Почвы и окружающая среда

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EISSN : 26186802
Total articles ≅ 56

Latest articles in this journal

Igor D. Makhatkov, Юрий Викторович Ермолов
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; doi:10.31251/pos.v2i4.105

The article presents the results of annual heat dynamics in the soils of the main forest types in the central part of the northern taiga subzone of West Siberia. The general patterns of temperature dynamics at different depths are described, and the features of the forest soils temperature regimes revealed. The characteristic features of soil temperature regimes of drained arears and small rivers’ floodplains were compared with similar sites in the northern part of the subzone. The values of heat supply, heat transfer and temperature and thermal conductivity of the studied soils are discussed.
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; doi:10.31251/pos.v2i4.108

Наталья Александровна Мартынова, Виктория Юрьевна Власова
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; doi:10.31251/pos.v2i4.33

The aim of the study. To study the properties and genesis of natural soils of forest-steppe areas of Balagansk steppe. Location and time. The environs of Balagansk settlement in the Balagansky district of Irkutsk region, 2013-2018. Methodology. Combined field and laboratory studies of soil cover and soil properties using soil-morphological, pedo-lithological, climatostratigraphic, botanical, geological-geomorphological and comparative geographical methods, as well as various physical and chemical analyses. Main results. The study of soil properties of the Balagansk’ forest-steppe and assessment of their classification position revealed the basic regularities of geographical distribution of soils. In steppe areas of the studied region clay-illuvial and textural-carbonate chernozems were formed. The forest vegetation favoured the developed of residual-carbonate gray, dark gray, gray and dark gray metamorphic and burozemic soils; the floodplain areas are predominantly occupied by gley soils and dark-humus gleic soils. Conclusion. The study of soil and vegetation cover of the Balagansk’ forest-steppe showed that soils were developed on the eluvium-deluvium of carbonate Cambrian red-colored siltstones and loess cover and have sufficiently high natural fertility and ecological and resource potential. The soils of the investigated area are characterized by a large variety and complex polygenetic structure of the soil profile, which reflects the change of soil formation’ conditions during Holocene-Pleistocene.
Таисия Владимировна Нечаева, N. V. Gopp, Олег Александрович Савенков, Наталья Валентиновна Смирнова
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; doi:10.31251/pos.v2i3.91

The aim of the study. To carry out a comparative assessment of the magnesium status in soils, situated on the various hypsometric levels of sloped agrolandscape and with different soil organic matter content by measuring total, mobile (exchangeable) and water-soluble magnesium in soils and to compare different analytical methods for determining magnesium in soils and plants. Location and time of the study. The study site was located in the Cis-Salair drained plain in the south-east of West Siberia (55˚02΄20˝N; 83˚50΄00˝E), administratively being within the boundaries of the Toguchin district of the Novosibirsk region, Russia. Altitude increments were marked on the slope positions of the investigated plot of 225 hectares in area and 4 km in length: the upper part of the slope BCI (280-310 m a.s.l. ), the midslope BCII (260-280 m) and BCIII (220-260 m), and the lower slope BCIV (190-220 m) (see figure 1). Soil and plant samples were collected in July 2013. Materials and methods. Prevailing soils were podzolized and leached chernozems, dark-gray and gray-forest soils according to the classification of soils of the USSR (1977), which correspond to clayey-illuvial eluvialed and dark-tongue agrochernozems, agro-dark gray soils and agro-gray soils to according of the Russian soil classification (2004, 2008), or Luvic Greyzemic Chernozems, Haplic Chernozems, Luvic Greyzemic Phaeozems, Luvic Retic Greyzemic Phaeozems by WRB Soil Classification (2014) (see table 1, figure 1). Individual soil samples (n=55) were taken with a drill from 0-30 cm layer (ploughed horizon) according to an irregular grid. The aboveground phytomass stock of oat-pea mixture (n=38) was collected using the hay cutting method on the ​​0.25 m2 area. The geographical coordinates of the soil and plant sampling sites were determined using the geopositioning system (GPS, Garmin eTrex Vista). The soil samples were analyzed for organic carbon content by dichromate digestion. Overall the studied soils were grouped according to soil organic matter (SOM) content into high-SOM (5-8%) and medium-SOM soils (3-5%). Total magnesium (Mgtot) was measured in dry powdered samples by atomic emission spectrometry; mobile (exchangeable) magnesium was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry using 1 M KCl, 1 M CH3COONH4, 0.1 M C4H4O5(NH4)2 and 0.5 M CH3COOH as extracting solutions. The same extracts were used to measure water-soluble magnesium atomic absorption spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis. The content of total magnesium in plants was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry using two methods of sample digestion, namely wet ashing in a mixture of sulfuric and perchloric acids and dry ashing followed by quantitative transfer of the digest with 1 M HCl. Magnesium content in soils and plants was presented per element and calculated on the air-dry mass basis. Statistical analyses (descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, calculation of student criterion and Mann-Whitney...
Akif Pasha Oglu Geraizade, Chingiz Gyulaly Oglu Gulalyev, Александр Валентинович Чичулин, Vladimir A. Androkhanov
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; doi:10.31251/pos.v2i4.92

