Journal of Biometry Studies

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EISSN : 2791-7169
Published by: Pen Academic Publishing (10.29329)
Total articles ≅ 16
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Oytun Emre Sakıcı, Kastamonu University, Gonca Ece Özcan, Fadime Saglam, Mehmet Seki, Kastamonu Uni̇verci̇ty
Published: 29 June 2022
Journal of Biometry Studies, Volume 2, pp 15-23; https://doi.org/10.29329/jofbs.2022.444.03

Abstract:
In this study, the effects of white mistletoe (Viscum album subsp. abietis (Wiesb.) Abromerit) on diameter increment in Kazdağı fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. equi-trojani (Asc. & Sint. ex Boiss.) Coode & Cullen) stands distributed in Kastamonu region of Turkey were investigated. For this purpose, a total of 183 sample trees (77 healthy (uninfected) and 106 infected) were selected from mistletoe-infected stands. Mistletoe infected sample trees were classified according to the mistletoe intensity groups as lightly-, moderately- and heavily-infection levels. Increment cores were taken from the sampled trees, and annual ring widths were measured for evaluation period which is the last 30 years of sample trees. Underbark diameter increments were determined for the last 10, 20 and 30 years and for also last three 10-year periods. Mistletoe infected trees were compared to healthy trees according to the mean diameter increments. As a result, it was determined that there were statistically significant differences between underbark diameter increments of infected and uninfected trees. Increment losses of infected trees compared to uninfected trees were calculated as 21%, 28% and 33% for the last 30, 20 and 10 years, respectively. Similarly, significant differences were also observed for the last three 10-year periods and it was revealed that the underbark diameter increment losses were 11%, 24% and 33%, respectively. The results show that increment losses increase gradually with infection and the presence of white mistletoe negatively affects diameter increments with an increasing acceleration from the past to the present.
Emre Küçükbekir Mahmut M. Bayramoğlu, Karadeni̇z Techni̇cal Uni̇versi̇ty, Emre Küçükbeki̇r
Published: 29 June 2022
Journal of Biometry Studies, Volume 2, pp 24-31; https://doi.org/10.29329/jofbs.2022.444.04

Abstract:
After the industrial revolution, technological developments, unbalanced population growth and excessive consumption have become threatening to the earth. Parallel to the world population, the increasing energy consumption is also increasing rapidly. Increasing energy consumption increases CO2 emissions more and more every day. Considering the temperature increase caused by greenhouse gases, global climate change has become an important problem that concerns the whole world today. Climate change will affect forest resources and the continuity of ecosystem services more in the future. It is necessary to protect forests, which are beneficial in preventing global climate change, and to prevent deforestation. In this study, using the data between 2001 and 2020, data on carbon emissions, per capita national income, annual population growth rate, forest area, exports and imports of European Union countries were used. The data used in the study were obtained from the world bank data, food and agriculture data, and cover the 2001-2020 periods. In the study, the stationarity of the data sets of the variables was tested with the Dickey-Fuller unit root test (ADF). With the help of the model created, predictions for the forests’ future were made by using the variables used in the model for the years 2021-2040. The values obtained were compared with the values of the previous years. When the current data and the estimated values are compared, the population growth rate in EU countries is quite low and sometimes it takes negative values. It has been determined that the CO2 emission and forest area variables of EU countries are close to each other. It is seen that the forest existence of EU countries has increased and CO2 emission has decreased.
Hacı İsmai̇l Kesi̇k, Gazi̇ Uni̇versi̇ty, Abdullah Sönmez, Mehmet Budakcı, Kubulay Çağatay, Düzce Uni̇versi̇ty, Nuh Naci̇ Yazgan Uni̇versi̇ty
Published: 29 June 2022
Journal of Biometry Studies, Volume 2, pp 32-37; https://doi.org/10.29329/jofbs.2022.444.05

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to determine the performance of water-based varnish adhesion on the process of stain removal, bleaching and impregnation applied to wood surfaces. In order to accomplish this objective, the selected sessile oak (Quercus petreae Mill.) wood samples were firstly contaminated with grease and PVAc glue, after they were cleaned. Then, the wood samples were bleached by using oxalic acid (C2H2O4) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Secondly, preprocessed specimens impregnated with imersol aqua (IA) and wood protective chemicals (WP) and together both these chemicals (IA+WP). Finally, adhesion strength performance of the wood samples were tested after they covered by single component primary resin (SCPR), double component polyurethane modified with acrylic (DCAP) and double component elastic polyurethane (DCEP). The adhesion resistance of varnish layers is determined according to ASTM 4541 principles. As a result, the oil stain removal and the protective chemical applications decreased the adhesion strength on the wood surface of water-based varnish layers. Contrary, the glue stain removal and the C2H2O4 and H2O2 bleaching increased the adhesion strength. Also, it was determined that DCEP applications have the highest value in oak wood samples.
Özkan Evci̇n, Kastamonu Uni̇versi̇ty Faculty of Forestry
Published: 29 June 2022
Journal of Biometry Studies, Volume 2, pp 7-14; https://doi.org/10.29329/jofbs.2022.444.02

