Stem Cell Discovery

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2161-6760 / 2161-6787
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 92
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Latest articles in this journal

Leyla Tahrani Hardin, Nan Xiao
Published: 1 January 2022
Stem Cell Discovery, Volume 12, pp 1-27; https://doi.org/10.4236/scd.2022.121001

Abstract:
A large variety of therapeutic products have been developed as vaccines or treatments of COVID-19 infection. Meanwhile SARS-CoV-2 continues to mutate and spread. The severe COVID-19 patients have limited treatment options. Therefore, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are proposed as another therapeutic target. They are known for their regenerative and immunomodulatory properties. They showed potent efficacy and safety abilities for the treatment of critical COVID-19 patients and intriguing benefits in reducing lungs damage, mortality, and cytokine storm in several clinical studies. Another promising treatment option is the use of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to combat SARS-CoV-2, despite the fact that detailed therapeutic strategies and mechanisms are still lacking. In this review we shed light on the immune response against COVID-19 infection and the relevant knowledge considering the role of MSCs in innate and adaptive immune responses to better understand the immune-physiological mechanisms of MSCs treatment. Lastly, we summarize the latest progress in clinical and research studies suggesting potential MSCs/DPSCs as therapeutic targets in battling COVID-19.
Mao Pang, Shiqian Han, Meng Ren, Dongwei Guan, Tianying Kuang, Shuixia Liu, Yesong Liu, Jieping Chen, Fengchao Wang, Chunmeng Shi, et al.
Published: 1 January 2021
Stem Cell Discovery, Volume 11, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.4236/scd.2021.111001

Abstract:
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a current major source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for cell transplantation therapy. Cell transplantation with HSCs derived from UCB is advantageous over transplantation with HSCs from adult tissues. However, the low number of HSC derived from a single unit of UCB limits its application. Thus, ex vivo expansion is a good option to create more UCB HSCs for clinical application. The strategies for HSC expansion in vitro focus on mimicking the composition and structure of HSC natural niche by enhancing self-renewal and inhibiting lineage differentiation of HSCs. In the past decade, the mechanisms of the interaction between HSC and the natural niche have been deeply investigated. This great progress in basic research has led to advancements in UCB HSC ex vivo expansion. In addition, the biological characteristics of the originally isolated UCB HSCs correlate with outcome of subsequent ex vivo expansion. In this paper, we summarize the late progress achieved in isolation and ex vivo expansion of UCB HSCs. Importantly, we attempt to provide an impact and practicable procedure to expand UCB HSC in vitro from isolation of original HSCs to identification of expanded HSCs.
Alejandro Mesples, Yun Zhang, Xiang Hu
Published: 1 January 2020
Stem Cell Discovery, Volume 10, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.4236/scd.2020.101001

Abstract:
Background:Autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation without immune suppression has been proposed as a safe and efficient therapeutic option to replace β-cell mass destroyed by specific antibodies in chronic type 1 diabetes but we have not scientific information about how long the metabolic stability is maintained. Material and Method: From 2010 to 2014, were included 134 chronic type 1 diabetics patients (p.) in an autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation protocol, stimulated with filgrastim, without immune suppression, c peptide Results:C peptide, 6 months after transplantation more than 0.9 ng/ml in 61 patients (45%) (P = 0.001, CI = 95%). At 12 months 50 patients (37%) (P = 0.001, CI = 95%). At 24 months 53 patients (39%) (P = 0.001, CI = 95%). At 36 months 51 patients (38%) (P = 0.001, CI = 95%). A1C before transplant, Conclusion:Autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation, without immunosuppression, improves pancreatic function and metabolic control without new immune reaction after three years of follow up in chronic type 1 diabetic patients.
Dongsheng Li, Zhisheng Chen, Shengfeng Chen, Huiqin Ji, Xiaoshu Zhan, Dongzhang Luo, Huina Luo, Bingyun Wang
Published: 1 January 2019
Stem Cell Discovery, Volume 09, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.4236/scd.2019.91001

