Почвы и окружающая среда

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ISSN / EISSN : 2618-6802 / 2618-6802
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Нина Шапорина, Екатерина Александровна Сайб
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v4i2.146

Abstract:
Цель исследования: проследить закономерность распределения температуры почв по профилю в условиях склоновых территорий (Предсалаирье). Для достижения цели были поставлены следующие задачи: оценка температурного режима почв Предсалаирья, находящихся в сельскохозяйственном использовании; изучение закономерностей изменения температуры в течение суток и выявление возможной взаимосвязи с почвенно-физическими свойствами исследуемых участков; выявление зависимости формирования температурного поля от почвенных свойств. Место и время проведения. Исследования проводились в лесостепной зоне, в пределах Буготакского мелкосопочника (55°03′ с.ш.; 88°50′ в.д.). Объектом исследования стал ряд почв выпуклого склона (длина 411 м) юго-восточной экспозиции. Было заложено пять полнопрофильных разрезов, недалеко от которых были установлены автономные температурные датчики (DS-1921G «Thermochron») через каждые 5 см до глубины 50 см, фиксирующие температуру каждые полчаса. Период наблюдения – с 1 июля по 15 августа 2016 года. Основные результаты. Температурное поле пахотных почв склоновых поверхностей Предсалаирья является латерально неоднородным. Исследования показали, что пространственная изменчивость таких показателей, как влажность и плотность почв, в значительной степени влияет на теплопроводность почвенных горизонтов и является основной причиной неоднородности температурного поля. Рельеф, микрорельеф и экспозиция склона также играют важную роль в перераспределении влаги, неоднородности уплотнения и, соответственно, способствуют неравномерному прогреву верхних почвенных горизонтов. В наблюдениях как за суточным ходом температур в почвах при различных погодных условиях, так и за их сезонными колебаниями установлено, что расхождения в температурах сопряженных почв составляют 0,5–2 °С. Заключение. Температурный режим почв является определяющим фактором функционирования агроэкосистем, от которого зависит интенсивность протекания большинства процессов в почвах. Исследования, основанные на количественных оценках интенсивности внутрипочвенных процессов при различной температуре, становятся всё более востребованы в самых разных областях, особенно при прогнозировании развития эрозионных процессов, или, например, при регулировании продукционного процесса сельскохозяйственных экосистем. А как показало данное исследование, температурный режим почв даже в пределах одного поля может значительно варьировать.
Natalia A. Tikhomirova, Таисия Владимирована Нечаева, Vladimir N. Yakimenko
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v4i1.144

Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v4i1.136

Abstract:
The article describes a detailed algorithm to recompute the size of the elementary soil particles obtained by Kachinsky technique (a method conventionally used by Russian soil scientists) into the international granulometric size distribution pattern of 2000-50-2 µm using the formula introduced by E.V. Shein in 2009. The article also describes step-by-step procedures to create Ferrers diagrams using the soiltexture”, “plotrix” и “ggtern”packages in R environment. One of the advantages of R software is its free distribution and usage, vast range of options for the diagram settings, and, in the process of doing so, accruing the experience of working with a very popular language for statistical analysis and data visualization.
Денис Александрович Соколов, Nikilai V. Usoltsev, Игорь Николаевич Госсен, Сергей Владимирович Морозов
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v4i1.133

