World Journal of Gastroenterology

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ISSN / EISSN : 1007-9327 / 2219-2840
Current Publisher: Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. (10.3748)
Total articles ≅ 18,776
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Gopal Veeraraghavan, Amelie Therrien, Maya Degroote, Allison McKeown, Paul D Mitchell, Jocelyn A Silvester, Daniel A Leffler, Alan M Leichtner, Ciaran P Kelly,
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1311-1320; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i13.1311

Abstract:
Non-responsive celiac disease (NRCD) is defined as the persistence of symptoms in individuals with celiac disease (CeD) despite being on a gluten-free diet (GFD). There is scant literature about NRCD in the pediatric population. To determine the incidence, clinical characteristics and underlying causes of NRCD in children. Retrospective cohort study performed at Boston Children’s Hospital (BCH). Children < 18 years diagnosed with CeD by positive serology and duodenal biopsies compatible with Marsh III histology between 2008 and 2012 were identified in the BCH’s Celiac Disease Program database. Medical records were longitudinally reviewed from the time of diagnosis through September 2015. NRCD was defined as persistent symptoms at 6 mo after the initiation of a GFD and causes of NRCD as well as symptom evolution were detailed. The children without symptoms at 6 mo (responders) were compared with the NRCD group. Additionally, presenting signs and symptoms at the time of diagnosis of CeD among the responders and NRCD patients were collected and compared to identify any potential predictors for NRCD at 6 mo of GFD therapy. Six hundred and sixteen children were included. Ninety-one (15%) met criteria for NRCD. Most were female (77%). Abdominal pain [odds ratio (OR) 1.8 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.9], constipation (OR 3.1 95%CI 1.9-4.9) and absence of abdominal distension (OR for abdominal distension 0.4 95%CI 0.1-0.98) at diagnosis were associated with NRCD. NRCD was attributed to a wide variety of diagnoses with gluten exposure (30%) and constipation (20%) being the most common causes. Other causes for NRCD included lactose intolerance (9%), gastroesophageal reflux (8%), functional abdominal pain (7%), irritable bowel syndrome (3%), depression/anxiety (3%), eosinophilic esophagitis (2%), food allergy (1%), eating disorder (1%), gastric ulcer with Helicobacter pylori (1%), lymphocytic colitis (1%), aerophagia (1%) and undetermined (13%). 64% of children with NRCD improved on follow-up. NRCD after ≥ 6 mo GFD is frequent among children, especially females, and is associated with initial presenting symptoms of constipation and/or abdominal pain. Gluten exposure is the most frequent cause.
Aqsa Ahmad, Syeda Momna Ishtiaq, Junaid Ali Khan, Rizwan Aslam, Sultan Ali,
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1296-1310; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i13.1296

Abstract:
The worldwide outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has challenged the priorities of healthcare system in terms of different clinical management and infection transmission, particularly those related to hepatic-disease comorbidities. Epidemiological data evidenced that COVID-19 patients with altered liver function because of hepatitis infection and cholestasis have an adverse prognosis and experience worse health outcomes. COVID-19-associated liver injury is correlated with various liver diseases following a severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection that can progress during the treatment of COVID-19 patients with or without pre-existing liver disease. SARS-CoV-2 can induce liver injury in a number of ways including direct cytopathic effect of the virus on cholangiocytes/hepatocytes, immune-mediated damage, hypoxia, and sepsis. Indeed, immediate cytopathogenic effects of SARS-CoV-2 via its potential target, the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptor, which is highly expressed in hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, renders the liver as an extra-respiratory organ with increased susceptibility to pathological outcomes. But, underlying COVID-19-linked liver disease pathogenesis with abnormal liver function tests (LFTs) is incompletely understood. Hence, we collated COVID-19-associated liver injuries with increased LFTs at the nexus of pre-existing liver diseases and COVID-19, and defining a plausible pathophysiological triad of COVID-19, hepatocellular damage, and liver disease. This review summarizes recent findings of the exacerbating role of COVID-19 in pre-existing liver disease and vice versa as well as international guidelines of clinical care, management, and treatment recommendations for COVID-19 patients with liver disease.
Gabriela Gama Freire Alberca, Rosa Liliana Solis-Castro, Maria Edith Solis-Castro,
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1255-1266; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i13.1255

