Journal of Language and Social Psychology

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ISSN / EISSN : 0261-927X / 1552-6526
Published by: SAGE Publications (10.1177)
Total articles ≅ 1,447
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Gijs Fannes, An-Sofie Claeys
Journal of Language and Social Psychology; https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927x221108120

Abstract:
This study examines how both the content (i.e., denial vs. apology) and the verb voice (i.e., active voice vs. passive voice) of a crisis response affect the public's perception of crisis responsibility and, subsequently, the reputation of an organization accused of wrongdoing. The results of two experiments first show that an apology results in higher responsibility attributions than denial, which, in turn, adversely affects an organization's reputation. When we consider the verb voice of the message, a crisis response that is constructed in the passive voice reduces responsibility perceptions more than the active voice, leading to less reputational damage. An interaction effect shows, however, that this result only holds true for a passive denial strategy and not for apologies. As such, when an organization needs to deny an accusation, it seems wise to construct the message in the passive voice in order to strengthen the denial and effectively protect the organizational reputation.
, Quinten Bernhold
Journal of Language and Social Psychology; https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927x221105096

Abstract:
The present study was grounded in the revised communicative ecology model of successful aging (CEMSA) and examined whether brief, passing remarks made by older adults about aging influence both young adults’ aging efficacy and their expectations regarding aging. Young adult participants ( n = 322) were randomly assigned to read a single vignette. In the vignette an older adult invoked either a negative age-based reason, a non-age-based reason, or a positive age-based reason to account for behavior that could be taken to reflect age-related stereotypes pertaining to physical decline, cognitive decline, or aversion to technology. Analyzes revealed that participants who read the positive age-based accounts perceived the aging process to have been portrayed more favorably. Consequently, they reported higher levels of positive affect about aging which translated into their feeling more efficacious about managing their own aging, and into having more positive expectations regarding aging in general.
Zachary P Rosen
Journal of Language and Social Psychology; https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927x221095865

Abstract:
The current paper details a novel quantitative framework leveraging recent advances in AI and Natural Language Processing to quantitatively assess language convergence and accommodation. This new framework is computationally cheap and straightforward to implement. The framework is then applied to a case study of immigration rhetoric in the lead up to the 2016 general election in the USA. Major results from the case study show that (1) Democrats and Republicans exhibited significant language convergence with members of their own parties, (2) President Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton converged with Senate Democrats’ immigration rhetoric, (3) Democrats accommodated the immigration rhetoric of both President Barack Obama and (candidate) Hillary Clinton, (4) contrary to initial hypotheses, Donald Trump's vitriolic immigration rhetoric did not show signs of language convergence with Republicans in the Senate, and (5) equally surprising, Senate Republicans showed significant non-accommodation to Donald Trump despite potential political costs for having done so.
Seonghan Jin,
Journal of Language and Social Psychology; https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927x221092098

Abstract:
This study aimed to synthesize the structural relationships among willingness to communicate (WTC) and its high-evidence factors in second language (L2) learning contexts by adopting meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM). The MASEM approach is designed to construct a structural equation model (SEM) to explain correlations between variables by pooling correlation coefficients reported in previous literature. This study integrated 44 independent samples ( N = 12,094) and built a MASEM model to investigate the structural relations of WTC, its three high-evidence factors (learners’ perceived L2 competence, L2 motivation, and L2 anxiety), and frequency of learners’ L2 use. The results of meta-analysis successfully supported our proposed model of L2 WTC. Furthermore, among the three high-evidence factors, it was found that learners’ perceived L2 competence influenced L2 WTC the most. In addition, the results of the moderator analyses indicated that learners’ L2 proficiency and WTC contexts (inside vs. outside classrooms) significantly influenced the relationships between L2 WTC and its high-evidence factors. The implications of these results are discussed in further depth and detail.
Robert Körner, Jennifer R. Overbeck, Erik Körner,
Journal of Language and Social Psychology; https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927x221085309

Abstract:
Can theories of power be used to explain differences in the linguistic styles of Donald Trump and Joe Biden? We argue that the two candidates possess and use different forms of power—and that this is associated with typical language patterns. Based on their personal history, news reports, and empirical studies, we expect that Trump’s approach to power is characterized by coercive power forms and Biden’s by collaborative power forms. Using several LIWC categories and the moral foundations dictionary, we analyzed over 500 speeches and 15,000 tweets made during the 2020 election battle. Biden’s speeches can be described as analytical and frequently relating to moral values, whereas Trump’s speeches were characterized by a positive emotional tone. In tweets, Biden used more social words and words related to virtue, honesty, and achievement than Trump did. Trump’s coercive power and Biden’s collaborative power were more observable in tweets than speeches, which may reflect the fact that tweets are more spontaneous than speeches.
Journal of Language and Social Psychology; https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927x221079615

