World Journal of Gastroenterology

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ISSN / EISSN : 1007-9327 / 2219-2840
Current Publisher: Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. (10.3748)
Total articles ≅ 18,701
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Hong-Liang Zang, Fu-Jian Ji, Hai-Ying Ju, Xiao-Feng Tian
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 240-254; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i3.240

Recent studies have demonstrated that circular RNA AKT3 (circAKT3) plays a crucial role in regulating the malignant phenotypes of tumor cells. However, the potential effects of circAKT3 on esophageal cancer have not been investigated. To illuminate the role of circAKT3 in malignant behaviors of esophageal cancer cells and its underlying mechanism. Clinical samples were collected to detect the expression of circAKT3. The role of circAKT3 in proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis of esophageal cancer cells was evaluated using Cell Counting Kit-8, wound healing assays, Transwell assays, and fluorescence analysis, respectively. The target of circAKT3 was screened and identified using an online database and luciferase reporter assay. A xenograft nude mouse model was established to investigate the role of circAKT3 in vivo. In vitro assays showed that proliferative, migratory, and invasive capacities of esophageal cancer cells were significantly enhanced by circAKT3 overexpression. Furthermore, miR-17-5p was screened as the target of circAKT3, and miR-17-5p antagonized the effects of circAKT3 on esophageal cancer cells. Moreover, we identified RHOC and STAT3 as the direct target molecules of miR-17-5p, and circAKT3 facilitated expression of RHOC and STAT3 by inhibiting miR-17-5p. In vivo assays showed circAKT3 knockdown inhibited growth of esophageal cancer. CircAKT3 contributed to the malignant behaviors of esophageal cancer in vitro and in vivo by sponging miR-17-5p thus providing a potential target for treatment of esophageal cancer.
Josh Bleicher , Jessica N Cohan, Lyen C Huang, William Peche, T Bartley Pickron, Courtney L Scaife, Tawnya L Bowles, John R Hyngstrom, Elliot A Asare
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 267-280; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i3.267

Anorectal melanoma (ARM) is a rare disease with a poor prognosis. Evidence on optimal treatment is limited and surgical management varies widely. We hypothesized that the frequency of abdominoperineal resection used as primary treatment of ARM has decreased over the past several decades. To update our understanding of outcomes for patients with ARM and analyze management trends around the world. This is a multi-institutional, retrospective study of patients treated for ARM at 7 hospitals. Hospitals included both large, academic, tertiary care centers and smaller, general community hospitals. Using prospectively maintained institutional tumor registries, we identified 24 patients diagnosed with ARM between January 2000 and May 2019. We analyzed factors prognostic for recurrence and survival. We then used Cox regression to measure overall survival (OS) and melanoma-specific survival. We also performed a literature review to assess trends in surgical management and outcomes. Of the 24 patients diagnosed with ARM, 12 (50.0%) had local, 8 (33.3%) regional, and 4 (16.7%) distant disease at diagnosis. Median time to recurrence was 10.4 mo [interquartile range (IQR) 7.5-17.2] with only 2 patients (9.3%) not developing recurrence following surgical resection. Median OS was 18.8 mo (IQR 13.5-33.9). One patient is still alive without recurrence at 21.4 mo from diagnosis; no other patient survived 5 years. Primary surgical management with abdominoperineal resection (APR) vs wide excision (WE) did not lead to differences in OS [hazard ratio = 1.4 (95%CI: 0.3-6.8)]. Review of the literature revealed geographic differences in surgical management of ARM, with increased use of WE in the United States and Europe over time and more frequent use of APR in Asia and India. There was no significant improvement in survival over time. There is wide variation in the management of ARM and survival outcomes remain poor regardless of approach. Surgical management should aim to minimize morbidity.
Cai-Zhi Huang, Jie Zhang, Lin Zhang, Cui-Hua Yu, Yi Mo, Li-Ya Mo
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 255-266; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i3.255

