Почвы и окружающая среда

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EISSN : 2618-6802
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Вячеслав Генрихович Мордкович, Ilya I. Lyubechanskii
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; doi:10.31251/pos.v3i4.131

Abstract:
The review describes the main stages of the formation and development of soil zoology as a science at the intersection of zoology, ecology and soil science, approximately over a century, i.e. from the beginning of the 1920s until now. The analysis of soil-zoological work carried out in the forest-steppe zone, the subject of which was the fauna and population of soil protozoa, worms, molluscs, microarthropods and larger arthropods, collectively referred to as mesofauna. The forest-steppe was chosen as the topic of the review because it is well-studied and because most of the work on this biome was published in Russian, and little is known abroad (which is not surprising, since more than 80% of the forest-steppe territory is located in Russia). The authors reviewed about 170 the most significant works inventorying soil fauna, analyzing its ecological structure and the functional role of its various components, as well as the studies of the anthropogenic impact on soil animal populations. The works are presented on a territorial basis: the west of the European part of the USSR (Russia), the Volga region and West Siberia. The high species richness and originality of the soil fauna in the forest-steppe, its high resistance to natural and anthropogenic influences were shown. At the end, the review indicates some promising directions for soil fauna research in the Russian forest-steppe.
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; doi:10.31251/pos.v3i4.130

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The aim of the study was to estimate changes in chemical composition of the white birch litter during decomposition in a laboratory experiment simulating leaching and salinization. Location and time of the study. Fresh litter of Betula pendula leaves were collected in the forest-steppe zone of Priobskoe plateau (40 km to the east of Novosibirsk, Russia) in October 2016. The incubation experiment was carried out in the laboratory of Agrochemistry of the Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Novosibirsk, Russia) during 105 days (24.05.2017–06.09.2017) at 24˚С). Methodology. Distilled water (50 ml) or the same volume of NaCl, Na2SO4, FeCl3, Fe2(SO4)3 solutions with concentrations of 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1% were added to 2 g of air-dried birch litter (leaves). The litter was placed into 100 ml plastic cups. The salt concentration in solutions was chosen according to the soil salinity gradation, i.e. 0.3% as weak (0.2–0.4%), 0,5% as medium (0.4–0.6%), 0,7% as strong (0.6–0.8%), and 1% as solonchak (Classification…, 1977). After 24 hours surplus water or salt solutions were decanted and filtered, and the birch litter was air-dried. After that 5 ml soil-water suspension (soil:distilled water 1: 2.5 m/v) was added into half of the cups with litter, whereas another half of cups with litter received 5 ml of distilled water. The variant with litter and no water was also included, designated as “dry birch litter”. The cups with litter were closed up and incubated during 105 days in the thermostat (+24 °С) with periodic ventilation. After incubation the litter was air-dried and weighed. The litter mass loss after decomposition was calculated as a difference between a sample mass at the beginning and at the end of the experiment and expressed as percentage. Concentrations of Na, Fe, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Ni were determined by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry (AAnalyst 400, Perkin Elmer Inc., USA) in water samples, 0,3–1% salt solutions and birch litter. The total number of cups with litter in the experiment was 150. The term «under leaching» refers to the decrease in chemical element concentration in the litter after incubation with water. The term «under salinization» refers to the increase of Na or Fe concentrations in the litter after incubation with salt solutions. The litter mass loss presented as air-dry mass, concentration of chemical elements in the litter and ash content are expressed on the oven- dry mass basis. Results. Under leaching the concentration of chemical elements was increased in water extracts (especially К, Са, Mg) and decreased in birch litter in the row: Na (3.6 times) –>К (2.4 times) –> Ni (1.9 times) –> Mg (1.4 times) –> Zn and Cu (1.3 times). In comparison with water, the interaction between litter and Na and Fe salt solutions (concentrations 0.3–1%) led to intensive leaching and, correspondingly, to the 1.3 times lower litter К content, as well as 1.2–1.5 times and 1.5-2.2 times lower Са and Mg content, respectively. The highest concentration of Са, Mg, Zn, Cu, Ni was detected in FeCl3 solutions at the start of the experiment. The maximal mass and ash content losses were detected in the dry birch litter. On average, leaching was found to decrease 1.4 times mass loss and ash content in the litter. The minimal mass and ash content losses under salinization were found after litter incubation with FeCl3 (0.3–1%) solutions. The difference in mass loss between variants litter-water and litter-soil water suspension was not detected, although litter ash content after addition of soil water suspension was 1.1–1.3 times higher. Conclusions. The interaction birch litter with water and Na and Fe salt solutions (0,3-1%) led to modification of elemental chemical composition of plant litter as a result of leaching of chemical elements (especially К, Са, Mg) from litter and increased concentrations of Na, Fe and some other elements (depending on the salt used). It led to the decrease in plant litter decomposition rate, which under the natural conditions in the south of West Siberia can take place as a result of temporary overwetting of the forest litter (for instance, in autumn or spring) as well as in areas occupied by saline soils.
Евгения Александровна Гуркова, Vladimir A. Androkhanov, Алексей Тимофеевич Лавриненко
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; doi:10.31251/pos.v3i4.127