Abstract:
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can progress to a severe respiratory and systemic disease named coronavirus disease–2019 (COVID-19). The most common symptoms are fever and respiratory discomfort. Nevertheless, gastrointestinal infections have been reported, with symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and lack of appetite. Importantly, SARS-CoV-2 can remain positive in fecal samples after nasopharyngeal clearance. After gastrointestinal SARS-CoV-2 infection and other viral gastrointestinal infections, some patients may develop alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota. In addition, some COVID-19 patients may receive antibiotics, which may also disturb gastrointestinal homeostasis. In summary, the gastrointestinal system, gut microbiome, and gut-lung axis may represent an important role in the development, severity, and treatment of COVID-19. Therefore, in this review, we explore the current pieces of evidence of COVID-19 gastrointestinal manifestations, possible implications, and interventions.
, Simon Smale, W Stephen Waring, Waleed Sweileh, Samah W Al-Jabi
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1341-1353; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i13.1341

Abstract:
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder. Dysregulation of the gut–brain axis plays a central role in the pathophysiology of IBS. It is increasingly clear that the microbiome plays a key role in the development and normal functioning of the gut–brain axis. To facilitate the identification of specific areas of focus that may be of relevance to future research. This study represents a bibliometric analysis of the literature pertaining to the microbiome in IBS to understand the development of this field. The data used in our bibliometric analysis were retrieved from the Scopus database. The terms related to IBS and microbiome were searched in titles or abstracts within the period of 2000–2019. VOSviewer software was used for data visualization. A total of 13055 documents related to IBS were retrieved at the global level. There were 1872 scientific publications focused on the microbiome in IBS. There was a strong positive correlation between publication productivity related to IBS in all fields and productivity related to the microbiome in IBS (r = 0.951, P < 0.001). The United States was the most prolific country with 449 (24%) publications, followed by the United Kingdom (n = 176, 9.4%), China (n = 154, 8.2%), and Italy (n = 151, 8.1%). The h-index for all retrieved publications related to the microbiome in IBS was 138. The hot topics were stratified into four clusters: (1) The gut–brain axis related to IBS; (2) Clinical trials related to IBS and the microbiome; (3) Drug-mediated manipulation of the gut microbiome; and (4) The role of the altered composition of intestinal microbiota in IBS prevention. This is the first study to evaluate and quantify global research productivity pertaining to the microbiome in IBS. The number of publications regarding the gut microbiota in IBS has continuously grown since 2013. This finding suggests that the future outlook for interventions targeting the gut microbiota in IBS remains promising.
Toshihiro Nishizawa, Shuntaro Yoshida, Akira Toyoshima, Tomoharu Yamada, Yoshiki Sakaguchi, Taiga Irako, Hirotoshi Ebinuma, Takanori Kanai, Kazuhiko Koike, Osamu Toyoshima
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1321-1329; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i13.1321

Abstract:
Hyperplastic polyps are considered non-neoplastic, whereas sessile serrated lesions (SSLs) are precursors of cancer via the ‘‘serrated neoplastic pathway’’. The clinical features of SSLs are tumor size (> 5 mm), location in the proximal colon, coverage with abundant mucus called the ‘‘mucus cap’’, indistinct borders, and a cloud-like surface. The features in magnifying narrow-band imaging are varicose microvascular vessels and expanded crypt openings. However, accurate diagnosis is often difficult. To develop a diagnostic score system for SSLs. We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic resection during colonoscopy at the Toyoshima endoscopy clinic. We collected data on serrated polyps diagnosed by endoscopic or pathological examination. The significant factors for the diagnosis of SSLs were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Each item that was significant in multivariate analysis was assigned 1 point, with the sum of these points defined as the endoscopic SSL diagnosis score. The optimal cut-off value of the endoscopic SSL diagnosis score was determined by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. Among 1288 polyps that were endoscopically removed, we analyzed 232 diagnosed as serrated polyps by endoscopic or pathological examination. In the univariate analysis, the location (proximal colon), size (> 5 mm), mucus cap, indistinct borders, cloud-like surface, and varicose microvascular vessels were significantly associated with the diagnosis of SSLs. In the multivariate analysis, size (> 5 mm; P = 0.033), mucus cap (P = 0.005), and indistinct borders (P = 0.033) were independently associated with the diagnosis of SSLs. Size > 5 mm, mucus cap, and indistinct borders were assigned 1 point each and the sum of these points was defined as the endoscopic SSL diagnosis score. The receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed an optimal cut-off score of 3, which predicted pathological SSLs with 75% sensitivity, 80% specificity, and 78.4% accuracy. The pathological SSL rate for an endoscopic SSL diagnosis score of 3 was significantly higher than that for an endoscopic SSL diagnosis score of 0, 1, or 2 (P < 0.001). Size > 5 mm, mucus cap, and indistinct borders were significant endoscopic features for the diagnosis of SSLs. Serrated polyps with these three features should be removed during colonoscopy.
Rahul Chaudhari, Sherouk Fouda, Ashik Sainu,
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1267-1282; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i13.1267

