China the new coronavirus outbreak emerged and quickly spread in all parts of the world resulting to more than 500,000,000 infection cases and around 6,200,000 deaths. The global incidence of the infection is still growing as well as number of deaths. COVID-19 is a new virus, therefore not much is known about the immune response of infected organism, which is crucial not only for vaccination policy development, but also for identification of public health strategies. Aim: Current research aims to describe COVID-19 IgG levels depending on symptoms, antibiotic and antiviral medications intake history, existing chronic condition and smoking status during March-December of 2020 in Armenia. Furthermore, the study aims to help elucidate the fraction of asymptomatic or presymptomatic/sub- clinical infections in the population and understand the main risk factors for infection complication. Methodology: The cross-sectional study with convenience sampling of individuals who turned to “EcoSense” laboratories to be tested for COVID-19 IgG were examined. The NovaTec SARS-CoC-2 (COVID-19) IgG COVG940 96 Determinations ELISA test kits were used. The questionnaire was filled regarding the COVID-19 status, symptoms, exposure history, disease history, pre-existing chronic conditions, medication and vaccination history. The descriptive as well as multivariate analysis was performed. Results: Overall 1573 testing was performed 837 of subjects agreed to participate in the interview. 24.1% of participants had laboratory confirmed COVID-19 but by the time of interview were already recovered. 212 (25.3%) participants had positive IgG levels, among 126 (15.1%) participants IgG levels were in the grey zone. Out of PCR confirmed cases only 58.7% had positive IgG levels and 3.9% IgG level was in the grey zone. Headache was the most common symptom among participants (37.2% among all participants and 53.1% among participants who previously had positive COVID-19 PCR test). The second most common symptom was anosmia (23.7% among all participants and 48.9% among participants who previously had positive COVID-19 PCR test). 5.4% of participants mentioned previous hospitalization due to COVID-19, 71 (8.5%) mentioned being diagnosed with pneumonia and 24 (2.9%) participants mentioned being admitted to ICU, 20 (2.4%) mentioned receiving oxygen therapy and 4 (0.5%) of the participants mentioned receiving an artificial ventilation of lungs. There was a weak correlation between symptom sum score and IgG titers. The Correlation coefficient was 0.273, p 2 = 0.075. The linear regression analysis was also performed. The obtained results indicate that the number of symptoms patients have is a significant predictor for IgG level F(1, 711) = 57.45, P 2 = 0.075. Conclusions: Our study reviled that around half of PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients do not have positive titer for IgG, most importantly the number of symptoms is a weak predictor for IgG levels, which contradicts the existing misassumption regarding severity of clinical manifestation of COVID-19 and post-infection immunity.
Hark Joon Lee, Richard Kang, Michelle Kim, Justin Kong, Woo Jun Shim, Kunmin Kim, Paul S. Chung
Advances in Infectious Diseases, Volume 12, pp 298-311; https://doi.org/10.4236/aid.2022.122024

Abstract:
The Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel type of coronavirus-related disease that has over 4 million confirmed cases worldwide as of May 13th, 2020. With over 200 countries impacted by the pandemic, many countries have taken drastic measures such as temporary closure of international borders. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the South Korean response to COVID-19 and the keys to successful containment of the disease. Real time analysis was performed on data provided by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Comparisons of disease containment among countries with the highest confirmed cases were normalized for population size differences by taking the proportion of confirmed cases to population size. We further compared the disease outbreak in Seoul, a very urban environment, to the whole country of South Korea, to compare public health in urban and rural environments. We found that the efficient partnership between the private sector and the state led to rapid development in testing kits, which was integral to the South Korean response to COVID-19. In addition, the South Koreans’ community spirit, approval of government-led interventions, and societal norm of wearing masks were also efficient social responses to the spreading disease. In this paper, we navigate the impacts of a universal healthcare system and its ability to battle infectious diseases and the efficacy of various governmental actions in response to a public health crisis.
Hafizah Pasi, Nor Azam Kamaruzaman, Nadzirah Ahmad Basri, Nur Hakimah A. Manan, Hashima E. Nasreen
Advances in Infectious Diseases, Volume 12, pp 383-391; https://doi.org/10.4236/aid.2022.123030

