Tenside Surfactants Detergents

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ISSN / EISSN : 0932-3414 / 2195-8564
Published by: Walter de Gruyter GmbH (10.1515)
Total articles ≅ 4,995
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Ming Zhou, Xinyi Deng, Yiping Chen, Yaxiong Zhao, Ruifeng Ni, Jiangyu Huang
Published: 22 September 2022
Tenside Surfactants Detergents; https://doi.org/10.1515/tsd-2022-2445

Abstract:
In this study, three oligomeric cationic Gemini surfactants (Ⅲ1, Ⅲ2, and Ⅲ3) were prepared from different major raw materials, including long-chain alkyl amine (dodecyl amine, tetradecyl amine or cetyl amine), formic acid, formaldehyde, diethyl amine hydrochloride and epichlorohydrin. The synthesis conditions for one of the three surfactants, bis-[2-hydroxy-3-(N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecyl)propyl]dipropylammonium chloride (Ⅲ1), were optimised by orthogonal experiments. The optimum synthesis conditions were: molar ratio of intermediate Ⅱ to intermediate Ⅰ1 = 1.0:2.2, reaction temperature = 85 °C and reaction time = 16 h. The structures of the three prepared compounds were characterised by FTIR and 1H NMR. Their thermal properties were evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The Geminisurfactants prepared exhibited better surface active properties than conventional single chain cationic surfactants. With increasing carbon chain length from C12 to C16, both CMC and surface tension γCMC decreased, while the viscosity of the thickening solution prepared with the synthesised oligomeric cationic Gemini surfactants as the main component increased. The optimum thickening formula was: 2.0 wt% Ⅲ3 + 0.8 wt% sodium salicylate (NaSal) + 0.6 wt% KCl. The viscosity of the optimum thickening formulation was 190.4 mPa s. Gemini oligomeric cationic surfactants could be used as thickeners in the production of fracturing fluids, flooding agents and drilling fluids for oil and gas production in oil fields.
Samah M. El-Sayed, Samah S. Abdalla, Mohamed A. Abdel-Khalek
Published: 16 September 2022
Tenside Surfactants Detergents; https://doi.org/10.1515/tsd-2022-2435

Abstract:
Bacillus subtilis was used as a bio-surface modifier to improve the floatability of talc mineral (Mg3Si4O10(OH)2) in the talc ore. The surface behavior of chlorite mineral as the main associated gangue with talc mineral was studied in the presence of B. subtilis using zeta potential, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. The floatability of both minerals was investigated as a function of pH, contact time, and concentration of B. subtilis. The results showed that the zeta potential of the talc mineral was strongly influenced by the treatment with B. subtilis. The maximum separation efficiency of talc from chlorite was achieved at pH 4. A talc concentrate with 98% quality and about 95% recovery was prepared from a binary talc-chlorite mixture containing 85% talc under optimum conditions of 8 × 105 cells/mL B. subtilis, pH 4, 35°C, and a contact time of 10 min.
, Oxana Spinu
Published: 31 August 2022
Tenside Surfactants Detergents; https://doi.org/10.1515/tsd-2022-2473

Abstract:
A thermodynamic approach was developed to predict the precipitation conditions of surfactants using the solubility product relationship between surfactant monomer concentrations, in order to calculate the monomer-precipitate equilibrium. This approach provides an explicit equation which predicts the amount of solid phase which forms in any surfactant mixture. All calculations of the total change in Gibbs energy (ΔG) were performed for concentrations of both surfactants that were below their CMC values. The elaborated ΔG-pH diagrams offer the possibility to determine the areas of thermodynamic stability of the solid phases depending on the chemical composition and acidity of the studied system. It was shown that with increasing concentration of the surfactant and the metal ion, the range of precipitate formation, either as slightly soluble salt or as slightly soluble acid, was extended by a few pH units in all cases.
, Daria Monaenkova, Paul Mercando, Willian Heeschen
Published: 31 August 2022
Tenside Surfactants Detergents; https://doi.org/10.1515/tsd-2022-2465

Abstract:
Dow Home and Personal Care has developed a protocol using a custom imaging station and software suite to standardize data collection and automated analysis in automatic dishwashing. Previously, a panel rating based on ASTM D3556-14 was used to provide a score for filming and spotting on glassware. Progress has been made toward a standardized and semi-automated method utilizing a combination of a custom imaging station built in house, image analysis techniques, and a statistical model. The statistical model was built using a series of panel ratings from an array of glasses, giving computed ratings which agree closely with experimental scores assigned by human raters.
Jiang Yang, Xiaoyan Gao, Hailing Liu
Published: 15 August 2022
Tenside Surfactants Detergents; https://doi.org/10.1515/tsd-2022-2432

Abstract:
The environmentally friendly surfactant ethoxylated cardanol (EC) was investigated for dispersing copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) pigment nanoparticles into aqueous solution. The stability of the dispersion was investigated using UV-Vis spectra. The particle size was measured by optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The surface of the nanoparticles was characterised by measurements of the zeta potential and wettability. The coating application was investigated by incorporating CuPc blue pigment into resin and inorganic filler, and the colour strength of the coating film was compared. The results show that the EC can effectively wet and disperse the CuPc particles. The stabilisation of the particles is achieved by a steric mechanism in which the hydrophobic chains of the surfactant are adsorbed onto the surfaces of the CuPc nanoparticles and the ethylene oxide chains are dispersed in the aqueous phase. At EC concentrations greater than 0.1%, the CuPc nanoparticles appear to deagglomerate. The colour strength of CuPc nanoparticles present as dispersed pigment in resin can be increased in the presence of the EC surfactant.
Xin Li, Yang Chen, Yuqin Tian, Shuang Zheng, , Xia Feng, Cunhui Liu, Yichen Zhang, Jingyi Chen
Published: 12 August 2022
Tenside Surfactants Detergents; https://doi.org/10.1515/tsd-2022-2446