Vitamin D is an essential fat-soluble secosteroid hydroxylated by the liver to form the intermediate metabolite calcidiol {25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D]}, which is a reliable indicator to investigate individual vitamin D status. Vitamin-D-binding protein (VDBP) is a multifunctional glycoprotein mainly synthesized in the liver and the major transport protein for vitamin D and its metabolites. Serum vitamin D and VDBP are both associated with hepatitis B. However, few studies have reported the relationship and clinical significance of vitamin D and VDBP with hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and hepatic fibrosis in children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). To explore vitamin D and VDBP serum levels in children with CHB and the association of vitamin D and VDBP with HBV replication and hepatic fibrosis. We enrolled 204 children with CHB admitted to Hunan Children’ Hospital in summer and autumn between 2018 and 2019 and 170 healthy controls. CHB patients included: 164 hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive and 40 HBeAg negative; 193 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive and 11 HBsAg negative; 164 with detectable HBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and 40 with undetectable HBV DNA; 131 with HBV genotype B and 23 with HBV genotype C; and 27 without hepatic fibrosis and 97 with hepatic fibrosis. Serum levels of 25(OH)D, VDBP, liver function markers, and other clinical parameters were collected to analyze their association with vitamin D and VDBP. Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, or t test was used to analyze serum 25(OH)D and VDBP levels in different groups. Spearman rank correlation test was utilized to analyze the correlation of 25(OH)D and VDBP with other markers. Statistically significant factors determined by univariate analysis were further analyzed by binary multivariate logistic regression analysis. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Children with CHB had lower serum 25(OH)D (56.64 ± 17.89 nmoL/L) and VDBP [122.40 (70.74-262.84 μg/L)] levels than healthy controls had (P < 0.001). Serum 25(OH)D and VDBP levels were significantly different among the different grades of hepatic fibrosis (P < 0.05). VDBP levels in children with HBV genotype C, HBsAg, HBeAg, and detectable HBV DNA were significantly lower than those in children with HBV genotype B, no HBsAg, no HBeAg, and undetectable HBV DNA (P < 0.05). Serum 25(OH)D level was negatively correlated with age and serum total bilirubin level (r = -0.396 and -0.280, respectively, P < 0.001). Serum VDBP level was negatively correlated with HBV DNA (log10 IU/mL) (r = -0.272, P < 0.001). Serum 25(OH)D level was not correlated with VDBP level (P > 0.05). Univariate (P < 0.05) and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that low level of 25(OH)D (odds ratio = 0.951, 95% confidence interval: 0.918-0.985) and high level of HBV DNA (odds ratio = 1.445, 95% confidence interval: 1.163-1.794) were independently correlated with hepatic fibrosis (P < 0.01). Serum levels of 25(OH)D and VDBP are decreased in children with CHB. Serum VDBP level is negatively correlated with HBV replication. Low level of 25(OH)D is independently associated with hepatic fibrosis in children with CHB. There is no significant association between serum levels of 25(OH)D and VDBP.
Bing Li, Shi-Lun Cai, Wei-Min Tan, Ji-Chun Li, Ayimukedisi Yalikong, Xiao-Shuang Feng, Hon-Ho Yu, Pin-Xiang Lu, Zhen Feng, Li-Qing Yao, et al.
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 281-293; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i3.281