Abstract:
Democratic participation is widely viewed as a crucial underpinning of legitimate governance; however, little is known about how this participation is practically accomplished. This study contributes to a better understanding of what democratic citizenship encompasses in actual practices of public engagement. Using conversation analysis and discursive psychology, we analyze interactions between government officials and citizens in Dutch public meetings on the effects of livestock farming. We examine situations where citizens treat officials’ closing-implicative moves as “wanting to shelve” issues. We demonstrate how this uptake is preceded by officials treating citizens as not understanding what is within the scope of discussion, thereby challenging their democratic competence. Citizens subsequently turn the tables on the officials, treating them as not wanting to fulfill their democratic duties. We argue that these practices point to broader relational issues between government and citizens, transforming what seem mere agenda issues into negotiations about what constitutes good democracy.
Hualin Xiao, Brent Strickland, Sharon Peperkamp
Journal of Language and Social Psychology; https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927x221084643

Abstract:
Heated societal debates in various countries concern the use of gender-fair language, meant to replace the generic use of grammatically masculine forms. Advocates and opponents of gender-fair language disagree on – among other things – the question of whether masculine forms leave women underrepresented in people's minds. We investigated the influence of linguistic form on the mental representations of gender in French. Participants read a short text about a professional gathering and estimated the percentages of men and women present at the gathering. Results showed higher estimates of the percentage of women in response to two gender-fair forms relative to the masculine form. Comparisons with normed data on people's perception of real-world gender ratios additionally showed that the gender-fair forms removed or reduced a male bias for neutral- and female-stereotyped professions, respectively, yet induced a female bias for male-stereotyped professions. Thus, gender-fair language increases the prominence of women in the mind, but has varying effects on consistency, i.e., the match with default perceptions of real-world gender ratios.
, Bleen Abraham, Ralf Rummer, Fritz Strack
Journal of Language and Social Psychology; https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927x221080181

Abstract:
In many languages, masculine language forms are not only used to designate the male gender but also to operate in a generic fashion. This dual function has been found to lead to male biased representations when people encounter the generic masculine. In German, the now predominant substitute is the gender star form (e.g., Athlet*innen). In two experiments, we examined gender representations elicited when reading the gender star form (vs. generic masculine vs. pair forms). We found that, following the generic masculine, continuations about men (vs. women) were more frequently and more quickly judged to be compatible, replicating the male bias, even though participants were informed about the generic intention. Following the gender star form, a female bias in judgments (both Studies) and speed (only Study 2) occurred, which was somewhat smaller. Representations were most balanced when both male and female forms were mentioned.
, Olatz Larrea, , Ignacio Lucas
Journal of Language and Social Psychology; https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927x221078317

Abstract:
The ability to deliver a speech effectively and persuade the audience is fundamental in the professional landscape. Nonverbal features, such as voice and gestures, are crucial to improving listeners’ perception and information processing in a public presentation. In nonverbal communication research, most studies have mainly examined the individual effects of these features and not their combined influence. Therefore, this study analyzes the direct and interaction effects of intonation, speech rate, and hand gestures on the speakers’ credibility and effectiveness and the participants’ psychophysiological response (attention and arousal). Results showed that the best combination was a moderate intonation at a medium speech rate with a moderate number of hand gestures. These results supported the so-called Expressive Balance Effect. Speakers must maintain the expressive load of the different nonverbal cues in balance to be more effective and credible and enhance the listeners’ cognitive processing. These findings are helpful recommendations for public speakers.
Gretchen Montgomery,
Journal of Language and Social Psychology; https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927x221081010

Abstract:
Guided by communication accommodation theory and the fluency principle of language attitudes, this experimental study examined the serial mediation effects of processing fluency and inferred motives on language attitudes toward standard- and non-standard-accented speech. Using the matched guise technique, participants were randomly assigned to listen to an audio recording read in either a Standard American English (SAE) or Indian Tamil English (ITE) accent. Compared to the ITE accent, participants who listened to the SAE accent reported significantly higher processing fluency of the speaker's talk, more positive inferred cognitive motive from the speaker, and attributed higher solidarity to the speaker. However, the experimental conditions yielded no differences in inferred affective motive or status evaluations. Mediation analysis indicated significant indirect effects on status and solidarity through processing fluency and inferred cognitive motives as serial mediators. The indirect effects through inferred affective motive were not significant. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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