Abstract:
In this study, graphene oxide (GO) was prepared by the improved Hummers method, and a synergistically stabilized emulsion of GO and emulsifier was formulated. The best emulsion formula obtained by Response Surface Methodology consists of 1.39‰ GO, and 2.92‰ OP-10; the water-oil ratio is 4:6, achieving an emulsion index of 92.83%. The emulsion still maintained good stability under high temperature and high salt conditions, meeting the environmental requirements of medium and low permeability reservoirs. For injected water flooding, emulsion flooding could increase the oil recovery by 15.41%.
Yusriadi Yusriadi, Dian Ridayanti, Evi Sulastri, Nuur Aanisah
Published: 12 August 2022
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 59, pp 433-440; https://doi.org/10.1515/tsd-2022-2424

Abstract:
The objective of this study is to determine the effect of detergent tablets containing zeolite from rice husk ash as builder on chemical water quality and growth of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Water hyacinth is a plant that grows very readily in waters contaminated by detergent effluent, which can lead to eutrophication. Three detergent formulations were studied, differing only in their zeolite content: F1 (zeolite 15%), F2 (zeolite 20%) and F3 (zeolite 25%). The same formulations containing sodium tripolyphosphate (STTP) instead of zeolite were used for comparison: P1 (STTP 15%), P2 (STTP 20%) and P3 (STTP 25%). The effluents contained the respective formulations at five concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100)%. Water hyacinth growth was studied by plant wet weight, plant height, number of leaves and dry weight, and water chemical parameters were determined by chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solid (TSS) and pH value. The results of the plant growth studies showed that detergent formulations F1 and F2 and comparative detergent formulations P1 and P2 caused plant growth. The measurements of BOD, COD, TSS and pH showed that the detergent formulation with zeolite had a higher value than the formulation of the comparison detergent. The formulation with a zeolite concentration of 25% (F3) is recommended because it is the best formula that has a negative effect on plant growth compared to formulations F1 and F2. This is supported by chemical parameters among which the COD, BOD and pH values still meet the requirements of the quality standards for detergent waste water.
Yogita Pal, Suraj N. Mali,
Published: 12 August 2022
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 59, pp 441-449; https://doi.org/10.1515/tsd-2022-2450

Abstract:
Sophorolipid (SL) is a surface-active glycolipid biosurfactant with promising industrial applications. It is synthesised by fermentation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic substrates using selected non-pathogenic yeasts. However, its applications are limited by high production costs and ineffective product recovery in downstream purification stages. Natural sophorolipids are produced in six to nine different hydrophobic sophorosides, where the carboxyl end of the fatty acid is either free, which is known as the acidic or open form, or it can be esterified internally to produce the lactonic form. The present study deals with the screening and selection of suitable solvents for the extraction of acidic and lactonic SL from fermentation broth. The optimisation study involves exhaustive extraction with the six different immiscible solvents ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, methylene dichloride, methyl tert.-butyl ether, methyl iso-butyl ketone and methyl ethyl ketone. The partition coefficient (Kd), which is the ratio of the solute concentration in the organic layer compared to the aqueous layer, determines the performance measurement of the extraction process in terms of yield and purity of the desired solute. The factors that influence exhaustive extraction were the broth to solvent ratio and the extraction stages. The optimal extraction conditions for the highest possible yield were a broth to solvent ratio of 1:1 and a number of extraction steps of 2. Methylene dichloride showed better results in terms of yield and selectivity in the extraction of acidic and lactonic SL from the fermentation broth compared to the other solvents investigated. For lactonic SL, the highest Kd value determined was 36.6 and for acidic SL the highest Kd value was 1.14.
Anjali Ambalal Purohit, Dikshita Ullas Chavan, Shirleen Miriam Marques, Cleona Elizabeth Mary Dcruz, Lalit Kumar, Prashant Jivaji Bhide,
Published: 15 July 2022
Tenside Surfactants Detergents; https://doi.org/10.1515/tsd-2022-2442

Abstract:
Despite numerous remarkable developments in clinical therapy, the world remains firmly in the grip of fungal infections. While conventional approaches to antifungal therapy are failing, dermatophytes continue to affect people’s daily lives, especially in humid and tropical areas, and pose a major medical problem. Cubosomes, the liquid crystalline nanostructures, are among the recently developed lipid nanoparticles that could potentially overcome the hurdles of conventional therapy. In the present study, cubosomes containing luliconazole, an antifungal drug, were formulated to overcome the limitation of poor water solubility and poor bioavailability of the drug for the main purpose of treating fungal infections. Various formulations of luliconazole loaded cubosomes were prepared with different ratios of lipid (glyceryl monooleate) and surfactant (poloxamer 407) using emulsification method. The prepared formulations were optimised and the optimised cubosomal dispersion was loaded into a carbomer-934 gel to form an emulsifying gel. All cubosomal dispersions had particle sizes ranging from 124 nm to 221.1 nm, optimal zeta potential and polydispersity index, and were found to be stable. The drug entrapment efficiency of the cubosomes was over 90%. The in vitro diffusion study showed that the developed formulation had a higher release rate than the marketed formulation. The in vitro antifungal activity study confirmed that the prepared emulsion formulation was also effective against Candida albicans. The novel drug delivery system developed in this study, the cubosomal emulgel, could thus be a favourable approach for the topical delivery of luliconazole for the treatment of fungal infections.
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