Abstract:
The aim of the study. To monitor and assess the chemical composition of the solid aerosols deposited in the snow in the area affected by the technological road of the Gorlov anthracite mining site. Location and time of the study. The study was conducted in the Iskitim district of the Novosibirsk region (54.58o N, 83.57o E) in 2018–2020. Methodology. The content of total solids in snow was measured by gravimetric method after filtering the melted snow sample through the filter with 0.22 µm mesh size. Micromorphology of the solids was studied by using scanning electron microscope Hitachi TM-3000 (Japan) with attached EDS detector console Bruker Quantax 70 for the element analysis of the surface. The carbon content, С/Н and C/N ratios were determined by dry combustion using the СHN-analyzer (Perkin Elmer 2400 Series II, USA). The content and composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined by gas chromatography using Agilent Technologies АТ 6890N with AT 5975N mass-selective detector and AT 7683B autosampler. Main results. The article presents the results of the three-years long study of the solids accumulated in snow along the technological road in the north of the Gorlov anthracite basin. The influence of the automobile road used for the anthracite transportation was shown to reach as far as 2000 m in all directions. The snow cover was found to accumulate from 1.4 to 1131.6 g/m2 of deposited aerosol solids. Those solids were mostly represented by coal particles, the carbon content ranging 26.5–64.1% and increasing with the distance from the road. The aerosol solids, accumulated in snow, were found to contain significant amounts of PAH, including the carcinogenic ones. In the snow samples collected at 25–2000 m off the road, carcinogenic PAH content was found to be 9–13000 times higher than at the control site remoted from the road. Conclusion. The presented study helped to elucidate the factors, contributing to decreasing the spread of the anthracite solids during automobile transportation. Such spread can be attained by a) establishing wide multi-storeyed forested protective belts along technological automobile roads; b) compulsory covering of the loads in the coal-transporting vehicles; c) decreasing the speed limit of the vehicles; and d) taking into consideration a wind rose while projecting locations new automobile roads and coal mining spoils.
, Елена Николаевна Ручко, Олег Александрович Савенков, Валентина Ивановна Плешакова
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v4i1.141

Abstract:
The aim of the study. The aim of the study was to review publication about microbiome of chicken manure, chicken manure compost, as well as soil and crop microbiome after compost addition to soil as a fertilizer. Methodology. A search in the bibliographical data bases PubMed and elibrary.ru was performed using the keywords pertaining to the topic of the article. Main results. The results about the chicken manure microbiome, obtained by high throughput sequencing, showed that the chicken gut microbiome is dominated by bacteria of the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla; some regional chicken populations were found to have Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Eubacterium, Bacteroides, Escherichia coli, Prevotella, Selenomonas, Streptococcus, Megasphaera, Fusobacterium и Bifidobacterium as the main representatives of the gut microbiome. However, chicken manure can contain bacteria with antibiotic resistance genes, as antibiotics are increasingly used in the poultry industry to stimulate production. In general manure composting can be regarded as environmentally safe method for transforming various organic wastes into organic fertilizers. As increasing output of the poultry industry, which inevitably includes manure, increased the interest to its composting, and recent years have seen unprecedented number of research, dealing with various details of manure composting, such as duration, hydrothermal conditions, added bulking materials, microbiological preparations, abundance of the antibiotic resistance genes, and so on. However, the studies of soil and crop microbiome after soil fertilization with chicken manure compost have so far been rather scarce, resulting in ambiguous conclusions, i.e. about positive or no effect of the compost addition. The effect is determined by species, breed, age, rearing and manure composting technology, as well as by crop and its cultivar, agricultural practices and soil specifics. Conclusions. Chicken manure contains taxonomically diverse microbiome that can be changed during composting. Microbiota of chicken manure and its compost with their great microbial species richness can contain bacteria, carrying antibiotic resistance genes. Dispersal of such components of the compost resistome in environment via compost addition to agricultural soils should be regarded as a growing biological hazard, threatening the efficient use of antibiotics for treating bacterial infections in in veterinary and medicine. Therefore increasing poultry production urges for assessing the risks and evaluating the scope of the threat, as well as estimating and establishing permissible limits of pathomicrobiotic load of the poultry litter manure and compost, using up-to-date metagenomic techniques. The greatest concern is about spreading antibiotic resistance genes into the marketable crop components, consumed raw; consequently, alongside with studying microbiota of the compost-receiving agricultural soil as a source of dust, microbiome research should be also focused crop phytobiome where crops are produced under addition of composts, obtained with manure of the antibiotic-treated poultry during industrial production.
Мария Ивановна Дергачева
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v4i1.140

Abstract:
The article examines the role of the outstanding scientist Vasily Vasilyevich Dokuchaev, whose 175th anniversary was March 1, 2021, in the development of soil ecology as a science of the biosphere class. The natural history methodology, which he introduced into scientific use, is discussed; the methodology was a milestone in the development of not only genetic soil science, but also all natural sciences.
Фути Седрик Фиша, Екатерина Валерьевна Будина, , , Игорь Николаевич Госсен, Сергей Юрьевич Клековкин, Денис Александрович Соколов
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v4i1.135