Non-magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (NM-NBI) has been frequently used in routine screening of esophagus squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The performance of NBI for screening of early ESCC is, however, significantly affected by operator experience. Artificial intelligence may be a unique approach to compensate for the lack of operator experience. To construct a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for application in NM-NBI to identify early ESCC and to compare it with our previously reported CAD system with endoscopic white-light imaging (WLI). A total of 2167 abnormal NM-NBI images of early ESCC and 2568 normal images were collected from three institutions (Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University, Xuhui Hospital, and Kiang Wu Hospital) as the training dataset, and 316 pairs of images, each pair including images obtained by WLI and NBI (same part), were collected for validation. Twenty endoscopists participated in this study to review the validation images with or without the assistance of the CAD systems. The diagnostic results of the two CAD systems and improvement in diagnostic efficacy of endoscopists were compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve for CAD-NBI was 0.9761. For the validation dataset, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of CAD-NBI were 91.0%, 96.7%, 94.3%, 95.3%, and 93.6%, respectively, while those of CAD-WLI were 98.5%, 83.1%, 89.5%, 80.8%, and 98.7%, respectively. CAD-NBI showed superior accuracy and specificity than CAD-WLI (P = 0.028 and P ≤ 0.001, respectively), while CAD-WLI had higher sensitivity than CAD-NBI (P = 0.006). By using both CAD-WLI and CAD-NBI, the endoscopists could improve their diagnostic efficacy to the highest level, with accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 94.9%, 92.4%, and 96.7%, respectively. The CAD-NBI system for screening early ESCC has higher accuracy and specificity than CAD-WLI. Endoscopists can achieve the best diagnostic efficacy using both CAD-WLI and CAD-NBI.
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 233-239; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i3.233

In the United States, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of mortality in men and women. We are now seeing an increasing number of patients with advanced-stage diagnosis and mortality from colorectal cancer before 50 years of age, which requires earlier screening. With the increasing need for CRC screening through colonoscopy, and thus endoscopists, easier and simpler techniques are needed to train proficient endoscopists. The most widely used approach by endoscopists is air insufflation colonoscopy, where air distends the colon to allow visualization of the colonic mucosa. This technique is un-comfortable for patients and requires an anesthetist to administer sedation. In addition, patients commonly complain about discomfort post-op as air escapes into the small bowel and cannot be adequately removed. Current research into the use of water insufflation colonoscopies has proved promising in reducing the need for sedation, decreasing discomfort, and increasing the visibility of the colonic mucosa. Future direction into water insufflation colonoscopies which have shown to be simpler and easier to teach may increase the number of proficient endoscopists in training to serve our aging population.
Hideaki Kojima, Minoru Kitago, Eisuke Iwasaki, Yohei Masugi, Yohji Matsusaka, Hiroshi Yagi, Yuta Abe, Yasushi Hasegawa, Shutaro Hori, Masayuki Tanaka, et al.
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 294-304; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i3.294

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is a biopsy technique widely used to diagnose pancreatic tumors because of its high sensitivity and specificity. Although needle-tract seeding caused by EUS-FNA has been recently reported, dissemination of pancreatic cancer cells is generally considered to be a rare complication that does not affect patient prognosis. However, the frequency of dissemination and needle-tract seeding appears to have been underestimated. We present a case of peritoneal dissemination of pancreatic cancer due to preoperative EUS-FNA. An 81-year-old man was referred to the Department of Surgery of our hospital in Japan owing to the detection of a pancreatic mass on computed tomography during medical screening. Trans-gastric EUS-FNA revealed that the mass was an adenocarcinoma; hence laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy with lympha-denectomy was performed. No intraoperative peritoneal dissemination and liver metastasis were visually detected, and pelvic lavage cytology was negative for carcinoma cells. The postoperative surgical specimen was negative for carcinoma cells at the dissected margin and the cut end margin; however, pathological findings revealed adenocarcinoma cells on the peritoneal surface proximal to the needle puncture site, and the cells were suspected to be disseminated via EUS- FNA. Hence, the patient received adjuvant therapy with S-1 (tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil potassium); however, computed tomography performed 5 mo after surgery revealed liver metastasis and cancerous peritonitis. The patient received palliative therapy and died 8 mo after the operation. The indications of EUS-FNA should be carefully considered to avoid iatrogenic dissemination, especially for cancers in the pancreatic body or tail.
Chang-Hoon Lee, Kyungdo Han, Da Hye Kim, Min-Sun Kwak
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 176-188; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i2.176