Abstract:
Wildlife management, planning, and development, determining the current floristic and faunistic features in a given region are critical for future research. Biodiversity indices are tools that help to express concepts such as species richness and ecosystem richness of an area or areas numerically. Turkiye is one of the leading countries in Europe in terms of biodiversity, with many locations having a high level of diversity thanks to its fauna and flora. Kastamonu province is the unique region in the Black Sea region, consisting of four wildlife refuges, two national parks and a biodiversity hotspot. In the current study, the 4-year inventory carried out by the General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks affiliated to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry for the determination of wildlife species in the Ilgaz Mountain Wildlife Reserve was examined, and the number of species in the area was calculated using biodiversity indices. Results of inventories were evaluated. In the study, it was observed that species diversity decreased over the years, but the populations of some species were dominant and increased.
Angeli̇ca Bermi̇l, Mi̇ndanao State Uni̇versi̇ty-Tawi̇-Tawi̇ College of Technology and Oceanography, Jherry Bonn Hami̇sai̇n, Albaris Tahiluddin, Rosi̇ta Jumdai̇n, Mari̇a Li̇za Tori̇ng-Farquerabao
Published: 29 June 2022
Journal of Biometry Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.29329/jofbs.2022.444.01

Abstract:
The occurrence of ice-ice disease is among the main issues affecting Kappaphycus production. The abiotic and biotic factors have major contributions to causing this disease. As biotic factors, marine-derived fungi (MDF) are known to be capable of causing the ice-ice disease. In this study, we determined the abundance of MDF from both healthy and ice-ice-infected nutrient-enriched Kappaphycus alvarezii and K. striatus in the seaweed farms of Tongehat, Sibutu, Tawi-Tawi, southern Philippines, following serial dilution procedure using malt extract agar. Results revealed that the abundance of MDF in ice-ice-infected nutrient-enriched K. alvarezii (3.04 x 10^4 CFU g⁻¹) had shown higher significance (p<0.05) when compared with healthy nutrient-enriched K. alvarezii (3.32 x 10^3 CFU g⁻¹). Similarly, the abundance of MDF in ice-ice-infected nutrient-enriched K. striatus (9.31 x 10^3 CFU g⁻¹) also appeared to have higher significance (p<0.01) than healthy nutrient-enriched K. striatus (6.10 x 10^2 CFU g⁻¹). In terms of seaweed species comparison, the abundance of MDF in healthy nutrient-enriched K. alvarezii had a higher significance (p<0.05) than in healthy nutrient-enriched K. striatus, and the abundance of MDF in ice-ice-infected nutrient-enriched K. alvarezii also had higher significance (p<0.05) than ice-ice-infected nutrient-enriched K. striatus. The great number of MDF in ice-ice-infected nutrient-enriched Kappaphycus suggests that MDF may be potential causative agents and have the capability of inducing ice-ice disease in farmed nutrient-enriched Kappaphycus.
Semih Kale, Deniz Acarlı, Kamil Çakır
Published: 30 December 2021
Journal of Biometry Studies, Volume 1, pp 49-57; https://doi.org/10.29329/jofbs.2021.349.03

Abstract:
The aim of the present study was to estimate the length-weight relationship and to determine the condition factors of the common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus Linnaeus, 1758) from Gökçeada Island, the northern Aegean Sea in Turkish coasts. Totally 30 specimens of P. erythrinus which are considered as bycatch were sampled by a commercial trawl in the northern Aegean Sea. Total length values of the sampled individuals ranged between 13.60 cm and 18.70 cm in total length and weight values ranged between 28.58 g and 90.04 g. The length-weight relationship of P. erythrinus was estimated as W=0.0062L³.²⁵⁸¹ (R²=0.94). The length-weight relationship was highly significant (p<0.0001). Fulton’s condition factor ranged between 1.08 and 1.56 with a mean of 1.26 (SE: ±0.02). The relative condition factor ranged between 0.86 and 1.26 with a mean of 1.01 (SE: ±0.02). P. erythrinus exhibited a positive allometric growth and the results of Fulton’s condition factor and the relative condition factor indicate the well-being of specimens in the study area. Knowledge of the distribution of exploited stocks is important for the appropriate management of fisheries resources. Therefore, the relationships between the length and weight of fish populations should be investigated and updated regularly. This study provides significant information on the length- weigh relationship and condition factors of P. erythrinus for fisheries managers and policymakers. Responsible authorities should consider the findings of the present study for sustainable fisheries management.
Albaris Tahiluddin, Mindanao State University-Tawi-Tawi College of Technology and Oceanography, Euphraim Jayson Diciano, Rizal Jhunn Robles, Jainal Akrim
Published: 30 December 2021
Journal of Biometry Studies, Volume 1, pp 39-44; https://doi.org/10.29329/jofbs.2021.349.01