Abstract:
The objective of the study. To identify the prospects for the use of humic preparations for the restoration of disturbed coal-mining areas, by assessing the relationship between their biological activity and the structural-group composition. Location and time of the study. The study was carried out in the Novokuznetsk district of the Kemerovo region (N 54.14o N and E 87.10o E) in 2020. Methodology. The study of the structure-group composition of humic preparations was carried out by the 13C NMR spectroscopy. Evaluation of the effect of humic preparations was performed in a series of plot experiments setup in the reclaimed and non-reclaimed areas of the coal mining spoils. The properties of the soils substrates of the technogenic landscapes were determined by traditional soil methods. The effect of the preparations was assessed by the dry phytomass production and pod yields of Vícia villósa vetch, as well as the phytomass production of the Avéna satíva + Vícia villósa mixture. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out by the principal components analysis. Main results: Comparison of humic preparations obtained from brown coals of the Tisulsky (Kansk-Achinsky basin) and Tyulgansky (South Ural basin) deposits showed that, in general, all preparations positively affected phytomass production and pod yeild. However, in different conditions of technogenic landscapes and in relation to different plant species, the effect could manifest itself in different directions. A stable positive effect from pre-sowing seed treatment was achieved only with substrates depleted in natural humic substances (humus and peat), and with optimal moisture. Under such conditions, the greatest influence was exerted by preparations obtained from brown coals of the Tisulsky deposit of the Kansk-Achinsky basin, and their naturally oxidized form, which are characterized by a high proportion of oxygen-containing aliphatic (CO-Alk-O), as well as aromatic (СAr) groups. At the same time, under moisture deficit, the indicated chemical properties negatively affected the yield. In stony areas of technogenic landscapes, a positive effect was manifested only by preparations with a maximum proportion of aromatic hydroxide-containing groups (СAr-ОН). Enrichment of humic preparations with microelements (Zn and Cu) did not result in either positive or negative consequences. Conclusion. The use of humic preparations obtained from brown coals for restoring technogenic landscapes is justified only in areas composed of loamy rocks with a low content of humic substances of humus and peat. The noted multidirectional action of humates, which manifests itself depending on their structural and group composition, properties of substrates and plant species used at the biological stage of reclamation, indicates that using the same standardized preparations for the reclamation of various technogenic objects may not be reasonable.
Вячеслав Генрихович Мордкович, Ilya I. Lyubechanskii
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v3i4.131

Abstract:
The review describes the main stages of the formation and development of soil zoology as a science at the intersection of zoology, ecology and soil science, approximately over a century, i.e. from the beginning of the 1920s until now. The analysis of soil-zoological work carried out in the forest-steppe zone, the subject of which was the fauna and population of soil protozoa, worms, molluscs, microarthropods and larger arthropods, collectively referred to as mesofauna. The forest-steppe was chosen as the topic of the review because it is well-studied and because most of the work on this biome was published in Russian, and little is known abroad (which is not surprising, since more than 80% of the forest-steppe territory is located in Russia). The authors reviewed about 170 the most significant works inventorying soil fauna, analyzing its ecological structure and the functional role of its various components, as well as the studies of the anthropogenic impact on soil animal populations. The works are presented on a territorial basis: the west of the European part of the USSR (Russia), the Volga region and West Siberia. The high species richness and originality of the soil fauna in the forest-steppe, its high resistance to natural and anthropogenic influences were shown. At the end, the review indicates some promising directions for soil fauna research in the Russian forest-steppe.
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v3i4.130

