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ISSN / EISSN : 0024-4201 / 1558-9307
Published by: Wiley-Blackwell (10.1002)
Total articles ≅ 8,718
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Amal A. Aqul, Charina M. Ramirez, Adam M. Lopez, Dennis K. Burns, Joyce J. Repa,
Published: 7 October 2021
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Susana P. Alves, Payam Vahmani, Cletos Mapiye, Tim A. McAllister, ,
Published: 4 October 2021
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Keita Ochiai, Rina Hirooka, Masayoshi Sakaino, Shigeo Takeuchi,
Published: 17 September 2021
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Published: 31 August 2021
Abstract:
Phosphatidylcholine:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferases (PDCT) regulate the fatty acid composition of seed oil (triacylglycerol, TAG) by interconversion of diacylglycerols (DAG) and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho). PtdCho is the substrate for polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis, as well as for a number of unusual fatty acids. By the action of PDCT, these fatty acids can be transferred into the DAG pool to be utilized in TAG biosynthesis by the action of acyl-CoA:DAG and phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferases. Despite its importance in regulating seed oil composition, biochemical characterization of PDCT enzymes has been lacking. We characterized Camelina sativa PDCT in microsomal preparations of a yeast strain expressing Camelina PDCT and lacking the capacity of producing TAG. Camelina PDCT was specific for PtdCho and the sn-1,2 enantiomer of DAG and could not utilize ceramide. The interconversion reaches equilibrium within 15 min of incubation, indicating that only distinct pools of DAG and PtdCho were available for exchange. However, the pool sizes of DAG and PtdCho involved in the exchange were not fixed but increased with the amount of exogenous DAG or PtdCho added. Camelina PDCT showed about the same selectivity for di-oleoyl, di-linoleoyl, and di-linolenoyl species in both PtdCho and DAG substrates, suggesting that no unidirectional transfer of particular unsaturated substrates occurred. Camelina PDCT had a good activity with erucoyl-DAG as a substrate despite low erucic acid levels in PtdCho in plant species accumulating a high amount of this fatty acid in the seed oil.
Elisabeth Koch, Carolin Hopmann, Laura‐Fabienne Fröhlich,
Published: 25 August 2021
Abstract:
Fetal bovine serum (FBS) has been used as a universal supplement in cell culture for more than six decades. This includes the investigation of lipid and lipid mediator formation and biology. Little is known about the (polyunsaturated) fatty acid composition and their oxidation products in FBS. Therefore, we analyzed six different FBS purchased from three different companies regarding their fatty acid and oxylipin concentrations. We found pronounced differences in the fatty acid concentrations. Even two batches of “standardized” FBS batches from one company showed drastic differences (e.g., for eicosapentaenoic acid 5 ± 1 μM vs. 11 ± 1 μM). Oxylipin concentrations also markedly differ between the FBS lots. The highest differences were found for 12-lipoxygenase products (e.g., 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid free 21–87 nM and total 58–108 nM), probably due to inconsistent serum generation procedures. Our results indicate that for cell culture studies dealing with lipid metabolism, researchers should carefully characterize their used FBS to ensure reliability and reproducibility of study outcomes.
Ai Takeyama, Asami Teramoto, Tianyu Wang, Takuya Hayashi, Yasutake Tanaka, Masao Sato,
Published: 19 August 2021
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