Abstract:
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a systemic disease that is implicated in multiple extrahepatic organ dysfunction contributing to its protean manifestations. HCV is associated with diverse extrahepatic disorders including atherosclerosis, glucose and lipid metabolic disturbances, alterations in the iron metabolic pathways, and lymphoproliferative diseases over and above the traditional liver manifestations of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The orchestration between HCV major proteins and the liver-muscle-adipose axis, poses a major burden on the global health of human body organs, if not adequately addressed. The close and inseparable associations between chronic HCV infection, metabolic disease, and cardiovascular disorders are specifically important considering the increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome, and their economic burden to patients, the healthcare systems, and society. Cellular and molecular mechanisms governing the interplay of these organs and tissues in health and disease are therefore of significant interest. The coexistence of metabolic disorders and chronic hepatitis C infection also enhances the progression to liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The presence of metabolic disorders is believed to influence the chronicity and virulence of HCV leading to liver disease progression. This comprehensive review highlights current knowledge on the metabolic manifestations of hepatitis C and the potential pathways in which these metabolic changes can influence the natural history of the disease.
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1330-1340; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i13.1330

Abstract:
The factors affecting the short-term and long-term prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) receiving transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) are still unclear. To clarify the predictors correlated with the short-term and long-term survival of HCC patients with PVTT who underwent TACE. The medical records of 181 HCC patients with PVTT who underwent TACE at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2015 to July 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. We explored the short-term and long-term prognostic factors by comparing the preoperative indicators of patients who died and survived within 3 mo and 12 mo after TACE. Multivariate analyses were conducted using logistic regression. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (area under curve) was used to evaluate the predictive ability of the factors related to the short-term and long-term prognosis. The median survival time was 4.8 mo (range: 2.5-8.85 mo). The 3 mo, 6 mo, and 12 mo survival rates were 68.5%, 38.7%, and 15.5%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, total bilirubin, sex, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were closely linked to short-term survival. When AST ≥ 87 U/L and total bilirubin ≥ 16.15 µmol/L, the 3-mo survival rate after TACE was reduced significantly (P < 0.05). AST had the best predictive ability, followed by total bilirubin, while sex had the worst predictive ability for short-term survival area under curve: 0.763 (AST) vs 0.707 (total bilirubin) vs 0.554 (sex)]. The long-term survival outcome was significantly better in patients with a single lesion than in those with ≥ three lesions (P = 0.009). Patients with massive block HCC had a worse long-term survival than patients with nodular and diffuse HCC (P = 0.001). AST, total bilirubin, and sex are independent factors associated with short-term survival. The number of tumors and the gross pathological type of tumor are related to the long-term outcome.
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1283-1295; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i13.1283

Abstract:
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a worldwide public health concern. Despite extensive research efforts toward improving diagnosis and treatment, the 5-year survival rate at best is approximately 15%. This dismal figure can be attributed to a variety of factors including lack of adequate screening methods, late symptom onset, and treatment resistance. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remains a grim diagnosis with a high mortality rate and a significant psy-chological burden for patients and their families. In recent years artificial intelligence (AI) has permeated the medical field at an accelerated pace, bringing potential new tools that carry the promise of improving diagnosis and treatment of a variety of diseases. In this review we will summarize the landscape of AI in diagnosis and treatment of PDAC.
Qiong Zhang, Jie-Ying Zhao, , Chun-Yan Lu, Jin Yao, Yuan Luo, Yong-Yang Yu
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1354-1361; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i13.1354