Abstract:
Eucheumatoid farming is among the most popular source of livelihood for coastal dwellers, especially in the southern Philippines. Kappaphycus and Eucheuma are the two major cultured eucheumatoid species. However, seaweed farmers have been experiencing low seaweed production for the past years. The slow growth of Kappaphycus spp. in the farm is linked to extensive farming, causing nutrient depletion in the seawater. Hence, seaweed farmers in the province of Tawi-Tawi, southern Philippines, enrich their seaweeds, Kappaphycus striatus, with a wide range of inorganic nutrient solution concentrations with an average of nearly 9 g L⁻¹. To provide standard concentration (g L⁻¹) of inorganic nutrient solution for soaking before farming the seaweed, this study investigated nitrogen assimilation using the Kjeldahl method. Treatments were the concentrations of commonly used inorganic fertilizer [ammonium phosphate, (NH4)3PO4] dissolved in filtered seawater namely; T1 = 0 g L⁻¹ as control, T2 = 3 g L⁻¹, T3 = 6 g L⁻¹, and T4 = 9 g L⁻¹. Results showed that the total nitrogen (%) of T4 (0.68±0.01) and T3 (0.59±0.07) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than T2 (0.48±0.02) and T1 (0.46±0.02). This suggests that using inorganic nutrients as enrichment to K. striatus at a concentration of 6 or 9 g L⁻¹ is effective for obtaining high nitrogen assimilation. Therefore, considering the cost-effective inorganic nutrient enrichment practice, this study recommends using 6 g L⁻¹ of inorganic nutrient concentration to help seaweed farmers boost production by improving the growth performance of K. striatus, especially when planted in nutrient-depleted farms.
Nezihal Gökbulut, Near East University, David Amilo, Bilgen Kaymakamzade
Published: 30 December 2021
Journal of Biometry Studies, Volume 1, pp 58-64; https://doi.org/10.29329/jofbs.2021.349.04

Abstract:
COVID-19 has been an outbreak since December 2019 all around the world. There exist many studies in literature that examines the future of the pandemic and the effect of control strategies via mathematical modeling. Main aim of mathematical modeling in epidemiology and health sciences is applying the theory to real world health problems. In this paper, world population is divided into four compartments for the construction of SVIR model. That is, it is assumed that population consists of susceptible (S), vaccinated (V), infected (I), and recovered (R) individuals. Fractional mathematical models are very popular nowadays since it counts previous state of problems. While the construction of this model, fractional derivative is added with the purpose of seeing memory effect.
Semih Kale, Selçuk Berber, Deniz Acarlı
Published: 30 December 2021
Journal of Biometry Studies, Volume 1, pp 65-71; https://doi.org/10.29329/jofbs.2021.349.05

Abstract:
This study firstly reported the presence of Mauremys rivulata in the Atikhisar Reservoir in Çanakkale, Turkey. M. rivulata was observed during the sampling of freshwater crayfish in the reservoir between 4-5 m water depth on September 27, 2021. A single individual was caught with a fyke-net having 17 mm mesh size. The straight carapace length and straight carapace width of the individual were measured to be 20.52 and 12.95 cm, respectively. Knowing the distribution of a species enables researchers to better understand the ecological biology and is of great importance for researchers to study certain aspects such as population dynamics, migration, reproduction, feeding, habitat preferences, etc. Therefore, this paper provides valuable information for fisheries managers, policymakers and scientists involved in the aquatic species.
Onur Alkan Ramazan Ozcelik, Isparta University of Applied Sciences, Onur Alkan
Published: 30 December 2021
Journal of Biometry Studies, Volume 1, pp 45-48; https://doi.org/10.29329/jofbs.2021.349.02

Abstract:
In this study, the most suitable methods for estimating tree bole volume were tested on seventy-six Brutian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) and fourty-five Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) trees. The volume of each tree bole was predicted by utilizing Paracone model, Centroid sampling, Huber formula, and local volume table (LVT) for Brutian pine and Taurus cedar. Volume predictions were then evaluated with “true” volume of every tree that was calculated through summing up the volumes of sub-sections (approximately one meter in length) using Smalian’s formula. The mean errors of Paracone model estimation of the tree bole volumes were not significant for both Brutian pine and Taurus cedar and less than those obtained from the Centroid sampling, Huber’s formula, and LVT. When four formulas were compared, the Paracone method valuation was clearly more accurate, and mean error of Paracone method was not significant at 0.05 confidence level.
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