Почвы и окружающая среда

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EISSN : 2618-6802
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, Oleg A. Savenkov, Tatiana Yu. Alikina, Yury V. Fotev
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; doi:10.31251/pos.v3i3.128

Abstract:
The aim of the study. The aim was to profile 16S rRNA gene diversity and to assess functional potential of bacterial assemblages in the rhizosphere of some unconventional vegetables grown in protected greenhouse conditions in West Siberia. Location and time of the study. Novosibirsk, Russia, 2016. Methodology. At the end of the growing season in the middle of September the rhizosphere soil was collected from the plants of wax gourd (Benincasa hispida), bitter melon (Momordica charantia), kiwano (Cucumis metuliferus) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) grown on peat-based substrate in a polyethylene-protected greenhouse that has been in operation for more than 40 years. The metagenomic DNA was extracted and amplified with V3-V4 primers for 16S rRNA genes, and the amplicons sequenced with Illumina MiSeq. The obtained OTUs tables were used to predict putative functions by running through the FAPROTAX database. Main results. The rhizosphere bacteriobiome was dominated by Proteobacteria (32±11% of the total number of sequence reads), Acidobacteria (23±7%) and Actinobacteria (18±3%) phyla, together accounting for about three quarters of the rhizosphere bacteriobiome. In total 20 bacterial phyla were found. The rhizosphere bacteriobiome was surprisingly diverse with Shannon index ranging 7.0–7.5. The number of the observed operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per sample was very high, ranging 4,500–4,900, and the potential number of OTUs estimated as 5,100–5,700; all those OTUs were evenly and equitably represented in the bacteriobiome, and dominance indices (Simpson dominance and Berger-Parker) were very low. The main dominant OTU represented Bradyrhizobiaceae family and accounted for just 1% on average. Overall the study identified 27 OTUs belonging to the Bradyrhizobiaceae family, but only four of them were ascribed to nitrogen fixation by FAPROTAX. Function prediction by FAPROTAX also suggested that bacteriobiome had a marked potential for the carbon cycle, denitrification, aromatic compound and plant polymer degradation, but no plant pathogens. The biggest difference in rhizosphere bacteriobiome diversity was observed between the bitter melon and the other three vegetable crops: bitter melon had much increased abundance of Arthrobacter and Sphingomonas as compared with wax gourd, kiwano and cowpea, and increased number of bacterial species associated with aromatic compounds degradation. Conclusion. Based on the finding that the studied rhizosphere bacteriobiomes were very diverse, we conclude that the crops were able to recruit diverse microbiota from the peat-based soil substrate, which, in its turn, means that diverse soil substrate microbiota has been sustained over several decades of the greenhouse operation. All crops apparently shaped distinct bacteriobiomes in their rhizosphere, which ideally should be included into studies of plant-associated bacterial diversity profiles for breeding and sustainable production.
Наталья Александровна Соколова
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; doi:10.31251/pos.v3i3.123

Abstract:
January 14, 2021 marks the 20th anniversary of the Foundation of the Soil Museum of the ISSA SB RAS. The formation and functioning of the Museum was dictated both by the amount of knowledge accumulated by the beginning of the XXI century about the soils of Siberia, and the need for broad education of the population in connection with urgent environmental problems. The advantages of the academic Museum are serious scientific support of collections, an opportunity for visitors to immerse themselves in the research environment, to touch science "first-hand". Soil science is a multidisciplinary science, so knowledge about soils is interesting not only for soil scientists themselves, but also for other scientists, i.e. botanists, geologists, geographers and other specialists in the field of agriculture, nature users, students, schoolchildren, etc. The Soil Museum today is a dynamic, developing structure aimed at accumulating and disseminating knowledge about soils, their development and functioning, overall aimed at the formation of a responsible attitude to the environment.
Ольга Александровна Русалимова, Павел Анатольевич Барсуков
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; doi:10.31251/pos.v3i3.119

Abstract:
The aim of research: Study the possibility of using a mixture of sodium salts of mono- and dicarboxylic acids as a plant growth stimulant for pre-sowing treatment of spring wheat seeds. Location and time of the study. West Siberia, 2016. Methodology. Evaluation of the effectiveness of alkaline effluent from caprolactam production (AECP) on germination of spring wheat seeds in two incubation experiments for 3 and 8 days and a laboratory experiment (in the light) for 11 days with seed pre-sowing treatment at different doses of AECP ranging from 0 to 90 liters/ton of seed. Results. In a series of experiments, it was found that AECP, which is a mixture of sodium salts of carboxylic acids, can be used as a plant growth stimulant for pre-sowing treatment of spring wheat seeds. The dosage of AECP is of utmost importance, the top limit of the application rate is recommended as 30 liters of AECP per a ton of seed. The most pronounced positive effect of the growth stimulant was displayed at the rate of 20 l/t. This AECP rate contributed to an increase in germinal root and leaf weight by 35% and 30%, respectively, compared with the control when seeds were germinated in the light for 11 days. Seed germination and the proportion of seedlings with leaves ≥ 3 cm in length were also maximal at this AECP application rate. Conclusions. To stimulate the germination of spring wheat, it is recommended to use AECP for pre-sowing treatment at the rate of 15– 20 liters per ton of seed.
Александр Сергеевич Чумбаев, Анатолий Алексеевич Танасиенко, Герман Федорович Миллер, Сергей Викторович Соловьев
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; doi:10.31251/pos.v3i3.117