Abstract:
Introduction: Currently, own individual perception is recognized as one of the important factors in the prevention of disease, including coronavirus disease, COVID-19. Given the massive impact of COVID-19 on all population’s life, including nurses as one of the main health services providers in the country, this study aims to translate and validate the Malay Version 5-Items Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, BIP-Q5 towards COVID-19 among Malaysian nurses. Materials and Methods: Forward and backward translations and pretesting of the BIP-Q5 to Malay were conducted among nurses, subject matter experts, and language professionals. The validations process was elicited through an online cross-sectional study involving 56 nurses based on a ~10:1 subject-to-items ratio sample size estimations. Results: The principal component analysis (PCA) revealed one best component with eigenvalues more than one, confirming the questionnaire’s original version. There are five items within the single component, and all are with weightage of over 43%. The scree plot supported the findings, which showed that at least one factors are suitable to be retained. The overall Cronbach’s α coefficient was 0.7 and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.659. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin was 0.655, and Bartlett’s test of sphericity p-value was <0.001. Conclusion: This study showed that the translated Malay Version 5-Items Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, BIP-Q5 has a good psychometric property, and is a valid and reliable tool to be used to measure illness perceptions towards COVID-19 among Malaysian nurses.
Steward Mudenda, Kennedy Mwila, Christabel Nang’Andu Hikaambo, Victor Daka, Godfrey Mayoka, Maisa Kasanga, Michelo Banda, Moses Mukosha, Ruth Lindizyani Mfune, Martin Kampamba, et al.
Advances in Infectious Diseases, Volume 12, pp 496-517; https://doi.org/10.4236/aid.2022.123037

Abstract:
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused many global challenges, especially in resource-constrained countries. Africa, a continent with a large number of low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), shares this burden disproportionately compared to developed countries. Here we review some of the major challenges African countries face in the fight against COVID-19 and propose some mitigation measures. Studies have reported low adherence to COVID-19 prevention measures in most African countries. Additionally, there has been a shortage of healthcare workers, inadequate surveillance and diagnostic tools, unavailability of drugs in healthcare facilities, increased wrong beliefs, myths, misinformation and misconceptions about COVID-19 and vaccinations, and an already existing burden of infectious and non-infectious diseases across the African continent. Despite being very challenging to implement across African countries, telehealth is a critical solution to offer healthcare services during disease outbreaks. Many African countries have faced challenges in the fight against COVID-19. The training of healthcare workers (HCWs) must be strengthened to help address the shortage. In addition, African countries should strive to invest in research and capacity-building to be self-reliant regarding diagnostic tests. Thus, there is an urgent need to address the challenges faced by African countries in this fight, which may even include increased collaborations with other countries.
Afolabi Segun Olomu, Ubom Gregory Abraham, Gazuwa Yusuf Samuel, Johnson Titilayo, Okolo Selina Nnuaku
Advances in Infectious Diseases, Volume 12, pp 118-127; https://doi.org/10.4236/aid.2022.121010

Abstract:
Background: Nigeria is currently a malaria endemic country with an estimated 76% of her population at risk of contracting malaria [1]. According to a study in Nigeria, the first line of action mothers took when their children under 5 years have malaria showed that over 50% of them used non-prescription drugs they have at home or bought from pharmacy stores. And 60% of the most commonly used drugs for malaria treatment were chloroquine [2]. Many recent studies have demonstrated re-emergence of chloroquine-sensitive P. falciparum, suggesting a possible role in future malaria control [3]. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of home-based oral chloroquine treatment among children under 5 years with Plasmodium falciparum malaria attending Jos University Teaching Hospital and OLA Hospital in Jos Metropolis. Method: This is a cross-sectional study of 93 malaria and non-malaria children. Malaria diagnosis was carried out using microscopical examination of Leishman’s stained thick and thin blood films, P. falciparum parasitemia was assessed by standard microscopy techniques and complete blood count was done using Beckman Coulter Analyzer. Results: The body temperature on admission was significantly lower (p ˚C ± 0.07˚C) than in the three malaria groups. The mean body temperature of chloroquine treated children with malaria was significantly lower (p Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia and degree of anemia in children under 5 years with Plasmodium falciparum in Jos Metropolis.
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