Abstract:
The aim of the study was to estimate changes in chemical composition of the white birch litter during decomposition in a laboratory experiment simulating leaching and salinization. Location and time of the study. Fresh litter of Betula pendula leaves were collected in the forest-steppe zone of Priobskoe plateau (40 km to the east of Novosibirsk, Russia) in October 2016. The incubation experiment was carried out in the laboratory of Agrochemistry of the Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Novosibirsk, Russia) during 105 days (24.05.2017–06.09.2017) at 24˚С). Methodology. Distilled water (50 ml) or the same volume of NaCl, Na2SO4, FeCl3, Fe2(SO4)3 solutions with concentrations of 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1% were added to 2 g of air-dried birch litter (leaves). The litter was placed into 100 ml plastic cups. The salt concentration in solutions was chosen according to the soil salinity gradation, i.e. 0.3% as weak (0.2–0.4%), 0,5% as medium (0.4–0.6%), 0,7% as strong (0.6–0.8%), and 1% as solonchak (Classification…, 1977). After 24 hours surplus water or salt solutions were decanted and filtered, and the birch litter was air-dried. After that 5 ml soil-water suspension (soil:distilled water 1: 2.5 m/v) was added into half of the cups with litter, whereas another half of cups with litter received 5 ml of distilled water. The variant with litter and no water was also included, designated as “dry birch litter”. The cups with litter were closed up and incubated during 105 days in the thermostat (+24 °С) with periodic ventilation. After incubation the litter was air-dried and weighed. The litter mass loss after decomposition was calculated as a difference between a sample mass at the beginning and at the end of the experiment and expressed as percentage. Concentrations of Na, Fe, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Ni were determined by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry (AAnalyst 400, Perkin Elmer Inc., USA) in water samples, 0,3–1% salt solutions and birch litter. The total number of cups with litter in the experiment was 150. The term «under leaching» refers to the decrease in chemical element concentration in the litter after incubation with water. The term «under salinization» refers to the increase of Na or Fe concentrations in the litter after incubation with salt solutions. The litter mass loss presented as air-dry mass, concentration of chemical elements in the litter and ash content are expressed on the oven- dry mass basis. Results. Under leaching the concentration of chemical elements was increased in water extracts (especially К, Са, Mg) and decreased in birch litter in the row: Na (3.6 times) –>К (2.4 times) –> Ni (1.9 times) –> Mg (1.4 times) –> Zn and Cu (1.3 times). In comparison with water, the interaction between litter and Na and Fe salt solutions (concentrations 0.3–1%) led to intensive leaching and, correspondingly, to the 1.3 times lower litter К content, as well as 1.2–1.5 times and 1.5-2.2 times lower Са and Mg content, respectively. The highest concentration of Са, Mg, Zn, Cu, Ni was detected in FeCl3 solutions at the start of the experiment. The maximal mass and ash content losses were detected in the dry birch litter. On average, leaching was found to decrease 1.4 times mass loss and ash content in the litter. The minimal mass and ash content losses under salinization were found after litter incubation with FeCl3 (0.3–1%) solutions. The difference in mass loss between variants litter-water and litter-soil water suspension was not detected, although litter ash content after addition of soil water suspension was 1.1–1.3 times higher. Conclusions. The interaction birch litter with water and Na and Fe salt solutions (0,3-1%) led to modification of elemental chemical composition of plant litter as a result of leaching of chemical elements (especially К, Са, Mg) from litter and increased concentrations of Na, Fe and some other elements (depending on the salt used). It led to the decrease in plant litter decomposition rate, which under the natural conditions in the south of West Siberia can take place as a result of temporary overwetting of the forest litter (for instance, in autumn or spring) as well as in areas occupied by saline soils.
Евгения Александровна Гуркова, Vladimir A. Androkhanov, Алексей Тимофеевич Лавриненко
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v3i4.127

Abstract:
The article analyses Khakassia environmental conditions with the aim to estimate their resources and role in the efficient reclamation of coal mining spoils. The availability of potentially fertile soil substrate as a resource for large-scale reclamation was evaluated by the thickness of the quaternary clay and loamy bedrock layers, taking into account the amount of the substrate needed for reclamation. The availability of resources of the potentially fertile soil substrate was carried out by taking into account the thickness and soil bulk density of the humus horizon of the most fertile soils of the region, and considering the obtained estimayes within the framework of the methodical rules and normative regulations for optimal reclamation. The availability of hydrothermal resources was estimated by active temperature sums and hydrothermal coefficient. Overall the distribution of reclamation resources was found to be very uneven throughout the region. In the south of Khakassia with its large areas occupied by technogenic landscapes the reclamation resources were concluded to be in deficit, insufficient for carrying out the reclamation according with the optimal protocols. Such lack of resources is indirectly confirmed by prevailing areas occupied by self-revegetating coal mining spoils. The article also describes some successful reclamation examples where specific local environmental conditions were used in such a way as to decrease the effect of deficient resources, thus increasing the efficacy of the self-restoration of technogenic landscapes.
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