The article gives some biographical information and a brief outline of scientific and organizational activities of the Academician, Professor Vladimir Rodionovich Volobuev, who made an outstanding contribution to the study of the fundamental and applied properties of soils. The article also highlights his role in the development of new scientific directions, namely soil ecology and the soil formation energetics.
Natalia Naumova
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; doi:10.31251/pos.v2i3.93

Авазбек Турдалиевич Турдалиев, Камолиддин Абдуганиевич Аскаров, Файёз Алимджан Угли Мирзаев
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; doi:10.31251/pos.v2i3.71

The aim of the study. To describe the morphology of the irrigated meadow saz soils (Calcic Gypsisols (Aric, Gleyic, Siltic). Location and place of the study. Central Fergana, Uzbekistan, 2019 year. Materials and methods. Morphogenetic comparative method developed by V.V. Dokuchaev. Result. The pedolithic horizons with carbonate-gypsum accumulation were described. The hydrophysical properties of the horizons, formed due to the specific hydrological processes due to irrigation, do not favour plant growth and development.
Александр Валентинович Чичулин
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; doi:10.31251/pos.v2i3.89

A methodological analysis is carried out and the reasons for the limited applicability in solving a number of problems in soil ecology of traditional climatic hydrothermal coefficients — the radiation index of Budyko dryness and the Vysotsky-Ivanov wetting coefficient — are clarified. Based on the analysis of the dimension applied to the problem of the dependence of the nature of the soil cover on hydrothermal conditions, new concepts are introduced - dimensionless similarity criteria, which play the role of soil-climate coefficients, which have a wider range of epistemological accuracy compared to traditional ones. It is shown that the relationship between traditional climatic and new soil-climatic hydrothermal coefficients is asymptotic. Using the empirical equation of M. I. Budyko for evaporation of soil moisture and soil-climatic coefficients, a new physico-theoretical approach is developed and the equation of "soil-climatic characteristics" (PCC) is taken into account, taking into account the combined influence of climatic properties (through long-term average the values ​​of the radiation balance R and precipitation P) and the properties of the soil substrate (through the evaporation of soil moisture E (R, P)) on the features of the soil formation process. It is shown that, in contrast to the traditional approach, which organizes soil properties on an empirical climatic basis, the new approach has the ability to theoretically predict a number of soil patterns, in particular, grouping soils into arid, humid, and balanced pedocosms.
Natalia Naumova, Ivan P. Belanov, Tatiana Yu. Alikina
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; doi:10.31251/pos.v2i3.84

Background. The aim of the study was to assess the composition and structure of bacterial assemblages by estimating 16S rRNA gene sequences diversity in a young Technosol, developing on a revegetating fly ash dump. Location and place of the study. Two soils were chosen for the study in the environs of the thermoelectric power station No.5 in Novosibirsk region: 1) nine years old Technosol (54°59' NL, 83°03' EL), developing on the spontaneously revegetating fly ash dump, and 2) Phaeozem under undisturbed white birch forest (55°00' NL, 83°04' EL). Soils were sampled from the 0-5 cm layer as three individual replicates each. Materials and methods. The total DNA extracted from soil samples was used as a matrix for PCR amplification using V-3-V4 primers for 16S rRNA genes. The obtained amplicons were sequenced on Illumina MiSeq platform in the Genomics Core Facility of the Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine SB RAS (Novosibirsk, Russia). Descriptive statistics and principal components analysis were used to analyze and present the data. Results. Overall 4887 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found at the 97% similarity level; the OTUs were ascribed to 306 genera, 212 families, 123 orders, 84 classes and 32 phyla of bacteria domain. At the phylum level bacterial assemblages in both soils were dominated by Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria, showing rather similar outline of the phyla relative abundance, confirming the direction of pedogenesis towards Phaeozem. Higher abundance of Chloroflexi a physiologically diverse phyla with aerobic and anaerobic thermophiles, anoxigenic phototrophs and anaerobes, able to respire organic halides, in the young Technosol complies with harsh edaphic conditions there. Although the relative abundance of Rhizobiales, Actinomycetales and unclassified Acidobacteria_Gp6 and Acidobacteria_Gp3 was found to be 1.5–2.4 times higher in the undisturbed Phaeozem, they also were predominating in the Technosol samples. The α-biodiversity indices, pertaining mostly to species/OTUs richness, i.e. Chao-1, OTUs number, Margalef, Fisher’s alpha, were higher in Phaeozem, whereas evenness and equitability were higher in Technosol. Both soils demonstrated similar Shanno indices, which were rather high (6.3). Conclusions. Nine years of spontaneous revegetation on the terminated fly ash dump of the thermoelectric power station resulted in the development of the Technosol, containing quite rich and diverse bacterial assemblage, which was rather close in structure at the phylum taxonomic level to the adjacent undisturbed Phaeozem. Overall the early stages of pedogenesis were dominated by specific bacterial assemblage (Chloroflexi, Xanthomonadales, Geobacter, Aciditerrimonas, Iamiaceae and some others), performing weathering of the pedogenic substrate, i.e. fly ash. The present of nitrificators (Nitrospira), denitrificators денитрификаторов (Reyranella) together with...
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