Abstract:
The article analyses Khakassia environmental conditions with the aim to estimate their resources and role in the efficient reclamation of coal mining spoils. The availability of potentially fertile soil substrate as a resource for large-scale reclamation was evaluated by the thickness of the quaternary clay and loamy bedrock layers, taking into account the amount of the substrate needed for reclamation. The availability of resources of the potentially fertile soil substrate was carried out by taking into account the thickness and soil bulk density of the humus horizon of the most fertile soils of the region, and considering the obtained estimayes within the framework of the methodical rules and normative regulations for optimal reclamation. The availability of hydrothermal resources was estimated by active temperature sums and hydrothermal coefficient. Overall the distribution of reclamation resources was found to be very uneven throughout the region. In the south of Khakassia with its large areas occupied by technogenic landscapes the reclamation resources were concluded to be in deficit, insufficient for carrying out the reclamation according with the optimal protocols. Such lack of resources is indirectly confirmed by prevailing areas occupied by self-revegetating coal mining spoils. The article also describes some successful reclamation examples where specific local environmental conditions were used in such a way as to decrease the effect of deficient resources, thus increasing the efficacy of the self-restoration of technogenic landscapes.
, Oleg A. Savenkov, , Yury V. Fotev
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; doi:10.31251/pos.v3i3.128

Abstract:
The aim of the study. The aim was to profile 16S rRNA gene diversity and to assess functional potential of bacterial assemblages in the rhizosphere of some unconventional vegetables grown in protected greenhouse conditions in West Siberia. Location and time of the study. Novosibirsk, Russia, 2016. Methodology. At the end of the growing season in the middle of September the rhizosphere soil was collected from the plants of wax gourd (Benincasa hispida), bitter melon (Momordica charantia), kiwano (Cucumis metuliferus) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) grown on peat-based substrate in a polyethylene-protected greenhouse that has been in operation for more than 40 years. The metagenomic DNA was extracted and amplified with V3-V4 primers for 16S rRNA genes, and the amplicons sequenced with Illumina MiSeq. The obtained OTUs tables were used to predict putative functions by running through the FAPROTAX database. Main results. The rhizosphere bacteriobiome was dominated by Proteobacteria (32±11% of the total number of sequence reads), Acidobacteria (23±7%) and Actinobacteria (18±3%) phyla, together accounting for about three quarters of the rhizosphere bacteriobiome. In total 20 bacterial phyla were found. The rhizosphere bacteriobiome was surprisingly diverse with Shannon index ranging 7.0–7.5. The number of the observed operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per sample was very high, ranging 4,500–4,900, and the potential number of OTUs estimated as 5,100–5,700; all those OTUs were evenly and equitably represented in the bacteriobiome, and dominance indices (Simpson dominance and Berger-Parker) were very low. The main dominant OTU represented Bradyrhizobiaceae family and accounted for just 1% on average. Overall the study identified 27 OTUs belonging to the Bradyrhizobiaceae family, but only four of them were ascribed to nitrogen fixation by FAPROTAX. Function prediction by FAPROTAX also suggested that bacteriobiome had a marked potential for the carbon cycle, denitrification, aromatic compound and plant polymer degradation, but no plant pathogens. The biggest difference in rhizosphere bacteriobiome diversity was observed between the bitter melon and the other three vegetable crops: bitter melon had much increased abundance of Arthrobacter and Sphingomonas as compared with wax gourd, kiwano and cowpea, and increased number of bacterial species associated with aromatic compounds degradation. Conclusion. Based on the finding that the studied rhizosphere bacteriobiomes were very diverse, we conclude that the crops were able to recruit diverse microbiota from the peat-based soil substrate, which, in its turn, means that diverse soil substrate microbiota has been sustained over several decades of the greenhouse operation. All crops apparently shaped distinct bacteriobiomes in their rhizosphere, which ideally should be included into studies of plant-associated bacterial diversity profiles for breeding and sustainable production.
Ольга Александровна Русалимова, Павел Анатольевич Барсуков
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; doi:10.31251/pos.v3i3.119