Abstract:
Long-term maintenance of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) in vitro has tremendous potential for transgenic chicken production. Feeder cells are essential for the establishment and culture of chicken PGCs in vitro. Buffalo rat liver (BRL) cells are the most commonly used feeder cells for PGCs culture; however, this feeder layers from other animal species usually cause immunogenic contaminations, compromising the potential of PGCs in applications. Therefore, we tested chicken source mensenchymal stem cell (MSCs) derived from bone marrow as feeder cells to further improve PGC culture conditions. MSCs derived from chicken bone marrow have a powerful capacity to proliferate and secrete cytokines. We found chicken primordial germ cells derived from circulating blood (cPGCs) and gonads (gPGCs) can be maintained and proliferated with MSCs feeder layer cells. PGCs co-cultured on MSCs feeder retained their pluripotency, expressed PGCs specific genes and stemness markers, and maintained undifferentiated state. Our study indicated that the xeno-free MSCs-feeders culture system is a good candidate for growth and expansion of PGCs as the stepping stone for transgenic chicken research.
Joseph Ignatius Azzopardi, Renald Blundell
Published: 1 January 2018
Stem Cell Discovery, Volume 08, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.4236/scd.2018.81001

Abstract:
The use of umbilical cord blood as an alternative to bone marrow as a source of haematopoietic stem cells for the treatment of certain diseases has been on an increase since the first transplantation of umbilical cord-derived stem cells in 1988. In this paper, 6 of the latest case studies about the use of such stem cells have been discussed and are used as evidence to confirm the potential use of the umbilical cord as a source of haematopoietic stem cells for transplantation as treatment to various diseases. The debate over whether umbilical cord blood should be stored and why public banking facilities are preferred over those that are private have also been discussed in this paper.
Da-Chuan Yeh, Tzu-Min Chan
Published: 1 January 2018
Stem Cell Discovery, Volume 08, pp 13-31; https://doi.org/10.4236/scd.2018.82002

Abstract:
Aging populations are increasing the incidence of age-related diseases, resulting in problems at the individual and socioeconomic level. The need for effective strategies in regenerative medicine for the elderly is more important than ever. Previous studies have shown that the number and function of stem cells decline with age, thereby undermining endogenous repair processes. It has also been suggested that the aging-induced deterioration of stem cell function may play a key role in the pathophysiology of various aging-related diseases. Recent advances in our understanding of tissue regeneration and the development of methods aimed at inducing and differentiating pluripotent stem cells for cell replacement therapy which provides exciting opportunities for the treatment of degenerative diseases, such as those related to senility. In this review article, we examine several mechanisms that are believed to contribute to the aging-related dysfunction of stem cells associated with diseases of the immune system, cardiac tissue, neuronal system, articular cartilage, and skeletal muscle. We also discuss factors that affect the therapeutic potential of adult stem/progenitor cells as well as current trends in the treatment of these conditions using regenerative medicine.
Candida Vaz, Betty Tan Bee Tee, Delicia Yong, Qian Yi Lee, Vivek Tanavde
Published: 1 January 2017
Stem Cell Discovery, Volume 07, pp 1-26; https://doi.org/10.4236/scd.2017.71001

