Почвы и окружающая среда

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EISSN : 2618-6802
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Владимир Викторович Попов
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; doi:10.31251/pos.v3i1.106

Abstract:
The article describes main categories of soil moisture (hydroscopic, capillary, and gravitational, providing their brief characteristics, and discusses the main advantages and disadvantages of the methods that are currently used to study the liquid phase of soils, such as using water extracts and saturated pastes, displacing soil solution with a substitute liquid, pressing, centrifugation, lysimetry and studying soil liquid phase in situ.
Олег Александрович Савенков, Natalia Naumova
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; doi:10.31251/pos.v3i1.109

Abstract:
The article discusses some examples of incorrect methodology and terminology practice in soil research and publications. In particular, the authors draw attention to extremely inflated and unjustified use of the phrase “statistically significant”, to the controversy between the chemical determination and terminological definition of soil humus, to the inadequacy of using mass concentrations of chemical elements to inferring soil organic matter stoichiometry, to frequent interpreting empirical regression as if describing some conceptual relationship, to the principle impossibility to estimate bacteria and fungi numbers in soil by agar plate counts of colony-forming units. Based on the discussed examples, the authors conclude that the ease and the rate of the present-day communication flow will increasingly enhance the role of communication exchange in estimating the validity of results of a certain piece of scientific cognition, which will significantly increase the negative impact of consensuality, especially in soil science, as soil is one of the most complex natural bodies.
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; doi:10.31251/pos.v2i4.105

Abstract:
The article presents the results of annual heat dynamics in the soils of the main forest types in the central part of the northern taiga subzone of West Siberia. The general patterns of temperature dynamics at different depths are described, and the features of the forest soils temperature regimes revealed. The characteristic features of soil temperature regimes of drained arears and small rivers’ floodplains were compared with similar sites in the northern part of the subzone. The values of heat supply, heat transfer and temperature and thermal conductivity of the studied soils are discussed.
Мария Ивановна Дергачева, Алексадр Олегович Макеев
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; doi:10.31251/pos.v2i4.103

Abstract:
The article presents information about of the work of the International Scientific School on Paleopedology for Young Researchers. This school was conducted for ten years in Siberia in the Altai region, where unique Pleistocene loess-soil series are common and paleosoil horizons and modern soils are present simultaneously in one and the same soil profile. For ten years leading Russian and foreign scientists gave lectures both on fundamental theoretical and applied issues of paleopedology, as well as on a number of topical issues of related sciences, conducted master classes on the basic methods of field study of paleosols, and young researchers discussed their ideas and results. The article lists the main themes of the lectures/ naming Russian and foreign scientists who read them. It also informs about the monograph “Paleosols, the natural environment and methods for their diagnosis”, based on selected lectures at the School from its start until 2014 and published in Russian. Other selected lectures were published in two languages (Russian and English) in the series “Paleosols – a source of information about the Past environment”. The aricle draws attention to the key site "Volodarka" as being of great importance not only for conducting field master classes, but also as a convenient training ground for scientific research, since there occur various soil environment that can serve as models created by nature itself.
Наталья Александровна Мартынова, Виктория Юрьевна Власова
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; doi:10.31251/pos.v2i4.33

Abstract:
The aim of the study. To study the properties and genesis of natural soils of forest-steppe areas of Balagansk steppe. Location and time. The environs of Balagansk settlement in the Balagansky district of Irkutsk region, 2013-2018. Methodology. Combined field and laboratory studies of soil cover and soil properties using soil-morphological, pedo-lithological, climatostratigraphic, botanical, geological-geomorphological and comparative geographical methods, as well as various physical and chemical analyses. Main results. The study of soil properties of the Balagansk’ forest-steppe and assessment of their classification position revealed the basic regularities of geographical distribution of soils. In steppe areas of the studied region clay-illuvial and textural-carbonate chernozems were formed. The forest vegetation favoured the developed of residual-carbonate gray, dark gray, gray and dark gray metamorphic and burozemic soils; the floodplain areas are predominantly occupied by gley soils and dark-humus gleic soils. Conclusion. The study of soil and vegetation cover of the Balagansk’ forest-steppe showed that soils were developed on the eluvium-deluvium of carbonate Cambrian red-colored siltstones and loess cover and have sufficiently high natural fertility and ecological and resource potential. The soils of the investigated area are characterized by a large variety and complex polygenetic structure of the soil profile, which reflects the change of soil formation’ conditions during Holocene-Pleistocene.
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; doi:10.31251/pos.v2i3.91

Abstract:
The aim of the study. To carry out a comparative assessment of the magnesium status in soils, situated on the various hypsometric levels of sloped agrolandscape and with different soil organic matter content by measuring total, mobile (exchangeable) and water-soluble magnesium in soils and to compare different analytical methods for determining magnesium in soils and plants. Location and time of the study. The study site was located in the Cis-Salair drained plain in the south-east of West Siberia (55˚02΄20˝N; 83˚50΄00˝E), administratively being within the boundaries of the Toguchin district of the Novosibirsk region, Russia. Altitude increments were marked on the slope positions of the investigated plot of 225 hectares in area and 4 km in length: the upper part of the slope BCI (280-310 m a.s.l. ), the midslope BCII (260-280 m) and BCIII (220-260 m), and the lower slope BCIV (190-220 m) (see figure 1). Soil and plant samples were collected in July 2013. Materials and methods. Prevailing soils were podzolized and leached chernozems, dark-gray and gray-forest soils according to the classification of soils of the USSR (1977), which correspond to clayey-illuvial eluvialed and dark-tongue agrochernozems, agro-dark gray soils and agro-gray soils to according of the Russian soil classification (2004, 2008), or Luvic Greyzemic Chernozems, Haplic Chernozems, Luvic Greyzemic Phaeozems, Luvic Retic Greyzemic Phaeozems by WRB Soil Classification (2014) (see table 1, figure 1). Individual soil samples (n=55) were taken with a drill from 0-30 cm layer (ploughed horizon) according to an irregular grid. The aboveground phytomass stock of oat-pea mixture (n=38) was collected using the hay cutting method on the ​​0.25 m2 area. The geographical coordinates of the soil and plant sampling sites were determined using the geopositioning system (GPS, Garmin eTrex Vista). The soil samples were analyzed for organic carbon content by dichromate digestion. Overall the studied soils were grouped according to soil organic matter (SOM) content into high-SOM (5-8%) and medium-SOM soils (3-5%). Total magnesium (Mgtot) was measured in dry powdered samples by atomic emission spectrometry; mobile (exchangeable) magnesium was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry using 1 M KCl, 1 M CH3COONH4, 0.1 M C4H4O5(NH4)2 and 0.5 M CH3COOH as extracting solutions. The same extracts were used to measure water-soluble magnesium atomic absorption spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis. The content of total magnesium in plants was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry using two methods of sample digestion, namely wet ashing in a mixture of sulfuric and perchloric acids and dry ashing followed by quantitative transfer of the digest with 1 M HCl. Magnesium content in soils and plants was presented per element and calculated on the air-dry mass basis. Statistical analyses (descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, calculation of student criterion and Mann-Whitney...
Akif Pasha Oglu Geraizade, Chingiz Gyulaly Oglu Gulalyev, Александр Валентинович Чичулин, Vladimir A. Androkhanov
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; doi:10.31251/pos.v2i4.92

Abstract:
The article gives some biographical information and a brief outline of scientific and organizational activities of the Academician, Professor Vladimir Rodionovich Volobuev, who made an outstanding contribution to the study of the fundamental and applied properties of soils. The article also highlights his role in the development of new scientific directions, namely soil ecology and the soil formation energetics.
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