Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 0146-1672 / 1552-7433
Published by: SAGE Publications (10.1177)
Total articles ≅ 5,101
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Latest articles in this journal

, Barry Schwartz, Eldar Shafir
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin; https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672211064112

Abstract:
Across six studies (total N = 3,549), we find that participants who were randomly assigned to choose from larger assortments thought their choices were more self-expressive, an effect that emerged regardless of whether larger sets actually enabled participants to better satisfy their preferences. Studies examining the moderating role of choice domain and cultural context show that the effect of choice set size on perceived self-expression may be particular to contexts in which choices have some initial potential to express choosers’ identities. We then test novel predictions from this theoretical perspective, finding that self-expression mediates the effect of choice set size on choice satisfaction, the likelihood of publicly sharing choices, and the perceived importance of choices. Together, these studies show that choice set size shapes perceived self-expression and illustrate how this meaning-based theoretical lens provides both novel explanations for existing effects and novel predictions for future research.
, Matteo Masi, Marco Brambilla
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin; https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672211065933

Abstract:
Recent work showed that the attribution of facial trustworthiness can be influenced by the surrounding context in which a face is embedded: contexts that convey threat make faces less trustworthy. In four studies (N = 388, three preregistered) we tested whether face–context integration is influenced by how faces and contexts are encoded relationally. In Experiments 1a to 1c, face–context integration was stronger when threatening stimuli were attributable to the human action. Faces were judged less trustworthy when shown in threatening contexts that were ascribable (vs. non-ascribable) to the human action. In Experiment 2, we manipulated face–context relations using instructions. When instructions presented facial stimuli as belonging to the “perpetrators” of the threatening contexts, no difference with the control (no-instructions) condition was found in face–context integration. Instead, the effect was reduced when faces were presented as “victims.” We discussed the importance of considering relational reasoning when studying face–context integration.
Kylie R. Chandler, Kori L. Krueger, ,
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin; https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672211061942

Abstract:
Instrumentality—the extent to which one facilitates another person’s goal progress—has been described as the Rosetta Stone of attraction, and promotes closeness in ongoing relationships. Yet prior work has not examined whether people might regulate their instrumentality in contexts in which they desire (vs. do not desire) attraction or closeness with others. Four studies, employing imagined online scenario and in-lab experimental paradigms, examined whether people strive to be more instrumental to potential romantic partners (targets) under conditions that lead them to be more (vs. less) romantically interested in those targets. Single participants were more romantically interested in romantically available versus unavailable targets, which in turn, was associated with greater willingness to be instrumental. Results for romantically involved participants were less consistent. Implications and future directions are discussed.
, Emily G. Ritchie,
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin; https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672211065286

Abstract:
The effectiveness of interpersonal apologies is well established, but most existing research has examined the benefits of isolated apologies. How do apologies function when considered in the context of a transgressor’s apology baseline—the frequency with which they tend to apologize for their behavior? We examined whether people consider others’ apology baselines when evaluating both their character and specific apologies from them. In Study 1, participants judged a character with a high (vs. low) apology baseline as higher in communion and lower in agency. In Study 2, participants judged romantic partners with high (vs. low) apology baselines as higher in communion, but only lower in agency when they perceived these frequent apologies as low-quality. In both studies, having a high apology baseline was also indirectly associated with more favorable reactions to a specific apology via higher communion judgments, revealing the role of apology baselines in shaping conflict resolution processes.
, Joshua J. Rhee, Katharine H. Greenaway, Yin Luo, Brock Bastian
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin; https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672211064452

Abstract:
Research on the Beauty-is-Good stereotype shows that unattractive people are perceived to have worse moral character than attractive individuals. Yet research has not explored what kinds of moral character judgments are particularly biased by attractiveness. In this work, we tested whether attractiveness particularly biases moral character judgments pertaining to the moral domain of purity, beyond a more general halo effect. Across four preregistered studies (N = 1,778), we found that unattractive (vs. attractive) individuals were judged to be more likely to engage in purity violations compared with harm violations and that this was not due to differences in perceived moral wrongness, weirdness, or sociality between purity and harm violations. The findings shed light on how physical attractiveness influences moral character attributions, suggesting that physical attractiveness particularly biases character judgments pertaining to the moral domain of purity.
, Patty Van Cappellen, Barbara L. Fredrickson
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin; https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672211060136