Abstract:
The aim of research: Study the possibility of using a mixture of sodium salts of mono- and dicarboxylic acids as a plant growth stimulant for pre-sowing treatment of spring wheat seeds. Location and time of the study. West Siberia, 2016. Methodology. Evaluation of the effectiveness of alkaline effluent from caprolactam production (AECP) on germination of spring wheat seeds in two incubation experiments for 3 and 8 days and a laboratory experiment (in the light) for 11 days with seed pre-sowing treatment at different doses of AECP ranging from 0 to 90 liters/ton of seed. Results. In a series of experiments, it was found that AECP, which is a mixture of sodium salts of carboxylic acids, can be used as a plant growth stimulant for pre-sowing treatment of spring wheat seeds. The dosage of AECP is of utmost importance, the top limit of the application rate is recommended as 30 liters of AECP per a ton of seed. The most pronounced positive effect of the growth stimulant was displayed at the rate of 20 l/t. This AECP rate contributed to an increase in germinal root and leaf weight by 35% and 30%, respectively, compared with the control when seeds were germinated in the light for 11 days. Seed germination and the proportion of seedlings with leaves ≥ 3 cm in length were also maximal at this AECP application rate. Conclusions. To stimulate the germination of spring wheat, it is recommended to use AECP for pre-sowing treatment at the rate of 15– 20 liters per ton of seed.
Наталья Александровна Соколова
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; doi:10.31251/pos.v3i3.123

Abstract:
January 14, 2021 marks the 20th anniversary of the Foundation of the Soil Museum of the ISSA SB RAS. The formation and functioning of the Museum was dictated both by the amount of knowledge accumulated by the beginning of the XXI century about the soils of Siberia, and the need for broad education of the population in connection with urgent environmental problems. The advantages of the academic Museum are serious scientific support of collections, an opportunity for visitors to immerse themselves in the research environment, to touch science "first-hand". Soil science is a multidisciplinary science, so knowledge about soils is interesting not only for soil scientists themselves, but also for other scientists, i.e. botanists, geologists, geographers and other specialists in the field of agriculture, nature users, students, schoolchildren, etc. The Soil Museum today is a dynamic, developing structure aimed at accumulating and disseminating knowledge about soils, their development and functioning, overall aimed at the formation of a responsible attitude to the environment.
, Анатолий Алексеевич Танасиенко, Герман Федорович Миллер, Сергей Викторович Соловьев
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; doi:10.31251/pos.v3i3.117