Abstract:
Rectal subepithelial lesions (SELs) are commonly seen in endoscopic examination, generally manifested as bumps with a smooth surface. Precise preoperative diagnoses for rectal SELs are difficult because abnormal tissues are not easily to be obtained by regular endoscopic forceps biopsy. Traditional guidance modalities of preoperative biopsy, including endoscopic ultrasound, computed tomography, and transabdominal ultrasound, are often unsatisfactory. An updated, safe, and effective biopsy guidance method is required. We herein report a new biopsy guidance modality—endorectal ultrasound (ERUS) combined with contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). A 32-year-old woman complained of a mass inside the rectovaginal space for 9 years, which became enlarged within 1 year. A rectal SEL detected by endoscopy was suspected to be a gastrointestinal stromal tumor or exophytic uterine fibroid. Pathological diagnosis was difficult because of unsuccessful transabdominal core needle biopsy with insufficient tissues, as well as vaginal hemorrhage. A second biopsy was suggested after multiple disciplinary treatment discussion, which referred to a transperineal core needle biopsy (CNB) guided by ERUS combined with CEUS. Adequate samples were procured and rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumor was proved to be the pathological diagnosis. Imatinib was recommended for first-line therapy by multiple disciplinary treatment discussion. After the tumor shrunk, resection of the rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumor was performed through the posterior vaginal wall. Adjuvant therapy was applied and no recurrence or metastasis has been found by the last follow-up on December 13, 2019. Transperineal CNB guided by ERUS and CEUS is a safe and effective preoperative biopsy of rectal SELs yet with some limitations.
Guang-Zi Shi, Hong Chen, Wei-Ke Zeng, Ming Gao, Meng-Zhu Wang, Hui-Ting Zhang,
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1182-1193; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i12.1182

Abstract:
R2* estimation reflects the paramagnetism of the tumor tissue, which may be used to differentiate between benign and malignant liver lesions when contrast agents are contraindicated. To investigate whether R2* derived from multi-echo Dixon imaging can aid differentiating benign from malignant focal liver lesions (FLLs) and the impact of 2D region of interest (2D-ROI) and volume of interest (VOI) on the outcomes. We retrospectively enrolled 73 patients with 108 benign or malignant FLLs. All patients underwent conventional abdominal magnetic resonance imaging and multi-echo Dixon imaging. Two radiologists independently measured the mean R2* values of lesions using 2D-ROI and VOI approaches. The Bland–Altman plot was used to determine the interobserver agreement between R2* measurements. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine the reliability between the two readers. Mean R2* values were compared between benign and malignant FFLs using the nonparametric Mann–Whitney test. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the diagnostic performance of R2* in differentiation between benign and malignant FFLs. We compared the diagnostic performance of R2* measured by 2D-ROI and VOI approaches. This study included 30 benign and 78 malignant FLLs. The interobserver reproducibility of R2* measurements was excellent for the 2D-ROI (ICC = 0.994) and VOI (ICC = 0.998) methods. Bland–Altman analysis also demonstrated excellent agreement. Mean R2* was significantly higher for malignant than benign FFLs as measured by 2D-ROI (P < 0.001) and VOI (P < 0.001). The area under the curve (AUC) of R2* measured by 2D-ROI was 0.884 at a cut-off of 25.2/s, with a sensitivity of 84.6% and specificity of 80.0% for differentiating benign from malignant FFLs. R2* measured by VOI yielded an AUC of 0.875 at a cut-off of 26.7/s in distinguishing benign from malignant FFLs, with a sensitivity of 85.9% and specificity of 76.7%. The AUCs of R2* were not significantly different between the 2D-ROI and VOI methods. R2* derived from multi-echo Dixon imaging whether by 2D-ROI or VOI can aid in differentiation between benign and malignant FLLs.
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