The association between elevated γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) at a certain point and incident cancer has been suggested; however, no study has evaluated the association between repeatedly elevated GGT and cancer incidence. To investigate the effects of repeatedly elevated GGT on the incidence of digestive cancers. Participants who had undergone health screening from 2009 to 2012 and 4 consecutive previous examinations were enrolled. GGT points were calculated as the number of times participants met the criteria of quartile 4 of GGT in four serial measurements (0-4 points). Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were applied. In total, 3559109 participants were included; among them, 43574 digestive cancers developed during a median of 6.8 years of follow-up. The incidence of total digestive cancers increased in a dose-response manner in men [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) compared with those with 0 GGT points = 1.28 and 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-1.33 in those with 1 point; aHR = 1.40 and 95%CI = 1.35-1.46 in those with 2 points; aHR = 1.52 and 95%CI = 1.46-1.58 in those with 3 points; aHR = 1.88 and 95%CI = 1.83-1.94 in those with 4 points; P for trend < 0.001]. This trend was more prominent in men than in women and those with healthy habits (no smoking, no alcohol consumption, and a low body mass index) than in those with unhealthy habits. Repeatedly elevated GGT levels were associated with an increased risk of incident digestive cancer in a dose-responsive manner, particularly in men and those with healthy habits. Repeated GGT measurements may be a good biomarker of incident digestive cancer and could help physicians identify high-risk populations.
Cyrla Zaltman , Rogério Serafim Parra, Ligia Yukie Sassaki, Genoile Oliveira Santana, Maria De Lourdes Abreu Ferrari, Sender J Miszputen, Heda M B S Amarante, Roberto Luiz Kaiser Junior, Cristina Flores, Wilson R Catapani, et al.
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 208-223; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i2.208

Understanding the treatment landscape of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is essential for improving disease management and patient outcomes. Brazil is the largest Latin American country, and it presents socioeconomic and health care differences across its geographical regions. This country has the highest increase in IBD incidence and prevalence in Latin America, but information about the clinical and treatment characteristics of IBD is scarce. To describe the sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics of IBD outpatients in Brazil overall and in the Southeast, South and Northeast/Midwest regions. Multicenter, cross-sectional study with a 3-year retrospective chart review component. Patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) were consecutively enrolled between October 2016 and February 2017. Active CD at enrollment was defined as a Harvey Bradshaw Index ≥ 8 or a CD Activity Index ≥ 220 or a calprotectin level > 200 μg/g or an active result based on colonoscopy suggestive of inadequate control during the previous year; active UC was defined as a partial Mayo score ≥ 5. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze all variables. In a total of 407 included patients, CD was more frequent than UC, both overall (264 CD/143 UC patients) and by region (CD:UC ratios of 2.1 in the Southeast, 1.6 in the South and 1.2 in the Northeast/Midwest). The majority of patients were female (54.2% of CD; 56.6% of UC), and the mean ages were 45.9 ± 13.8 years (CD) and 42.9 ± 13.0 years (UC). The median disease duration was 10.0 (range: 0.5-45) years for both IBD types. At enrollment, 44.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 38.7-50.7] of CD patients and 25.2% (95%CI: 18.1-32.3) of UC patients presented with active disease. More than 95% of IBD patients were receiving treatment at enrollment; CD patients were commonly treated with biologics (71.6%) and immunosuppressors (67.4%), and UC patients were commonly treated with mesalazine [5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA)] derivates (69.9%) and immunosuppressors (44.1%). More than 50% of the CD patients had ileocolonic disease, and 41.7% presented with stricturing disease. One-quarter of CD patients had undergone CD-related surgery in the past 3 years, and this proportion was lower in the Northeast/Midwest region (2.9%). In Brazil, there are regional variations in IBD management. CD outweighs UC in both frequency and disease activity. However, one-quarter of UC patients have active disease, and most are receiving 5-ASA treatment.
Yong-Woo Kim, Hak Jin Kim, Byung Mann Cho, Seon Hee Choi
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 152-161; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i2.152