Abstract:
One longitudinal and four cross-sectional studies (total N = 3,141) tested two candidate explanations for the association between religiousness and perceived meaning in life. Religiousness may foster a sense of significance, importance, or mattering—either to others (social mattering) or in the grand scheme of the universe (cosmic mattering)—which, in turn, support perceived meaning. We found that perceived social mattering mediated, but could not fully explain, the link between religiousness and perceived meaning. In contrast, perceived cosmic mattering did fully explain the association. Overall, results suggest that perceived social and cosmic mattering are each part of the explanation. Yet, perceived cosmic mattering appears to be the stronger mechanism. We discuss how religious faith may be especially suited to support such perceptions, making it a partially unique source of felt meaning.
Alexander G. Fulmer, Taly Reich
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin; https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672211063750

Abstract:
Creations can be fundamentally intended or unintended from their outset. Past work has focused on intentional creations, finding that people place a premium on effort. We examine the role of unintentionality in the inception of creations in six studies using a variety of stimuli (N = 1,965), finding that people offer a premium to unintentional creations versus otherwise identical intentional creations. We demonstrate that the unintentionality involved in the inception of a creation results in greater downward counterfactual thought about how the unintentional creation may have never been created at all, and this in turn heightens perceptions that the creation was a product of fate, causing people to place a premium on such creations. We provide evidence for this causal pathway using a combination of mediation and moderation approaches. Further, we illuminate that this premium is not offered when a negative outcome is ascribed to an unintentional creation.
, Oliver Christ,
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin; https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672211060965

Abstract:
Research suggests that conspiracy beliefs are adopted because they promise to reduce anxiety, uncertainty, and threat. However, little research has investigated whether conspiracy beliefs actually fulfill these promises. We conducted two longitudinal studies ( NStudy 1 = 405, NStudy 2 = 1,012) to examine how conspiracy beliefs result from, and in turn influence, anxiety, uncertainty aversion, and existential threat. Random intercept cross-lagged panel analyses indicate that people who were, on average, more anxious, uncertainty averse, and existentially threatened held stronger conspiracy beliefs. Increases in conspiracy beliefs were either unrelated to changes in anxiety, uncertainty aversion, and existential threat (Study 2), or even predicted increases in these variables (Study 1). In both studies, increases in conspiracy beliefs predicted subsequent increases in conspiracy beliefs, suggesting a self-reinforcing circle. We conclude that conspiracy beliefs likely do not have beneficial consequences, but may even reinforce the negative experience of anxiety, uncertainty aversion, and existential threat.
, Mauricio Carvallo, Matthew Wenske, Jongwon Lee
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin; https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672211065293

Abstract:
Prior research has established factors that contribute to the likelihood that men seek out prostate cancer screenings. The current study addresses how endorsing the ideology found in cultures of honor may serve as a barrier to prostate cancer screenings. Two studies were conducted which analyzed the impact of stigma on men’s decisions to seek out prostate cancer screenings (Study 1) as well as how prostate cancer deaths may be higher in the culture of honor regions due to men’s reticence to seek out screenings (Study 2). Results suggest that older, honor-endorsing men are less likely to have ever sought out a prostate cancer screening due to screening stigma and that an honor-oriented region (southern and western United States) displays higher rates of prostate cancer death than a non-honor-oriented region (northern United States). These findings suggest that honor may be a cultural framework to consider when practitioners address patients’ screening-related concerns.
Tessa M. Benson-Greenwald, Alejandro Trujillo, Andrew D. White, Amanda B. Diekman
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin; https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672211064456

Abstract:
Science can improve life around the world, but public trust in science is at risk. Understanding the presumed motives of scientists and science can inform the social psychological underpinnings of public trust in science. Across five independent datasets, perceiving the motives of science and scientists as prosocial promoted public trust in science. In Studies 1 and 2, perceptions that science was more prosocially oriented were associated with greater trust in science. Studies 3 and 4a & 4b employed experimental methods to establish that perceiving other-oriented motives, versus self-oriented motives, enhanced public trust in science. Respondents recommend greater funding allocations for science subdomains described as prosocially oriented versus power-oriented. Emphasizing the prosocial aspects of science can build stronger foundations of public trust in science.
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