Latest articles in this journal
Przegląd Europejski pp 11-19; https://doi.org/10.31338/1641-2478pe.2.21.1
Poverty and social exclusion are notions present in the public sphere, as well as in scientific analysis. Their application is usually not accompanied by adequate definition. This article formulates the thesis that there is one (it is debatable) complex paradigm of poverty and social exclusion. It consists of four levels (called as paradigm elements in this article): (1) history and culture, (2) political concepts, (3) new concepts and attempts of their operationalisation, and (4) discursiveness. This division is based on the multidisciplinary criterion, which means that it may not be quite precise. The development of potential effective programmes to combat poverty and social exclusion requires prior (conceptually appropriate and taking into account their complex nature) defining these phenomena.
Przegląd Europejski pp 87-106; https://doi.org/10.31338/1641-2478pe.2.21.6
The contemporary form of security in the European Union is undergoing profound changes. The solutions adopted in the first decade of the 21st century no longer meet the needs of this organisation and the EU Member States. New solutions that would functionally change the form of relationships between institutions have not been conceptually worked out. The European Union, struggling with numerous economic, social, and political crises, enters the next stage. Soon it will be decided, in which direction the organisation and its member states will develop. This article focuses on the current form of organisational and functional solutions of the EU by subjecting them to a critical review. The author evaluates, what is created in terms of decision-making processes and their results in the areas of foreign policy, security, and defence. Consequently, the article demonstrates the conditions that determine the form of the EU’s activities at the threshold of the second decade of the 21st century. Its result is the identification of change processes in security that determine the projection of the development of the European Union.
Przegląd Europejski pp 39-50; https://doi.org/10.31338/1641-2478pe.2.21.3
Security is an interdisciplinary scientific category with deep potential for study by philosophers, political scientists, and other representatives of the social sciences. Security issues are also linked with the science “Theory of State and Law”, which studies the general principles of the emergence, evolution, functioning and interaction of state and law. At the same time, the concepts (schools) of security existing in the world, while remaining widely studied in political sciences, have not yet been studied by the theoretical science of state and law. The aim of the article is analysis of the basic concepts of security through the prism of the science “Theory of State and Law”, which will enrich the science with new theoretical and methodological material, opening new space for interdisciplinary studies of security from the standpoint of legal and political sciences.
Przegląd Europejski pp 53-70; https://doi.org/10.31338/1641-2478pe.2.21.4
The main research problem of this article is the future of the elections to the European Parliament (EP) in the context of the ongoing debates and reform proposals. This article constitutes a critical reflection on the content of the discussions about EP elections reform. Based on qualitative analysis of the EP elections status quo and the reform proposals, the author claims that the top-down efforts for election reforms are doomed to fail not only due to the existing institutional resistance from Member States and inside the EU, but also due to the essence of the proposed changes. The identified procedural, representative and participative challenges underline the incomplete elections environment. Should the genuine aim of the reforms be the growth of democratic legitimisation of the integration process, there is a need for departure from the framework of the existing reform proposals. One of the possible solutions can be the imperative mandate.
Przegląd Europejski pp 71-86; https://doi.org/10.31338/1641-2478pe.2.21.5
The article analyses the determinants of the selection of candidates for the European Parliament in Polish political parties and the relationship between the way candidates are selected and the personal stability of the Polish representation in the EP. The study is based on the analysis of party documents and data obtained in semi-structured interviews with MEPs elected in the period 2004–2019. The level of variability and stability of the personal composition of the Polish delegation is presented in terms of the four parties that have been part of the Polish representation in all previous terms. The stability of representation is not a leading motive in the intraparty selection of MEP candidates. The domination of informal criteria in creation of the electoral lists further weakens the link between selection process and personal stability of the Polish delegation in the EP.