Abstract:
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can be obtained from several sources and the significant differences in their properties make it crucial to investigate the differentiation potential of MSCs from different sources to determine the optimal source of MSCs. We investigated if this biological heterogeneity in MSCs from different sources results in different mechanisms for their differentiation. In this study, we compared the gene expression patterns of phenotypically defined MSCs derived from three ontogenically different sources: Embryonic stem cells (hES-MSCs), Fetal limb (Flb-MSCs) and Bone Marrow (BM-MSCs). Differentially expressed genes between differentiated cells and undifferentiated controls were compared across the three MSC sources. We found minimal overlap (5% - 16%) in differentially expressed gene sets among the three sources. Flb-MSCs were similar to BM-MSCs based on differential gene expression patterns. Pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) revealed a large variation in the canonical pathways leading to MSC differentiation. The similar canonical pathways among the three sources were lineage specific. The Flb-MSCs showed maximum overlap of canonical pathways with the BM-MSCs, indicating that the Flb-MSCs are an intermediate source between the less specialised hES-MSC source and the more specialised BM-MSC source. The source specific pathways prove that MSCs from the three ontogenically different sources use different biological pathways to obtain similar differentiation outcomes. Thus our study advocates the understanding of biological pathways to obtain optimal sources of MSCs for various clinical applications.
, Nahi Yaseen, Ahmad Al-Joubory, Rafal Abdullah, Noah Mahmood, Aesar A. Ahmed,
Published: 1 January 2016
Stem Cell Discovery, Volume 06, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.4236/scd.2016.61001

Abstract:
In the brain, there are hundreds of types of specialized neurons and to generate one type of them we need to have neural progenitors for differentiation to specific neuron type. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are easily isolated, cultured, manipulated ex vivo, showing great potential for therapeutic applications. The adult MSCs have the potential to produce progeny that differentiate into a variety of cell types such as neurons. This fact suggests that MSCs derived neurons are an important cell type and a deep understanding of the molecular characteristics of it would significantly enhance the advancement of cell therapy for neurological disorders. Therefore, in this study, we isolated, identified, and studied neural progenitors by measuring expression levels through neurogenesis pathway of three neural differentiation markers nestin (NES), neurofilament (NF-L), and microtubule association protein (MAP-2) from mouse bone marrow MSCs (mouse bmMSCs) by using butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and diethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as neural inducers agents. The results of immunocytochemistry and Real Time-PCR showed that in contrast to MSCs, neural differentiated cells showed neural progenitor pattern by showing stable increase in NES gene expression through differentiation process with increasing the protein expression through different exposures times, while NF-L gene and protein expression start to increased after 48 h but not replaced the NES expression completely even when its expression passed NES levels. The maturation marker Map-2 expression was low during the duration of differentiation period in protein and gene expression, which prove that these cells are still progenitors and can be redirected into specific type of neurons by further treatments.
Tomohiko Kura, Manabu Akahane, Takamasa Shimizu, Yoshinobu Uchihara, Yasuaki Tohma, Yusuke Morita, Munehisa Koizumi, Kenji Kawate, Yasuhito Tanaka
Published: 1 January 2016
Stem Cell Discovery, Volume 06, pp 13-23; https://doi.org/10.4236/scd.2016.61002

Abstract:
Skeletal diseases, such as nonunion and osteonecrosis, are now treatable with tissue engineering techniques. Single cell sheets called osteogenic matrix cell sheets (OMCSs) grown from cultured bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells show high osteogenic potential; however, long preparation times currently limit their clinical application. Here, we report a cryopreservation OMCS transplantation method that shortens OMCS preparation time. Cryopreserved rat OMCSs were prepared using slow- and rapid-freezing methods, thawed, and subsequently injected scaffold-free into subcutaneous sites. Rapid- and slow-frozen OMCSs were also transplanted directly to the femur bone at sites of injury. Slow-freezing resulted in higher cell viability than rapid freezing, yet all two cryopreservation methods yielded OMCSs that survived and formed bone tissue. In the rapid- and slow-freezing groups, cortical gaps were repaired and bone continuity was observed within 6 weeks of OMCS transplantation. Moreover, while no significant difference was found in osteocalcin expression between the three experimental groups, the biomechanical strength of femurs treated with slow-frozen OMCSs was significantly greater than those of non-transplant at 6 weeks post-injury. Collectively, these data suggest that slow-frozen OMCSs have superior osteogenic potential and are better suited to produce a mineralized matrix and repair sites of bone injury.
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