Abstract:
This article is about the changes in climatic characteristics during the cold period of the hydrological year in the southeast of Western Siberia over the past 60 years and their impact on the depth of soil freezing in dissected territories. It has been established that at the regional level over the past 60 years there has been an increase in air temperature and an increase in precipitation during cold periods of hydrological years. These changes have a direct impact on the depth of freezing of soils in the dismembered territories of the southeast of Western Siberia. A stable tendency towards a decrease in the freezing depth was noted from 1968 to 2020.
Svetlana Yu. Kapustyanchik, Vladimir N. Yakimenko
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; doi:10.31251/pos.v3i3.126

Abstract:
The literature review provides information about one of the most promising energy crops – miscanthus (Miscanthus). Data on the systematics, morphology and phonology of the plant, its yield and the quality of the resulting cellulose-containing raw materials are presented. The possibility of effective cultivation of perennial miscanthus plantations in continental regions, including Russia, is shown. The results of studies of the environmental and phytomeliorative effects of miscanthus plantings on the agricultural landscape are considered. The work on studying the possibilities of obtaining industrial products with high added value from miscanthus biomass is analyzed.
Нина Аркадьевна Шапорина, Ekaterina A. Sayb
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; doi:10.31251/pos.v3i2.118

Abstract:
The aim of the study. The aim of the study was to estimate heterogeneity of moisture-related soil physical properties in a sequence of degraded hillslope soils in the cis-Salair region. The main tasks were to examine spatial fluctuations and changes in morphological and agrophysical properties of soils, differing in erosion degree, and assess their variability. Location and time of the study. The study was conducted in the forest-steppe zone in the Bugotak Hills (Novosibirsk region, Russia). A sequence of arable soils located along the 411 m convex hillslope with south-eastern exposition was investigated since July 01 till August 15, 2016. Main results. The article describes the variation of soil density, moisture content and temperature in a sequence of hillslope soils. The variation in the ploughed layer was found to be quite high, depending on the sampling scale. Examination of the spatial variability of the soil hydrophysical properties showed that the non-eroded podzolised chernozem (Luvic Greyzemic Chernozem) and toeslope meadow soil (Gleyic Greyzemic Phaeozem, Colluvic)had the highest density. The lower temperatures were recorded in the slightly eroded dark-gray forest soil (Luvic Greyzemic Phaeozem) and in the toeslope meadow soil, accumulating soil material eroded from the topslope. The temperature difference range between the “cold” and “warm” soils was 1.8 °С. Conclusions. Such studies have important prospects in development and introduction of agricultural technologies that are landscape-adapted, especially in areas with diverse relief and eroded soils. The main focus of such research should be the anti-erosion landscaping. The problem needs to be further studied within the framework of targeting the anti-erosion measures to geographic regions and natural zones.
Alexander V. Сhichulin
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; doi:10.31251/pos.v3i2.116

Abstract:
Aim of the study. The aim of the work was to review critically the practice of applying system approach in soil research and identify existing problems; to consider the cognitive potential of micro- and macroscopic approaches in computational simulation of soil-bioclimatic regularities. Methodology. Mathematical simulation. Results of the study. A new mesoscopic approach to the study of the structure of soil-bioclimatic areas is proposed. It is based on two principles referred to as the principle of invariance and the principle of optimality. Application of these principles makes it possible to express the regularities in soil-climate relationship in the form of a single universal quantitative dependence. The study showed that a mathematical model built on the basis of these principles resulted in the emergence of new generalized concepts, logically combining the previously considered to be unrelated concepts of hydro- and thermal series introduced by V.R. Volobuev, the Vysotsky - Ivanov moisture coefficient and the radiation dryness index by M. Budyko. In addition, the simulation showed that the concepts elucidating the indicator of the radiation energy utilization by biogeocenosis were represented by the interrelated coefficients of the heat and precipitation utilization in soils. The coefficients were also shown to have specific values ​​for different soil-bioclimatic areas. On the basis of the new indicators, soils were grouped in such a way as to produce patterns essentially different in many details from the conventional grouping. Conclusions. The new concepts represent a unified integral system, and the approach as a whole can be considered as an alternative physico-theoretical way to describe natural laws and regularities by using extreme (variational) methodology.
Argenta A. Titlyanova, Чайзу Суван-Ооловна Кыргыс,
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; doi:10.31251/pos.v3i2.113