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This article is about the changes in climatic characteristics during the cold period of the hydrological year in the southeast of Western Siberia over the past 60 years and their impact on the depth of soil freezing in dissected territories. It has been established that at the regional level over the past 60 years there has been an increase in air temperature and an increase in precipitation during cold periods of hydrological years. These changes have a direct impact on the depth of freezing of soils in the dismembered territories of the southeast of Western Siberia. A stable tendency towards a decrease in the freezing depth was noted from 1968 to 2020.
Svetlana Yu. Kapustyanchik, Vladimir N. Yakimenko
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; doi:10.31251/pos.v3i3.126

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The literature review provides information about one of the most promising energy crops – miscanthus (Miscanthus). Data on the systematics, morphology and phonology of the plant, its yield and the quality of the resulting cellulose-containing raw materials are presented. The possibility of effective cultivation of perennial miscanthus plantations in continental regions, including Russia, is shown. The results of studies of the environmental and phytomeliorative effects of miscanthus plantings on the agricultural landscape are considered. The work on studying the possibilities of obtaining industrial products with high added value from miscanthus biomass is analyzed.
Alexander V. Сhichulin
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; doi:10.31251/pos.v3i2.116

Abstract:
Aim of the study. The aim of the work was to review critically the practice of applying system approach in soil research and identify existing problems; to consider the cognitive potential of micro- and macroscopic approaches in computational simulation of soil-bioclimatic regularities. Methodology. Mathematical simulation. Results of the study. A new mesoscopic approach to the study of the structure of soil-bioclimatic areas is proposed. It is based on two principles referred to as the principle of invariance and the principle of optimality. Application of these principles makes it possible to express the regularities in soil-climate relationship in the form of a single universal quantitative dependence. The study showed that a mathematical model built on the basis of these principles resulted in the emergence of new generalized concepts, logically combining the previously considered to be unrelated concepts of hydro- and thermal series introduced by V.R. Volobuev, the Vysotsky - Ivanov moisture coefficient and the radiation dryness index by M. Budyko. In addition, the simulation showed that the concepts elucidating the indicator of the radiation energy utilization by biogeocenosis were represented by the interrelated coefficients of the heat and precipitation utilization in soils. The coefficients were also shown to have specific values ​​for different soil-bioclimatic areas. On the basis of the new indicators, soils were grouped in such a way as to produce patterns essentially different in many details from the conventional grouping. Conclusions. The new concepts represent a unified integral system, and the approach as a whole can be considered as an alternative physico-theoretical way to describe natural laws and regularities by using extreme (variational) methodology.
Нина Аркадьевна Шапорина, Ekaterina A. Sayb
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; doi:10.31251/pos.v3i2.118

Abstract:
The aim of the study. The aim of the study was to estimate heterogeneity of moisture-related soil physical properties in a sequence of degraded hillslope soils in the cis-Salair region. The main tasks were to examine spatial fluctuations and changes in morphological and agrophysical properties of soils, differing in erosion degree, and assess their variability. Location and time of the study. The study was conducted in the forest-steppe zone in the Bugotak Hills (Novosibirsk region, Russia). A sequence of arable soils located along the 411 m convex hillslope with south-eastern exposition was investigated since July 01 till August 15, 2016. Main results. The article describes the variation of soil density, moisture content and temperature in a sequence of hillslope soils. The variation in the ploughed layer was found to be quite high, depending on the sampling scale. Examination of the spatial variability of the soil hydrophysical properties showed that the non-eroded podzolised chernozem (Luvic Greyzemic Chernozem) and toeslope meadow soil (Gleyic Greyzemic Phaeozem, Colluvic)had the highest density. The lower temperatures were recorded in the slightly eroded dark-gray forest soil (Luvic Greyzemic Phaeozem) and in the toeslope meadow soil, accumulating soil material eroded from the topslope. The temperature difference range between the “cold” and “warm” soils was 1.8 °С. Conclusions. Such studies have important prospects in development and introduction of agricultural technologies that are landscape-adapted, especially in areas with diverse relief and eroded soils. The main focus of such research should be the anti-erosion landscaping. The problem needs to be further studied within the framework of targeting the anti-erosion measures to geographic regions and natural zones.
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