The infusion of triolein emulsion (TE) induced increased vascular permeability and a negligible and temporary decrease in liver function without specific histopathological damage. To assess changes in doxorubicin concentration according to the percentage of TE infused via a hepatic artery to study the vascular permeability in the rabbit liver. Thirty-nine healthy rabbits were divided into five groups according to the concentration of emulsified triolein infused into the hepatic arteries: Group 0, saline infusion (control group, n = 5); group 1, 0.3% TE (n = 13); group 2, 0.6% TE (n = 6); group 3, 0.9% TE (n = 8); and group 4, 1.5% TE (n = 6). Doxorubicin (2.4 mg/kg) was infused immediately after TE injection via the hepatic arteries. After 2 h, the livers were harvested, and doxorubicin concentrations were calculated fluorometrically. The doxorubicin concentrations were compared between TE groups and the control group, and the optimal concentrations within the TE groups were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal–Wallis test. P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. In the liver, doxorubicin concentrations were 2.06, 2.07, 2.16 and 1.66 times higher in groups 1 through 4, respectively, and significantly higher in the TE groups than in the control group (all P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the mean doxorubicin concentrations between the four TE groups (P = 0.642). In the lungs, the mean doxorubicin concentrations were not significantly different between the control and TE groups (P > 0.05). TE infusion into the hepatic arteries significantly increased the doxorubicin concentration approximately twofold but was not different between the TE groups. These findings suggest that TE infusion might be a useful adjuvant treatment of liver cancers.
Kei Motooka, Koichi Morishita, Nami Ito, Shinichiro Shinzaki, Taku Tashiro, Satoshi Nojima, Kayoko Shimizu, Mutsuhiro Date, Natsumi Sakata, Momoko Yamada, et al.
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 162-175; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i2.162

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, relapsing inflammation of the digestive tract. Although fecal and serum biomarkers have been extremely important and supportive for monitoring of IBD, their low sensitivity and high variability characteristics limit clinical efficacy. Thus, the establishment of better biomarkers is expected. Fucosylation is one of the most important glycosylation modifications of proteins. Fucosylated haptoglobin (Fuc-Hpt) is used as a biomarker for several cancers and inflammation-related diseases. We recently established a novel glycan monoclonal antibody (mAb), designated 10-7G, which recognizes Fuc-Hpt. We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure serum levels of Fuc-Hpt (10-7G values). To investigate the usefulness of the serum 10-7G values as a potential biomarker for monitoring disease activity in IBD. This was a case control study. Intestinal tissues of IBD patients (n = 10) were examined immunohistochemically using the 10-7G mAb. We determined 10-7G values using serum from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC, n = 110), Crohn’s disease (n = 45), acute enteritis (AE, n = 11), and healthy volunteers (HVs) who exhibited normal (n = 20) or high (n = 79) C-reactive protein (CRP) levels at medical check-up. We investigated the correlation between the 10-7G value and various clinical parameters of IBD patients by correlation analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the usefulness of the 10-7G values as a biomarker for clinical and endoscopic remission of UC compared to conventional serum biomarkers. In the immunohistochemical analysis, positive 10-7G mAb staining was observed in lymphocytes infiltrating into inflammatory sites of the mucosal layer and lymphoid follicles. The 10-7G values were significantly higher in patients with IBD (P < 0.001) and AE (P < 0.05) compared with HVs. In addition, 10-7G values were correlated with clinical examination parameters related to inflammation in patients with UC, particularly the CRP level (rs = 0.525, P = 0.003) and clinical activity index score (rs = 0.435, P = 0.038). However, there was no correlation between 10-7G values and CRP in HVs with high CRP levels, suggesting that the 10-7G values is not the same as a general inflammation biomarker. ROC curve analysis showed that area under the curve (AUC) value of 10-7G values for the diagnosis of endoscopic remission was higher than other biomarkers (AUC value = 0.699). The serum 10-7G value is a novel biomarker for evaluating intestinal inflamma-tion and endoscopic mucosal healing in UC.
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