Abstract:
The aim of the study. To investigate specifics of plant production process in steppe pastures in Tyva. Location and place of the study. The study was performed in 1998-2000 and 2008-2010 in five pasture ecosystems in the Ubsu-Nur depression in Tyva, Russia. Methodology. Field and laboratory work was carried out to assess the biological productivity of pasture ecosystems employing conventional geobotanical, botanical and ecological methods. Main results. The study showed that all characteristics of production process change with grazing pressure and weather conditions of the year. The highest grazing pressure was observed at the Erzin pasture, whereas the lowest pressure was found at the Yamaalyg one. The green phytomass stock (G) at the Erzin pasture during all years varied within 0.3–0.6 Mg ha-1, whereas the living belowground stock (R) during six years ranged 4.5–11.5 Mg ha-1. The Yamaalyg pasture had the lowest and the highest G of 0.5 and 1.1 Mg ha-1, respectively, with the minimal and maximal R estimates of 7.8 and 20.1 Mg ha-1, respectively. Therefore it was concluded that both under the highest (Erzin) and lowest (Yamaalyg) grazing pressure the between-years dynamics (over six years) may change as much as 2–3 times. Phytomass production was shown to vary much more. The aboveground production (ANP) at Erzin pasture was found to change from 0.4 to 1.2 Mg ha-1yr-1, i.e.3-fold. At the Yamaalyg pasture ANP changed 1.2 to 2.0 Mg ha-1yr-1. The belowground phytomass production (BNP) was shown to vary much more as compared with the aboveground production: from 2.7 to 24.5 Mg ha-1yr-1. Some production characteristics were shown to be weather-associated. At one and the same pasture (Onchalaan), depending on the weather conditions, ANP and BNP were found to vary 4 times, i.e. from 0.9 to 3.7 Mg ha-1yr-1 and from 4 to 18 Mg ha-1yr-1, respectively. The highest grazing pressure resulted in less yearly variation, as ANP ranged 0.4–0.8 Mg ha-1yr-1, and BNP ranged 5–8 Mg ha-1yr-1. Such lesser variation was apparently due to the higher resilience of the dominating herbs and grasses to grazing. Analysis of the influence of weather conditions showed that abundant summer precipitation resulted in the highest ANP estimates. No correlation was revealed between BNP and weather conditions. Overall seasonal hydrothermal conditions, such as warm and wet autumn of the preceeding year and rainy summer of the current year) were beneficial for the aboveground plant production. Conclusion. The phytomass stock the in grazed dry steppes of Tyva was found to vary more as compared with phytomass production. Belowground production showed especially drastic changes from year to year. Increased ANP almost always results in decreased belowground living phytomass stock and often in decreased BNP due to modified nitrogen turnover under grazing. The BNP estimate is extremely volatile and does not follow the aboveground phytomass dynamics.The highest BNP in 2008 could not be attributed only to weather conditions, being most likely due to the increased solar radiation. Spatial and temporal dynamics of the phytomass production showed that the maximal green phytomass and dead belowground phytomass stocks, as well as ANP, displayed greater spatial variation as compared with the temporal one. Overall we conclude that despite different methods to study phytomass production, its spatial and temporal variation is about the same.
Natalia B. Naumova
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; doi:10.31251/pos.v3i2.124

Argenta A. Titlyanova, Nataliya P. Kosykh, Svetlana S. Kurbatskaya, Чайзу Суван-Ооловна Кыргыс, Нина Петровна Миронычева-Токарева, Ирина Петровна Романова, Анна Доржуевна Самбуу, Светлана Васильевна Шибарева
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; doi:10.31251/pos.v3i2.110

Abstract:
The aim of the study. The aim of the study was to estimate biological productivity of Tyva grasslands. Location and time of the study. The living and dead above- and belowground phytomass, as well as net primary production, were estimated in the montane ecosystems and depressions of the Tyva Republic, Russia. Methodology. Field and laboratory studies of the biological production by grasslands were conducted using botanical, geobotanical and ecological methods. Main results. In the montane ecosystems the aboveground phytomass production was shown to range from 1.3 to 3.6 Mg ha-1 yr-1, whereas the belowground production was evaluated as ranging 10-65 Mg ha-1 yr-1. The belowground production was found to vary widely, being associated with location of mountain ridges, slope geomorphology and grazing, but no association was found with the altitude. In depressions the average green phytomass stock changed from 0.7 to 1.9 Mg ha-1, living belowground phytomass varied 3.4 to 19.3 Mg ha-1. From the meadow steppes to the deserted ones the living above- and belowground stocks decreased 2.7 and 5.7 fold, respectively, whereas the above- and belowground production was estimated to decrease 3 and 4 times, respectively. Several indices to characterize the growth and development, hence the productivity, of herbaceous plants was proposed. The values of the indices calculated for the Tyva grasslands suggested high photosynthetic activity: all studied steppes had the same share of belowground production in the total ecosystem production, i.e. 90%. The turnover rate of the living belowground phytomass was estimated to increase from meadow steppes to the deserted ones, whereas green phytomass increment, as related to its stock, slightly decreased. Conclusions. The living belowground phytomass stock was found to exceed the green phytomass stock by 5-8 times, both in montane ecosystems and depressions. Preservation of living belowground organs during hot dry summers and cold winters, when soil freezes through, is apparently indispensable for grassland survival under any climatic conditions.
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