Przegląd Europejski pp 145-163; https://doi.org/10.31338/1641-2478pe.2.21.9
One of the most important indicators of democracy is electoral transparency, which is characterised by the legitimacy of campaign financing. Since Ukraine declares its desire to join the European Union, it should demonstrate the compliance with the values common to the EU, one of which is democracy. In 2019, Ukraine held «double» elections, around which, traditionally, a multi-vector discourse unfolded in the media space. One of the areas covered was the financing of election campaigns. The author applied one of the basic sociological methods of document analysis – content analysis of the discourse devoted to financing the 2019 presidential and parliamentary election campaigns in Ukraine. The results of empirical study demonstrated that funding for these two campaigns was reported differently. Thus, in the coverage of the presidential campaign considerable attention was paid to the coverage of its various aspects. Moreover, the attention was paid to the type of voter bribery, known as direct. The parliamentary media campaign received less attention than the presidential campaign. The most frequent attention was paid to indirect voter bribery. The tone of the discourse was quite difficult to capture, however, if we evaluate the correlation between the negative and positive contexts of describing the financing of election campaigns, then, of course, the negative ones were much more prevalent.
Przegląd Europejski pp 165-183; https://doi.org/10.31338/1641-2478pe.2.21.10
Against the background of strong and long-standing energy interdependence between the European Union and Russia, the two partners agreed in 2000 to launch the Energy Dialogue, which was intended to intensify their cooperation and to eliminate related problems. The political and economic dimensions of the EU–Russia Energy Dialogue are presented and studied in this article. The aim is to analyse the scale of their impact on the basis of some important projects within this dialogue, taking into account the overall context. The results of conducted analysis demonstrate that while this comprehensive instrument for jointly creating the future of the two co-dependent partners should bring apparent improvements, its functionality is hindered by various economic and political factors. The latter, in particular, have had a significant impact, putting the Energy Dialogue on hold, not lastly with the outbreak of the Ukrainian crisis and growing bilateral and multilateral political tensions. Today, 20 years after the commissioning of this seemingly so fruitful platform of the Energy Dialogue, we are looking at a very disappointing intermediate assessment. Various problems of the Energy Dialogue hinder not only cooperation development based on trust, legal norms and understanding, but also existing and partly active projects, such as the Roadmap EU–Russia Energy Cooperation until 2050 and Nord Stream 2, which are being pushed into the uncertain future. However, in view of existing and possible further projects in the energy sector, it is necessary to create the functional dialogue format.
Przegląd Europejski pp 21-38; https://doi.org/10.31338/1641-2478pe.2.21.2
The article focuses on the concept of sovereignty – an analytical category applicable to states. However, with the emergence of new actors in the international arena, especially new types of organisations such as the European Union, the question arises: whether it is possible to apply sovereignty to entities other than states. The authors have the assumption that in the area of social sciences, it is possible to give the concept of the sovereignty a certain trait of universality, inter alia, to better reconcile the legal and political science approaches. The aim of this study is to identify and then to define an important feature of the EU, which may be sovereignty itself or its equivalent (autonomy, claim to sovereignty, quasi-sovereignty). The results of the study may lead to a better understanding of non-state subjects of public international law such as international organisations in genere, and organisations of integrational and supranational character in specie. The article is analytical, comparative and explanatory.
Przegląd Europejski pp 129-144; https://doi.org/10.31338/1641-2478pe.2.21.8
The article presents the origins and evolution of social policy programmes in Scotland since the referendum in 1997. Regional authorities in Scotland obtained significant prerogatives in payment of social benefits. They actively exercised the rights granted by the UK legislation, resulting in the partial decentralisation of the social security system in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has become a fact. This decentralisation is not complete, because the administration of pensions, and unemployment benefits remains the sole responsibility of London’s central government. One of the features of British social policy has become territorial asymmetry, consisting of partially different programs and social policy institutions in other parts of the UK. The most important effect of the reforms is the creation of institutions and draft social policy programs that can be put into effect, when the process of political emancipation in Scotland will lead to a new regional referendum.
Przegląd Europejski pp 187-194; https://doi.org/10.31338/1641-2478pe.2.21.11
The author, relying on the concept of nations as imagined communities, sharing the existence of the scientific concepts of “ethnic” and “civil” nations, considers the possibility of the emergence of a single national myth, which could become the most important construct in the formation of national unity in a multinational country. Based on various legislative initiatives, amendments to the Constitution of Russia, considering certain aspects of historical policy in Russia, the author concludes that after 2014, on the background of the Ukrainian crisis, the Syrian crisis, US and European Union’s sanctions pressure and political confrontation with the West, the Russian authorities situationally started the mobilisation of public opinion. This policy is capable of producing results only in the short term. Achievement of national unity based on the single national myth, acceptable to most of the Russian society, will require more thorough work and delicate inclusion in the information space, as well as in the educational programs of secondary and higher education.